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has been made In each particular case, be
cause to do so controverts the fundainen tai principle of saving the public lands for the home maker. Each locality should bo dealt with ou Its owu merits. Even If It should ultimately appear that this law has worked beneficially In Nebraska It would by-no means follow that such a law might be safely applied to other regions different lu topography, soil, and climate. No arbi trary rule should bo followed, but lu each case the area of the homestead should be determined by the acreage which may be necessary to support a family upon the land, either by agriculture, or by grazing If agriculture Is Impracticable. Until such acreage Is determined for each locality, any new general law providing a method of obtaining title to the public lauds would. In the opinion of your Commission, be decidedly unsafe. Lieu Lands. Careful study has been given by your Commission to the subject of forest-reserve lieu-land selections. These selections have given rise to great scandal, and have led to the acquisition by speculators of much valuable timber and agricultural laud and its consolidation Into large holdings. Fur thermore, the money loss to the Govern ment and the people from the selection of valuable lands In lieu of worthless areas has been very great.- There has been no commensurate return In the way of Increased settlement and business activ ity. Public opinion concerning lieu-land selections, by railroads in particular, has reached an acute stage. The situation Is In urgent need of a remedy, and your Com mission recommends the repeal of the laws providing for lieu-land selections. A partial remedy by Executive action has already been applied by carefully lo cating the boundaries of new forest re serves, and thus limiting lieu-land selec tions to comparatively Insignificant areas. The last annual message to Congress de clares definitely that— The making of forest reserves within railroad and wagon-road land-grant limits will here after, as for the past three years, be so managed as to prevent the issue, under the act of June 4, sSgj, of base for exchange or lieu selection (us ually called scrip). In all cases where forest re serves within areas covered by land grants ap pear to be essential to the prosperity of settlers, miners or others, the Government lands within such proposed forest reserves will, as in the recent past, be withdrawn from sale or entry pending the completion of such negotiations with the owners of the land grants as will prevent the creation of so-called scrip. There are now lands In private ownership within existing forest reserves, and simi lar lands must to a limited extent be In cluded In new reserves. Therefore, a me thod is required by which the Government may obtain control of nonagricultural holdings within the boundaries of these re serves. Tour Commission recommends the following flexible plan : Upon the recom mendatlon of the Secretary of Agriculture, when the public Interest so demands, the FOOTBALL ANCIENT SPORT. ROOSEVELTS NOT THE FIRS1 ROYAL EDICT TO PREVENT, ROUGH PLAYING. English and Scottish Kings Have Debarred Game. Has Always Been Roughest of Sports for Five Hun* dred Years—Shin Kicking Approved. President Roosevelt’s attempt to bring about a revision in the rules of the gridiron sport that it may be played with less risk to the lives and limbs of the conte^ants is after all but a revival of the caustic com ments of at least two English sov ereigns who beat the President on the revision business by several hun dred years. Football is one . of the oldest of all the English pastimes, and it is even believed that the Greeks and Romans had a similar game. Ever since it first made us appear ance it has been characterized by ex treme roughness and has been tho subject of denunciations on the part of those who carted more for thein own safety and that of the players than for the final score. As early as 1314 football had be come so popular In London as a street game and attracted so many disord erly spectators that the staid old mer chants entered a vigorous protest. King Edward II was on the throne then and wasted no time dining the football coaches or arguing about the matter. He issued a proclama tion in which he said: “Forasmuch as there Is great noise in the city caused by hustling, over large balls from which many evils might arise, which God forbid, we command and forbid on the half of the King, on pain of Imprisonment, such games to be used in the city In the future.” This terse and ominous declaration forestalled by more man five hundred years the American legislators who have come to the front in the past de cade with bills to make football Il legal in their States. The sport may be rough and an ^ -'Tga- ■ ma. ■ I l Iff- - ~rrr . ONE ENTRY IN THE DEEP OREGON FOREST. Here the entrymwi swore that the claim was mostly valuable for agriculture. Forest so dense that camera showed only a black mass of tree growth. oecreiury ui