OCR Interpretation

The Semi-weekly leader. (Brookhaven, Miss.) 1905-1941, December 27, 1905, MAGAZINE SECTION, Image 6

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86074065/1905-12-27/ed-1/seq-6/

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seen in various degrees of dilapida
tes but they show no evidence of
genuine occupation. They have
never been in any sense homes.
Investigations have been carried on
where the commuted homesteads are
notable in number. The records of
some of tbe counties examined show
that 90 per cent of tbe commuted
homesteads were transferred within
three months after acquisition of ti
tle, and evidence was obtained to
show that two-thirds of the commu
ters immediately left the state. In
many instances foreigners, particu
larly citizens of Canada, came into
this country, declared their intention
of becoming citizens .took up home
steads, commuted, sold them ,and re
turned to their native land.
Tbe reasons given for adhering to
the commutation clause are diverse
hod many of them are cogent when
applied to individual cases. It is
Bald, for example, that the commu
ter desires to raise money tor use in
Improving his place. This Is often
true, but in the majority of cases the
records show that the commuter Im
mediately leaves the vicinity. The
frequency of loans is traceable In
many places directly to the activity
of agents of loan companies, who
are often United States commission
ers also, eager first to induce settle
ment and then to make these loans
an account of the double commission
received. Later they secure" the
| business which- accrues to them
From an old wood-cut illustration in Richard
son’s " West of the Mississippi."-A "Home”
14x30 (inches, not feet) showing that false
swearing In acquiring government land Is
me new art,
through the foreclosure and transfer
of the property. The trae working of
the commutation clause does not ap
pear until after foreclosure upon the
maturity of the loans
One significant brought out by the
investigation la that a large portion
of the commuters are women, who
never establish a permanent resi
dence and who are employed tempo
rarily in the towns as school teach
ers or in domestic service, or who are
living with their parents. The great
mnJorltv of these comm liters sell 1m
mediately upon receiving title, the
business being transacted through
some agent vrho represents his client
in all dealings and prepares all pa
The commutation clause, If it Is to
be retained- to cover special cases,
should be effective only after not less
than three years’ actual—not con
structive—living at home on the land.
Under present practice, the commuta
tion period being fourteen months,
six months of this time is generally
takes to establish residence, so that
only eight months remain. This time
is usually arranged to include the
summer, so that the shack built need
not be habitable In severe winter
weather, and the residence on the
land may consist merely in a sum
mer 'outintg. Obviously It Is essen
tial that residence should be far more
strictly defined. It is probable that
lax Interpretation and enforcement
of the provisions of the law regard
ing residence Is responsible for more
fraud under the homestead act than
all other causes combined.
It may be urged that the frauds
which have taken place under the
I ___
In tbs Region Being Despoiled Under the Timber and Stone Aotv
operations of the commutation clausa
are due largely te lax administration.
The fact Is that the precedents estab
lished by decisions rendered on spe
cial cases have so far weakened the
powers of administration that addi
tional legislation Is necessary*
Desert Land Law.
In the preceding report the opinion
was expressed that the desert-land
law should, for the present at least
be allowed to stand, with a few
changes in detail. It was believed
that with the experience of the pari
for guidance, it would be possible t«
enforce this law so that its essential
provisions shonld he complied with,
More careful analysis, however, oi
the operations of tills act and of thi
practices which have grown up hai
led year commission strongly t* the
contusion that this law shonld he
, modified In essential particulars.
Your Commission recommended
last year the repeal of the assign
ment clause. This provision has
been made the convenient vehicle for
evading the spirit of the law and for
facilitating the acquisition of lands in
large holdings. The law limits the
amount which one person or associa
tion of persons may hold, by assign
ment or otherwise, prior to patent to
320 acres of such arid or desert
lands. The most common form of at
tempted evasion of this requirement
is for two or three individuals to
form themselves into a corporation,
each individual member of the corpo
ration securing, by entry or assign
ment, 320 acres of such lands and
the corporation as such 820 acres.
These same individuals then form an
other corporation under an entirely
different name and procure an as
signment of another 320 acres, and
this process Is continued lndeflhttely.
The General Land Office has within
the past year endeavored to put a
stop to this practice by holding that
a corporation or association of per
sons is not qualified to receive a des
ert-land entry by assignment where
its individual members ,either singly
or in lu» aggregate are Homing azu
acres of sacb arid or desert lands.
