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seen in various degrees of dilapida
tes but they show no evidence of genuine occupation. They have never been in any sense homes. Investigations have been carried on where the commuted homesteads are notable in number. The records of some of tbe counties examined show that 90 per cent of tbe commuted homesteads were transferred within three months after acquisition of ti tle, and evidence was obtained to show that two-thirds of the commu ters immediately left the state. In many instances foreigners, particu larly citizens of Canada, came into this country, declared their intention of becoming citizens .took up home steads, commuted, sold them ,and re turned to their native land. Tbe reasons given for adhering to the commutation clause are diverse hod many of them are cogent when applied to individual cases. It is Bald, for example, that the commu ter desires to raise money tor use in Improving his place. This Is often true, but in the majority of cases the records show that the commuter Im mediately leaves the vicinity. The frequency of loans is traceable In many places directly to the activity of agents of loan companies, who are often United States commission ers also, eager first to induce settle ment and then to make these loans an account of the double commission received. Later they secure" the | business which- accrues to them .. From an old wood-cut illustration in Richard son’s " West of the Mississippi."-A "Home” 14x30 (inches, not feet) showing that false swearing In acquiring government land Is me new art, through the foreclosure and transfer of the property. The trae working of the commutation clause does not ap pear until after foreclosure upon the maturity of the loans One significant brought out by the investigation la that a large portion of the commuters are women, who never establish a permanent resi dence and who are employed tempo rarily in the towns as school teach ers or in domestic service, or who are living with their parents. The great mnJorltv of these comm liters sell 1m mediately upon receiving title, the business being transacted through some agent vrho represents his client in all dealings and prepares all pa pers. The commutation clause, If it Is to be retained- to cover special cases, should be effective only after not less than three years’ actual—not con structive—living at home on the land. Under present practice, the commuta tion period being fourteen months, six months of this time is generally takes to establish residence, so that only eight months remain. This time is usually arranged to include the summer, so that the shack built need not be habitable In severe winter weather, and the residence on the land may consist merely in a sum mer 'outintg. Obviously It Is essen tial that residence should be far more strictly defined. It is probable that lax Interpretation and enforcement of the provisions of the law regard ing residence Is responsible for more fraud under the homestead act than all other causes combined. It may be urged that the frauds which have taken place under the I ___ SPLENDID WESTERN TIMBER GROVE. In tbs Region Being Despoiled Under the Timber and Stone Aotv operations of the commutation clausa are due largely te lax administration. The fact Is that the precedents estab lished by decisions rendered on spe cial cases have so far weakened the powers of administration that addi tional legislation Is necessary* Desert Land Law. In the preceding report the opinion was expressed that the desert-land law should, for the present at least be allowed to stand, with a few changes in detail. It was believed that with the experience of the pari for guidance, it would be possible t« enforce this law so that its essential provisions shonld he complied with, More careful analysis, however, oi the operations of tills act and of thi practices which have grown up hai led year commission strongly t* the contusion that this law shonld he , modified In essential particulars. Your Commission recommended last year the repeal of the assign ment clause. This provision has been made the convenient vehicle for evading the spirit of the law and for facilitating the acquisition of lands in large holdings. The law limits the amount which one person or associa tion of persons may hold, by assign ment or otherwise, prior to patent to 320 acres of such arid or desert lands. The most common form of at tempted evasion of this requirement is for two or three individuals to form themselves into a corporation, each individual member of the corpo ration securing, by entry or assign ment, 320 acres of such lands and the corporation as such 820 acres. These same individuals then form an other corporation under an entirely different name and procure an as signment of another 320 acres, and this process Is continued lndeflhttely. The General Land Office has within the past year endeavored to put a stop to this practice by holding that a corporation or association of per sons is not qualified to receive a des ert-land entry by assignment where its individual members ,either singly or in lu» aggregate are Homing