me imerior suouia ue au thorized, in his discretion, to accept the relinquishment to the United States of any tract of land within a forest reserve cov ered by an unperfected bona fide claim lawfully initiated or by a patent, and to grant to the owner in lieu thereof a tract , of unappropriated, vacant, surveyed, non mineral public land in the same State or Territory and of approximately equal area . and value as determined by an examina tion, report, and specific description by public surveys of both tracts to be made on the ground by officials of the Govern ment. When exchange under these condi tions cannot be affected, lands privately owed within forest reserves should be paid , to rln cases where the public interest re ’ quires that such lands should pass Into public ownership. The Secretary of the In terior should be authorized to take the nec essary proceedings as rapidly as the neces sary funds are provided. ' Timber and Stone Act. The recommendations made for the re peal of the timber and stone act in the previous reports are renewed and empha sized. Additional facts showing the de structive effect of this law have strength ened the belief of your Commission that on the whole its operation is decidedly harm ful. This law has been made the vehicle for innumerable frauds, and the Govern ment has lost and is still losing yearly vast snms of money through the sale of valu able Umber lands to speculators, and hence Indirectly to large corporations, at a price far below their actual value. From the Sassage of the act, June 3, 1878, to June J, 1994, 66,372 claims for 7,566,078 acres of timber land were patented under its provisions, and on last date 7,644 claims for 1,108,380 acres were pending. Many transfers of land patented under this law are made immediately upon compleUon of title, often on the same day. to individuals and companies. In this way a monopoly of the timber supplies of the public-land States Is being created by systematic col lusion. Under the existing rules and prac tices of the conrts it is difficult to prove this collusion, except in cases of open fraud and It Is therefore practically Im possible to secure convlctiou. Furthermore, under bona fide compliance with the actual provisions of the law the effect Is almost equally bad. The law itself Is seriously de fectlve. It has been urged In behalf of this act that it enables poor men to enjoy the bounty of the Government by obtaining tracts of timber which they can afterwards •ell with advantage. A careful study seems to show, on the contrary, that the original entrymen rarely realize more than ordinary wages for the time spent In mak ing the entry and completing the transfer. The corporations which ultimately secure title usually absorb by far the greater part of the profit. In addition to the direct loss to the Government from the sale of the lands far below their real value, timber lands which should hare been preserved for the use of the people are withdrawn from such use and the development of the country Is re tarded until the corporations which own the timber see nt if t it. The bwm flde settler who comes into A country, tW tim ber resources of which have thus been ab sorbed, may be very seriously hampered by bis inability to secure timber except from a foreign corporation. All of the timber land has often passed beyond his reach, and the development of his farm may be retarded and his expenses greatly increased because he can no longer obtain the nec essary supplies of fuel, rails, posts, and lumber. As In the case of other laws. Instance! at the beneficial operation of this act maj be cited, but when it is considered fron the point of view of thei general Interest oi the public it becomes obvious that this taw should be repealed. Sale of Timber on the Public Lands Necessity for the enactment of a lav authorizing the sale of timber on nonre serve public land Is becoming more evl dent, and the recommendations made li the preceding report of this Commissioi are reiterated. For the best nse of thi public lands It Is absolutely essential h hold public timber for sale when needec and In quantities necesslated by the con tinuous growth of prevailing industries Provision should be made fw a llmite; free-use right by miners and actual set tiers. ‘ & virgin Is a maid; when verging o: 80 is called an old maid. utuyuae nowadays, out wnat u was In Edward’s time, when the favorite diversions of the apprentices and other youngsters were street fights in which anything from an axe to a kick in the stomach was allowed may be better imagined than described. The broken collarbones and strained tendons with which we are familiar as a result of scrimmages must have been mere pin scratches compared with casualties j attending a buck on center by the Mediaeval “backs.” Another English sovereign who AN ANCIENT FOOTBALL GAME IN THE STREETS OF LONDON. took a hand in the game because of the injuries with which It was at tended was King James I. He was a patron of sport and believed in his progeny