This ruling, if enforced, will tend to
lessen the evils resulting from large
holdings prior to patent, but it is not
deemed possible to secure adequate
control of this question unless the
law prohibits assignments of desert
land entries. By repealing that pro
vision of the law and requiring the
claimant to show that he has made
the entry for his ownSise and benefit
and not for the benefit of any other
person or corporation and that he
has made no agreement by which the
title shall innre to any other person
or corporation the evils Incident to
large holdings of snch lands under
the sanction of law will be materially
It Is a striking fact that these large
holdings of desert land are not re
claimed and devoted to their best
use. Three hundred and twenty acres
of irrigable land is' entirely too much
for economical handling by one per
son. On the other hand, Inspection
shows that in the same locality and
under the same climatic conditions the
homestead entries, where not com
moted, are reclaimed and utilized.
The desert-land act as It stands up
on the statute books appears to have
many features which commend it;
as before stated, the practices gov
erning it have largely nullified its
good features, and the resulting
evils cannot be fully overcome with
out legislaton.
Thu o roa rtf ftia /loaorf nnlfg
should be cut down from KM) acres to
not exceeding 160 acres, and discre
tion should be given to the Secretary
of the Interior to cut it down still
further where it is apparent that In
tensive cultivation is practicable. A
farm of 820 acres, if irrigated, 1s en
tirely too large for a single family,
and its possession simply prevents
other settlers from coming into the
country. Furthermore, it makes land
monopoly easy and induces specula
Actual living at home on the land
for not, less than two years should
be required before patent Your
Commission can not understand why
any settler should be given both a
homestead and a desert entry, either
of which without the otner should suf
fice, under the law, to farnlsb him a
home. The desert-land law rhould
be a means of settlement, and actual
bona fide residence should be rigidly
The actual production of a valnnble
crop should be required on not less
than one-fourth the area of the en
try. At present, as a rule, the great
er part of the desert entries are
never actually watered. Hundreds
of desert entries were examined by
members of the Commission in the
last year, and the great majority of
them were found to be uninhabited,
unirrigated, uncultivated, and with
no improvements other than a fence.
l ins applies DOtn to aesert entries up
on which a final proof Is now being
offered and to other entries to which
title has been given.
It is a fact that a very small pro
portion of the land disposed of under
the terms of the law has actually
been reclaimed and irrigated, and
scrutiny of many hundreds of desert.
entries now passing to final proof
shows that In the majority of oases,
these lands are not actually utilised,
but are being held for speculative
purposes, owing to several causes,
among which are the laxity of some
of the state laws governing appro
priation of water for Irrigation pun
poses. and the Insufficiency of the
water supply, considerable diflSculty
has been encountered in administer
ing that provision of the desert-land
laws which requires a claimant to
have a permanent water right based
on prior appropriation. Very often
the waters of a stream are exhausted
by other approoriators before the
time when the claimant goes
through the form of posting notices,
recording his claim, and complying
wftt other essentials of the state law.
Notwithstanding this, be furnishes
the testimony of two witnesses that
ttie water thus * appropriated has
been used la reclaiming bit jgQd. and
that the supply is adequate for that
purpose. While this showing, on Its
face, indicates a compliance with
law, the fact remains that the water
supply, If any at all, Is not sufficient
to permanently reclaim the land.
The ownership of stock in a pro
jected irrigation ditch which does
not exist in fact, or the ownership
of a pump temporarily installed, has
often been accepted, in connection
with such testimony, as proof of the
possession of water. Many alleged
irrigation ditches or reservoirs are
familiar to members of the Commis
sion which are utterly inadequate to
irrigate a square rod, and upon the
strength of such works patent has
frequently then issued to 320 acres of
Frauds committed through conven
tional forma of perjury and through
lack of proper veriiicatiou of the
facta as to the recllamation of the
land justify the taking of immediate
and radical steps in the revision of
the law. The law ehould absolutely
require an actual adequate water
supply, and the limits as to quantity
should be defined.
In short, the law should render Im
possible the continuance of the
practices by which desert lands
without water, without cultivation,
and without crops are passed into
the possession of claimants.
Grabbing Lands.