azu acres of sacb arid or desert lands. This ruling, if enforced, will tend to lessen the evils resulting from large holdings prior to patent, but it is not deemed possible to secure adequate control of this question unless the law prohibits assignments of desert land entries. By repealing that pro vision of the law and requiring the claimant to show that he has made the entry for his ownSise and benefit and not for the benefit of any other person or corporation and that he has made no agreement by which the title shall innre to any other person or corporation the evils Incident to large holdings of snch lands under the sanction of law will be materially lessened. It Is a striking fact that these large holdings of desert land are not re claimed and devoted to their best use. Three hundred and twenty acres of irrigable land is' entirely too much for economical handling by one per son. On the other hand, Inspection shows that in the same locality and under the same climatic conditions the homestead entries, where not com moted, are reclaimed and utilized. The desert-land act as It stands up on the statute books appears to have many features which commend it; as before stated, the practices gov erning it have largely nullified its good features, and the resulting evils cannot be fully overcome with out legislaton. Thu o roa rtf ftia /loaorf nnlfg should be cut down from KM) acres to not exceeding 160 acres, and discre tion should be given to the Secretary of the Interior to cut it down still further where it is apparent that In tensive cultivation is practicable. A farm of 820 acres, if irrigated, 1s en tirely too large for a single family, and its possession simply prevents other settlers from coming into the country. Furthermore, it makes land monopoly easy and induces specula tion. Actual living at home on the land for not, less than two years should be required before patent Your Commission can not understand why any settler should be given both a homestead and a desert entry, either of which without the otner should suf fice, under the law, to farnlsb him a home. The desert-land law rhould be a means of settlement, and actual bona fide residence should be rigidly required. The actual production of a valnnble crop should be required on not less than one-fourth the area of the en try. At present, as a rule, the great er part of the desert entries are never actually watered. Hundreds of desert entries were examined by members of the Commission in the last year, and the great majority of them were found to be uninhabited, unirrigated, uncultivated, and with no improvements other than a fence. l ins applies DOtn to aesert entries up on which a final proof Is now being offered and to other entries to which title has been given. It is a fact that a very small pro portion of the land disposed of under the terms of the law has actually been reclaimed and irrigated, and scrutiny of many hundreds of desert. entries now passing to final proof shows that In the majority of oases, these lands are not actually utilised, but are being held for speculative purposes, owing to several causes, among which are the laxity of some of the state laws governing appro priation of water for Irrigation pun poses. and the Insufficiency of the water supply, considerable diflSculty has been encountered in administer ing that provision of the desert-land laws which requires a claimant to have a permanent water right based on prior appropriation. Very often the waters of a stream are exhausted by other approoriators before the time when the claimant goes through the form of posting notices, recording his claim, and complying wftt other essentials of the state law. Notwithstanding this, be furnishes the testimony of two witnesses that ttie water thus * appropriated has been used la reclaiming bit jgQd. and that the supply is adequate for that purpose. While this showing, on Its face, indicates a compliance with law, the fact remains that the water supply, If any at all, Is not sufficient to permanently reclaim the land. The ownership of stock in a pro jected irrigation ditch which does not exist in fact, or the ownership of a pump temporarily installed, has often been accepted, in connection with such testimony, as proof of the possession of water. Many alleged irrigation ditches or reservoirs are familiar to members of the Commis sion which are utterly inadequate to irrigate a square rod, and upon the strength of such works patent has frequently then issued to 320 acres of land. Frauds committed through conven tional forma of perjury and through lack of proper veriiicatiou of the facta as to the recllamation of the land justify the taking of immediate and radical steps in the revision of the law. The law ehould absolutely require an actual adequate water supply, and the limits as to quantity should be defined. In short, the law should render Im possible the continuance of the practices by which desert lands without water, without cultivation, and without crops are passed into the possession of claimants. Grabbing Lands. The great bulk of the vacant pub jxv wuuo uuuuguuut uie w esr are un suitable for cultivation under the present known conditions of agricul ture, aud so located that they can not be reclaimed by Irrigation. They are, and probably always must be, of chief value for grazing. There are It Is estimated, more than 800,000, ! 