getting plenty of excitement, but be balked at football. It was too mud trouble -to raise an heir to have him twisted into a pretzel Just about the time he might be useful in holding down the throne. James told his son to run along end have a good time with the boys. In fact, he wrote down certain precepts for tne young man’s guidance, but If the coach had asked Prince Charles to “come oul for the eleven” he would have b6en met with the familiar "parental ob jection” of the present day, whld THng James expressed as follows. “From this count I debar all suet rough and violent exercise as the foot ball, meeter for laming than making able the users thereof.” interfered With Archery. Football has always bad a tendency , to run foul of the law. Its originai first offence was In taking the mind! of prospective soldiers off from arch ery, but in this it had as a side part ‘ ner the eminently peaceful and gen ■ tie game of golf. In 1457 a Scottisl act was passed In which the tw< sports were condemned in languagi i as vigorous as that used by some o; [ our college presidents on the sami . subject, because they occupied to< much of the time of the husky mei 1 who might have been learning the fine points of bow to send an arrov through the breast plate of an Ed i glish invader. The plaints of th Staid seigneurs received about as 111 tie attention then as now, for in 149 we find another act in which “fute balle and golfe” were roasted to i ■ turn and prohibited under seven penalties. The unregenerate of Scotland wen much given to playing football or Sunday. At first It Interfered witl the practice of archery on the Sev enth Day, and later, whefi the Sab batarian movement had acquiree prominence, it kept people away frorr church.so in 1591 we find tne town council of Edinburgh strictly forbid ding the playing of matches on the Sabbath. Not -only was the game Itself rough, but it attracted great con courses of people who were willing at all times to jump in with clubs and other weapons and resent un fairness or poor decisions. For some reason Shrove Tuesday was the great date for annual contests, cor responding to what Thanksgiving Day used to be in this country. On this day the crowds swarmed out to the greeiis and, from the descriptions we have, their conduct before and after the games would have made the wild sights a few years age ia the New York Tenderloin after a big game'in that city look like a Sunday School picnic. Was a Reign of Terror. They marched around with much shouting and cheering, chasing the city watchmen up and down alleys and beating them right merrily. Pass RIVAL NAVAL BUILDERS. GOVERNMENT CONSTRUCTORS ! BE A T PRIVA TE CONCERN IN SHIPBUILDING. The Connecticut Ahead of Sister Ship Louisiana—Cost However Greater First War Ship Ever Built by the Government. ' ' There is great rivalry between the United States Navy Yard at Brooklyn and a private shipbuilding concern at Newport News, over the construction of the two naval war leviathans, Con necticut and Louisiana. The Govern ment is building the Connecticut, and the shipbuilding company is rushing toward completion the Louisiana. The figures given out but a short time ago by the Navy Department show that the Connecticut Is 91.36 per cont completed, while her sister ship shows a percentage of completion of 89.35. A comparison shows then that the Government-built boat has a slight lead, whieh is all the more gratifying to the champions of Government con traction when it is considered that this Is the first battleship ever built in the United States by any other than private constructors and that it was predicted that the Government could not compete with private build ers. Nevertheless the Government ship will cost the more. By act of Congress approved July THE CONNECTICUT NEW SEA FIGHTER BEING BUILT BY GOVERNMENT. ersby were likely to be rolled in the nearest mnd puddle and the tendency to break windows and 'Tough house” inns and alehouses became so pro nounced that keepers of shops and taverns put up their shutters and se curely barred their doors. When ri val bands met there was vast smash ing of heads which afforded ample practice for all the barbers and leeches in the neighborhood. Matters weat frem bad to worse uatfl the public and authorities be came weary- of reading the annual list of dead and injured, and about 1830 the great Shrove Tuesday matches died out. The game was perpetuated in the colleges, but ere* there it was no sport for weaklings, as is proved by the fact that as late as 1876 “hacking,” or kicking an .op posing player on the shins, was al lowed as one of the finer points. The Football Association formed in 1873 was the result of the interest in ath letics aroused by the volunteer move ment in England in I860 and the Rugby Union was formed in 1871. The present rules in the United States were evolved from tnose of the Rug by Union, as opposed to the “socker” or Association style which has recent ly been exploited as a possible sub stitute for the American game. An