The great bulk of the vacant pub
jxv wuuo uuuuguuut uie w esr are un
suitable for cultivation under the
present known conditions of agricul
ture, aud so located that they can
not be reclaimed by Irrigation. They
are, and probably always must be,
of chief value for grazing. There are
It Is estimated, more than 800,000,
! 000 acres of public grazing land, an
area approximately equal to one-fifth
the extent of the United States,
proper. The exact limits can not be
set, for with seasoned changes large
areas of land which afford good
grazing one year are almoBt desert in
another. There are also vast tracts
of wooded timbered land in which
grazing has much Importance, and
until a further classification of the
public lands Is- made It will be im
possible to give with exactness the
total acreage. The extent is so vast
and the commercial interests In
volved so great as to demand In the
highest degree the wise and conser
vative handling of these vast re
It is a matter of the first import
ance to know whether these grazing
lands are being used In the best way
possible for the continued devel p
ment of the country or whether
they are being abused under a sys
tem which is detrimental to such de
velopment and by which the only
present value of the land is being
rspldly destroyed. *
At present the vacant public lands
are theoretically open commons, free
to all citizens but as a matter of fact
a large proportion have been parceled
out by more or less definite compacts
or agreements among the various In
terests. These tacit agreements are
continually being violated- The
sheepmen and cattlement are in fre
quent collision because of incursions
upon each other’s domain. Land
which for years has been regarded as
exclusively cattle range may be In
fringed upon by large bands of
sheep, forced by drought to migrate.
\ Heroic Bronze Figure of France's
Field Marshall Standing In Front
of White House.
One of the very striking and majes
tic bits of bronze in Washington is
the Rochambeau statue which stands
In what was called Jackson Square,
Stands Opposite the White House,
because of the presence there of
Olark Mill# equestrian statue ot
General Jackson, later called Lafa
vette 8qnare, because of the erection
there of the great Lafayette etatne.
and now very frequently called
Rochambeau Park because of this
Elegant example of art. The statue
was unveiled in 1962. Tt stands di
rectly in front of the White House.
The movement for the erection In
the National Capital of a statue of
Rochambeau was In recognition of
♦be dose ties between France and the
♦tufted States. This sentiment
was particularly strong after the
close of the Spanish-Amerlcan war
in view of the services rendered In
♦be Interest of peace by Cambon the
French Ambassador. The govern
. ment ot France had a tan Inst sent
over two superb Sevres vases as a
gift to President McKinley. Con
gress appropriated *7,500 for the
statue. Rochambeaut commanded
the French forces sent to the as
sistance of the young republic of the
United States and which co-operated
with Hie Continental army at York
Roeh’awbean statue Is excel
lent art. The French field marshal in
the fnl) uniform of his rank standi
with one arm outstretched evidently
pointing to the distant American col
ony which be Is about to help.
At the base is a symbolic figure. 11
is the figure of a woman hurfylng
forward with the flag of France
home aloft in the right hand. Be
neath her feet is the prow of a ship
suggestive of the force which France
has sent across the seas to aid the
republic of the United States in the
days of Its infancy. Below are the
*nns of France and the United
States linked together.
The Coffee Importers and Roasters are Attacking
•. -'•■'air
l ' ’ - ' ■/■■■'
• All Along the Line.
Many people have found out the truth about old
fashioned coffee.
They have overcome disease caused by it.
The plan was easy and sure.
Quit Coffee and use Postum.
Proof with one’s self is stronger than any theory.
The Postum army grows by hundreds of thousands
The old-fashioned Coffee Magnates are now derid
ing Postum through the papers.
Because their pocketbooks are hurt, they would
drive the people back to the old coffee slavery.
One coffee prevaricator says: “It (Postum) has
lately been exposed and found to contain an excess
of very ordinary coffee.”
Another that “it (Postum) is made from a small
amount of parched peas, beans, wheat, dried sweet
potatoes, and paste of wheat middlings.”
Here’s to you, oh faithful followers of the tribe of
$100,000.00 CASH
will be deposited with any reputable trust company
(or a less amount if desired) against a like amount
by any coffee roaster or dealer. If the charges prove
true we lose, if not we take ti e money as partial
liquidation for the infamous insult to our business.
The Postum Pure Food factories are the largest in
the world, the business having been built upon abso
lutely pure food products, made on scientific lines,
“for a reason” and the plain unvarnished truth told
every day and all the time. These factories are visited
by thousands of people every month. They are shown
info every cranny and examine every ingredient and
A Few Overlooks.
“I met an old friend in town to-day”
said Mr. Shannon to his wife one even
ing, oft his return from business,” and
he told me he expected to be married
In a week.
Ten minutes later, after his wife had
finished asking questions, Mr. Shannon
wrote as follows to his friend Stodder:
“Dear Stodder:—I thought I was a
newspaper reporter, but please answer
the following questions by return
mail. They cover some points I neg
lected to get from you.