000 acres of public grazing land, an area approximately equal to one-fifth the extent of the United States, proper. The exact limits can not be set, for with seasoned changes large areas of land which afford good grazing one year are almoBt desert in another. There are also vast tracts of wooded timbered land in which grazing has much Importance, and until a further classification of the public lands Is- made It will be im possible to give with exactness the total acreage. The extent is so vast and the commercial interests In volved so great as to demand In the highest degree the wise and conser vative handling of these vast re sources. It is a matter of the first import ance to know whether these grazing lands are being used In the best way possible for the continued devel p ment of the country or whether they are being abused under a sys tem which is detrimental to such de velopment and by which the only present value of the land is being rspldly destroyed. * At present the vacant public lands are theoretically open commons, free to all citizens but as a matter of fact a large proportion have been parceled out by more or less definite compacts or agreements among the various In terests. These tacit agreements are continually being violated- The sheepmen and cattlement are in fre quent collision because of incursions upon each other’s domain. Land which for years has been regarded as exclusively cattle range may be In fringed upon by large bands of sheep, forced by drought to migrate. * ROCBAUBEA U STA TUE. \ Heroic Bronze Figure of France's Field Marshall Standing In Front of White House. One of the very striking and majes tic bits of bronze in Washington is the Rochambeau statue which stands In what was called Jackson Square, u\ C*** ROOHAMBEAU STATUS'. Stands Opposite the White House, because of the presence there of Olark Mill# equestrian statue ot General Jackson, later called Lafa vette 8qnare, because of the erection there of the great Lafayette etatne. and now very frequently called Rochambeau Park because of this Elegant example of art. The statue was unveiled in 1962. Tt stands di rectly in front of the White House. The movement for the erection In the National Capital of a statue of Rochambeau was In recognition of ♦be dose ties between France and the ♦tufted States. This sentiment was particularly strong after the close of the Spanish-Amerlcan war in view of the services rendered In ♦be Interest of peace by Cambon the French Ambassador. The govern . ment ot France had a tan Inst sent over two superb Sevres vases as a gift to President McKinley. Con gress appropriated *7,500 for the statue. Rochambeaut commanded the French forces sent to the as sistance of the young republic of the United States and which co-operated with Hie Continental army at York town. Roeh’awbean statue Is excel lent art. The French field marshal in the fnl) uniform of his rank standi with one arm outstretched evidently pointing to the distant American col ony which be Is about to help. At the base is a symbolic figure. 11 is the figure of a woman hurfylng forward with the flag of France home aloft in the right hand. Be neath her feet is the prow of a ship suggestive of the force which France has sent across the seas to aid the republic of the United States in the days of Its infancy. Below are the *nns of France and the United States linked together. The Coffee Importers and Roasters are Attacking POSTUM FOOD COFFEE •. -'•■'air l ' ’ - ' ■/■■■' • All Along the Line. “THERE’S A REASON.” 1 Many people have found out the truth about old fashioned coffee. They have overcome disease caused by it. The plan was easy and sure. Quit Coffee and use Postum. Proof with one’s self is stronger than any theory. The Postum army grows by hundreds of thousands yearly. The old-fashioned Coffee Magnates are now derid ing Postum through the papers. Because their pocketbooks are hurt, they would drive the people back to the old coffee slavery. One coffee prevaricator says: “It (Postum) has lately been exposed and found to contain an excess of very ordinary coffee.” Another that “it (Postum) is made from a small amount of parched peas, beans, wheat, dried sweet potatoes, and paste of wheat middlings.” Here’s to you, oh faithful followers of the tribe of 'Ananias: $100,000.00 CASH will be deposited with any reputable trust company (or a less amount if desired) against a like amount by any coffee roaster or dealer. If the charges prove true we lose, if not we take ti e money as partial liquidation for the infamous insult to our business. The Postum Pure Food factories are the largest in the world, the business having been built upon abso lutely pure food products, made on scientific lines, “for a reason” and the plain unvarnished truth told every day and all the time. These factories are visited by thousands of people every month. They are shown info every cranny and examine every