Early Print. The finding of a human footprint, ■aid to be 10,000 years old, In a Penn sylvania colliery has led to the report that a record in antiquity has been es tablished. But this is a thing of yes terday, geologically speaking. The day will come, the ethnologists say, when man’s age will be found recorded, not in thousands of years, but millions. Even now they have traced him back to pre-glacial days. How to express that in figures is a problem, but, at any rate, they fix certain happenings in the glacial period as 240,000 years ago. And in those days onr forefathers, with or without their tails, their three eyes or fewer, were busy in Europe with the mammoth and the elephant, the giraffe, the lion, the tiger and species which . he has outlived. Man was on the earth before Vtesnvius and Aetna reared their fiery heads unto the skies. He has been found with his works of art buried a hundred feet deep in the gold bearing gravels of California, overlaid 1 by four successive lava streams from ■ volcanos long extinct. Many Friendly Pats. 1 Rodrick—They say Cholly Goodfel ; low is very popular around town. ! van Albert—I should say so. Why, s he wears out two coats a moathjust > from people slapping him on the back, i —Chicago News. „ r __ m - In India the contribution basket i* i sometimes passed around in tbe Hln - doo temples by an elephant. 1, 1902, authority was granted for the construction of two battleships after ward named the Connecticut and Louisiana, each 450 feet long, 76 1-8 feet wide, with a draft of 24 feet 6 inches. A short time after this action of Congress, the Navy Department de cided to have one of the battleships constructed by private parties, the Government endeavoring to build the other. v Government Go' Bad Start Too. The contract fer the Louisiana was let to the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company who laid the keel for that vessel on February 7, 1903, while- the Government was de layed in the construction of its vessel so much that the keel was not laid down until March 10 of the same year. The Government was further delayed in building the Connecticut owing to non arrival of necessary ma chinery and armor plate, yet with all of these drawbacks the latest figures published by the Navy Department jshow the Government-built b(oat farther advanced -oward completion than that being erected by a private concern. The Louisiana was the first to receive its christening, having been launched August 27, 1904; the Con necticut did not take to the waves until September 20 of the same year. The Brooklyn Navy Yard, where the Connecticut is being built is now em ploying over 1,000 men oil the battle ship and it is stated that there is still room for 200 more workmen. With the rapid progress now being made on the vessels it is estimated that they will be ready to go into commission by Juno of next year. most rormioaDia oi war amps. These) battleships •when completed will be among the most formidable war vessels of the world; the main battery on each will consist of four 12-inch, eight 8-inch and twelve 7 inch rifles; the secondary battery will have twenty 3-inch rapid fire guns, twelve 3-pounders, eight 1-pounders and a number of rapid fire guns of smaller calibre. There will also be four submerged torpedo tubes The ships will have ample protection by heavy armor ranging in thickness from nine to eleven inches. The con tract calls for vessels of 16,000 tons displacement, with a steaming capaci ty, at 10 knots per hour, of 5,000 miles without recoaling. They are expect ed, however, to make 18 knots per hour at the official trial. Each ship will be manned by 855 officers and men. The contract price of the Lou isiana is $3,990,000 while the Connect icut Is expected to “cost $4,212,000. Chestnuts are a very similar food to potatoes. The chestnut, however, is the more nutritious of the two. The chestnut has only 33 per cent, water while the potato has 76 per cent, of wa ter. In ail of the nutritive ingredients the chestnut leads the potato. The chestnut may be cooked exactly as the potato ta, boiled, baked or roasted. Tbe culture of the chestnut tree in this country has as yet been neglected, and furnishes an inviting field for en terprising agriculture and forestry. PERFUMES FOR THE NOBILITY. Ambassador Whitelaw Reid Engages Services of Earl’s Son. At one time Lady Curzon had the reputation of spending more money on perfumes than any other woman in England. It was said that she was more extravagant In this respect than Queen Alexandra whose perfume bills amounted to something like $5,000 a year. Now, the story goes, thd Duch ess of Roxburgh has become the most extravagant purchaser of per fumery in the land. She patronizes the heavy-scented essences of the East which are known to be most ex pensive. The cost of her daily bath would, It Is said, keep a middle-class family for a week. Lady Curzon used these same essences at one time, but she found them so expensive that she decided to try cheaper extracts. Queen