“What is the name of the girl you
are to marry?
“Where does she live?
“What does her father do?
“Has he any money?
“Was it love at first sight?
“Are you very much in love with
“How old is she?
“Where are you going to live?
“Did you ask her personally, or
write your proposal?
“Havn’t you proposed to other girls?
“How did you and I come to be sueh
‘Where are you going for your
“Is it that tall girl you took to the
theatre one night last winter?
“Why didn’t I ask you all this when
you told me?
“Were you so excited you couldn’t
give me any information, but simply
had to talk about getting -married?
“A prompt reply will help me to give
my wife some much-desired informa
tion. Next time y ousted me you are
going to be marriedT don’t think that
is the really important feature about
it.-Yours hastily, Shannon.”
A darky was asked why he went
away, and gave the following lucid _an
“I didn’t went. I didn’t want to
went, and if 1 had wanted to went, I
couldn’t have got to go no how.”
% _
There Is a group of Islands south ol
New Zealand called the 'Seven Sisters
said to be subject to a practicallj
constant rainfall. The same condi
tions exist in Terra del Fuego, excep
that the rain often takes the form 01
sleet or snow.
Over one Million Dollars
allowed our clients during the last
six years.
Over one Thousand
claims allowed through us dur
ing the last six months. Dis
ability, Age and In
crease pensions obtained
in the shortest possible time.
Widows* claims a specialty.
Usually granted within 90
days if placed with us immedi
ately on soldier’s death. Fees
fixed by law and payable put of
allowed pension. A successful
experience of 25 years and benefit
of daily calls at Pension Bureau
are at your service. Highest ref
erences furnished. Local Magis
trates pecuniarily
benefited by sending tis
Warder Bld’g, Washington, D. C.
Pine, Fir, Cypress and Yellow Pine.
Write for Catalogue.
Eagle Tank Go., 281 N. Green 8t.f
Chicago, 111.
Mule In Light and Haarr Weights, for Man and Yonth. Extra lengths
aame price. With more elaetlc, warranted aon-ruatlne metal parte, and
HEWE8 A POTTER. targeatBnapender and Belt Hakra
1 ept, M, |T LIKOOLH 8t., BOSTON, KAB8. ><t the maid.
Valuable Booklet, '• Draaa and Baapander Stplaa,” npmk :
are our Lock Buckles for use on Trunks, Telescopes, Cases of all kinds,
Portfolios, Messenger Bags, etc.
They are the only lock Buckles with the Yale Principle
and are made of Manganese Bronze, which looks like gold,
is stronger than steel and will not rust.
Locks alone (easily attachable). Small, 50c; medium, 75c j
large, $1.00. (Beautifully hand engraved and including monogram,
25c extra); with strap for trunk, $1.50 ; for case, $1.00 prepaid and re
turnable if not delighted. Booklet on request Salesmen and sales
women wanted everywhere. ..
LYNCH MEG. CO. Madison, Wis.
process. Each visitor sees Postum made of different
parts of the wheat berry treated by different mechan
ical methods and one part blended with a small part
of pure New Orleans molasses. So he knows Postum
contains not one thing in the world but Wheat and
New Orleans molasses. It took more than a year of
experimenting to perfect the processes and learn bow
to develop the diastase and properly treat the other
elements in the wheat to produce the coffee-like flavor
that makes suspicious people “wonder.” But there
never has been one grain of old-fashioned or drug
/'/• » v* t *11 1_
tUUCC 111 1 U9LU111 dUU IlCVtl Will UK..
Another thing, we have on file in our general offices
the original of every testimonial letter we have ever
published. We submit that our attitude regarding
coffee is now and always has been absolutely fair. If
one wants a stimulant and can digest coffee and it
does not set up any sort of physical ailment, drink it.
But, if coffee overtaxes and weakens the heart (and
if flrtpc urifli cnmp\
Or if it sets up disease of the stomach and bowels
(and it does with some).
Or if it causes weak eyes (and it does with some).
Or if it causes nervous prostration (and it does
with many),.
Then good plain old-fashioned common sense might
(without asking permission of coffee merchants) sug
gest to quit putting caffeine (the drug of coffee) into
a highly organized human body, for health is really
wealth and the happiest sort of wealth.
Then if one’s own best interest urges him to study
into the reason and “There’s a reason,” he will un
earth great big facts that all of the sophistries of the
coffee importers arid roasters cannot refute.

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