ingredient and A Few Overlooks. “I met an old friend in town to-day” said Mr. Shannon to his wife one even ing, oft his return from business,” and he told me he expected to be married In a week. Ten minutes later, after his wife had finished asking questions, Mr. Shannon wrote as follows to his friend Stodder: “Dear Stodder:—I thought I was a newspaper reporter, but please answer the following questions by return mail. They cover some points I neg lected to get from you. “What is the name of the girl you are to marry? “Where does she live? “What does her father do? “Has he any money? “Was it love at first sight? “Are you very much in love with her? “How old is she? “Where are you going to live? “Did you ask her personally, or write your proposal? “Havn’t you proposed to other girls? “How did you and I come to be sueh friends? ‘Where are you going for your honeymoon? “Is it that tall girl you took to the theatre one night last winter? “Why didn’t I ask you all this when you told me? “Were you so excited you couldn’t give me any information, but simply had to talk about getting -married? “A prompt reply will help me to give my wife some much-desired informa tion. Next time y ousted me you are going to be marriedT don’t think that is the really important feature about it.-Yours hastily, Shannon.” A darky was asked why he went away, and gave the following lucid _an BW6T! “I didn’t went. I didn’t want to went, and if 1 had wanted to went, I couldn’t have got to go no how.” % _ There Is a group of Islands south ol New Zealand called the 'Seven Sisters said to be subject to a practicallj constant rainfall. The same condi tions exist in Terra del Fuego, excep that the rain often takes the form 01 sleet or snow. PENSIONS. Over one Million Dollars allowed our clients during the last six years. Over one Thousand claims allowed through us dur ing the last six months. Dis ability, Age and In crease pensions obtained in the shortest possible time. Widows* claims a specialty. Usually granted within 90 days if placed with us immedi ately on soldier’s death. Fees fixed by law and payable put of allowed pension. A successful experience of 25 years and benefit of daily calls at Pension Bureau are at your service. Highest ref erences furnished. Local Magis trates pecuniarily benefited by sending tis claims. TABER & WHITMAN CO., Warder Bld’g, Washington, D. C. S I LOS Pine, Fir, Cypress and Yellow Pine. Write for Catalogue. Eagle Tank Go., 281 N. Green 8t.f Chicago, 111. PIANOS AND ORGANS STANDARD OP THE WORLD ByfeLDSqSySEENDERS Mule In Light and Haarr Weights, for Man and Yonth. Extra lengths aame price. With more elaetlc, warranted aon-ruatlne metal parte, and SgaBSt|RSinMKi>> HEWE8 A POTTER. targeatBnapender and Belt Hakra 1 ept, M, |T LIKOOLH 8t., BOSTON, KAB8. ><t the maid. Valuable Booklet, '• Draaa and Baapander Stplaa,” npmk : The NEWEST THINGS for CHRISTMAS WEDDING (and other) PRESENTS are our Lock Buckles for use on Trunks, Telescopes, Cases of all kinds, Portfolios, Messenger Bags, etc. They are the only lock Buckles with the Yale Principle and are made of Manganese Bronze, which looks like gold, is stronger than steel and will not rust. Locks alone (easily attachable). Small, 50c; medium, 75c j large, $1.00. (Beautifully hand engraved and including monogram, 25c extra); with strap for trunk, $1.50 ; for case, $1.00 prepaid and re turnable if not delighted. Booklet on request Salesmen and sales women wanted everywhere. .. LYNCH MEG. CO. Madison, Wis. process. Each visitor sees Postum made of different parts of the wheat berry treated by different mechan ical methods and one part blended with a small part of pure New Orleans molasses. So he knows Postum contains not one thing in the world but Wheat and New Orleans molasses. It took more than a year of experimenting to perfect the processes and learn bow to develop the diastase and properly treat the other elements in the wheat to produce the coffee-like flavor that makes suspicious people “wonder.” But there never has been one grain of old-fashioned or drug /'/• » v* t *11 1_ tUUCC 111 1 U9LU111 dUU IlCVtl Will UK.. Another thing, we have on file in our general offices the original of every testimonial letter we have ever published. We submit that our attitude regarding coffee is now and always has been absolutely fair. If one wants a stimulant and can digest coffee and it does not set up any sort of physical ailment, drink it. But, if coffee overtaxes and weakens the heart (and if flrtpc urifli cnmp\ Or if it sets up disease of the stomach and bowels (and it does with some). Or if it causes weak eyes (and it does with some). Or if it causes nervous prostration (and it does with many),. Then good plain old-fashioned common sense might (without asking permission of coffee merchants) sug gest to quit putting caffeine (the drug of coffee) into a highly organized human body, for health is really wealth and the happiest sort of wealth. Then if one’s own best interest urges him to study into the reason and “There’s a reason,” he will un earth great big facts that all of the sophistries of the coffee importers arid roasters cannot refute.