Alexandra, too, lias gone in for retrenchment In the same direc tion, and she is now satisfied with the favorite scent of the late Queen Victoria, which was a species of lav ender water special:y prepared for her by a chemist at Windsor. The Princess of Wales Is also extravagant in the use of scents and uses a spe cial preparation made from violets and other carefully cultivated flowers. It Is strange that Lady Suffolk, for merly Miss Letter of Washington, dis likes scents, considering her sister’s passion for them. Even royalty finds it necessary to yield obedience to the doctor’s orders. The fiat has gone forth that Queen Alexandra must eat no more sweet things. In consequence, a well-known firm of London pastry cooks, who have for many years supplied her majesty with confectionery and other tempting delicacies, have had their order cancelled. For their loss of trade the are consoled by the fact that they are still allowed to display the royal coat-of-arms, which indi cates that they are under royal pat ronage. The Queea has long been In ordinately fead of sweets and con fections and has recklessly indulged her appetite' for them. That has pro duced an accumulation of superfluous adipose tissue which even the most expert of dressmakers are unable to eonceal. She is no longer slim and willowy, though English newspapers LADY CURZON. continue so to describe her. Her medi cal attendant has told her that her only hope of regaining something like her youthful contour of figure' lies in the practice of rigid seii’-denlal with respect to the dainties slie enjoys most. The Princess of Wales has also received a hint from a high medical authority that she will some day be come a second edition of her mother, the Duchess of Teek, who was enor mously fat, unless she practices fru gality in the line of confections. The Duchess of Arcos, formerly Miss Virginia Lowry of Washington, wife of-the new Spanish ambassador to Italy, arrived In Rome recently from St Petersburg, the former post of her husband. On. opening her trunk it was discovered that it had been robbed, in transit of jewels val ued at about $4,000. It is supposed that the robbery took place between Turin and Rome. van Calva. Queer Odor of Mummies. You may pnt a mummy in a glass case and seal it hermetically so that no corroding air can get within, but it will still exhale its odor. Four or five thousand years, it would seem, should exhaust all olfactory qualities, but experience teaches us that these smells remain while the origin of their scents is unknown to us. They are today as much a mystery to embalin ers as when the bodies ware put in the bath of nature. The hen’s eggs produced In this country last year would fill 43,127,000 crates of 360 eggs each. It would re quire 10731$ refrigerator cars to trans port this crop, and these cars would make a train 900 miles long. - • - —.. ... ► k 4 ► • > 4 ► 4 ► ..4 ► 4 > A ► ' 4 ► 4 ► 4 > < ► 4 ► 4 > 4 * 4 ► 4 ► . ► i > • ► 4 ► 4 > 4 I • > 1 > 4 ► 1 I 4 ► I ► 4 ► 4 f 4 > i > 4 ► 4 > 4 > 4 * 4 ► 4 » i > g jgp 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 i 4 i SILOS Fine, Fir, Cypress and Yellow Pine. Write for Catalogue. Eagle Tank Go., 281 N. Green 8t., Chicago, 111. JHrnn&^riin PIANOS AND ORGANS STANDARD OF THE WORLD PENSIONS^ Over one Million Dollars allowed our clients during the last six years. Over one Thousand <pl aims allowed through ns dur ing the last six months. Dis ability* Age and In crease pensions obtained in the shortest possible time. Widows* claims a specialty. Usually granted within 90 days if placed with us immedi ately on soldier’s death. Fees fixed by law and payable out of allowed pension. A successful experience of 25 years and benefit of daily calls at Pension Bureau are at your service. Highest ref erences furnished. Local Magis trates pecuniarily benefited by sending us claims. TABER & WHITMAN CO., Warder Bid’g, Washington, D. C. Foster’s Ideal Cribs Accident Proof IF YOU WANT A JACK Send for our Jack Catalogue. Sure to con tain the description of exactly what you wtda Hydraulic Jacks our Specialty Watson-Still man Co., 46 Dey St., N. X. City. BOOKS—BOOKS We have published some good ones spec ially suited for farmers. Books that will help every farmer to make more oat of his farm Write for our catalogue. WEBB PUBLISHING CO* St. Paul Minn. S T RAP*** LOC K S The NEWEST THINGS for CHRISTMAS LYNCH PERFECTION WEDDING (and other) PRESENTS YAU: PWMC1PLS are oar Lock Buckles for use on Tranks, Telescopes, Cases of all kinds, Portfolios, Messenger Bags, etc. They are the only Lock Buckles with the Yale Principle and are made of Manganese Bronze, which looks like gold, is stronger than steel and will not rust. Locks alone (easily attachable). Small, 50c ; medium, 76c; large, $1.00. (Beautifully hand engraved and including monogram, 86c extra); with strap for trunk, $1.60 ; ijor case, $1.00 prepaid and re tamable if not delighted. Booklet on request Salesmen and sales women wanted everywhere. LYNCH MFG. CO. Madison. Wis. - ' ' • " / ‘.v.