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The great American bird, the Bird
which will scream back an answer to you every time you imitate his “gob ble” or otherwise “make a noise Uke a gobble," has along with his domesti cator, man, driven the other American bird far into the back woods, figura tively and actually. When the Indians owned the land, the eagle and the turkey stood on YOUNG BRONZE COCKS. probably an equal footing, the one the tyrant of the air and the other the king of game birds. Both were hunt ed by the Indian, the eagle to furnish plumes for his war bonnet, and the turkey, of course, for food. But now the eagle seldom is hunted and still more seldom ever killed or captured, while the turkey is found in hundreds of thousands of farm yards. Although the North American wild turkey is a beautiful and resplendent game bird, with feathers of black, shaded with a rich bronze and illumi nated with a lustrous finish of coppery color, his domesticated cousin, while improved nothing in appearance, has been bred up to outweigh any other domestic fowl, thirty or thirty-five pounds being not uncommon among prize turkey flocks. According to the Department of Agriculture the growing of turkeys has improved within thd last few years as a result of a determined effort on the part of producers of what is termed “standard bred or exhibition” stock to demonstrate that It is more profitable to use pure bred breeding stock than the smaller and less vigor ous stock of days gone by. Their efforts to introduce throughout the country the several standard varie ties- of turkeys have greatly improved our turkey growing industry. This effort has/supplied rich, new, vigorous blood throughout the whole country, adding strength and virility to in numerable flocks, many of .which had become considerably deteriorated through inbreeding. Deterioration Through Inbreeding. The fact that one fecundation is sufficient to render fertile all the eggs of one laying has made possible the undermining of the health and vigor of the present-day domestic turkey. Being advised of this, hundreds of people depend upon their neighbors’ flocks for the services of a male and pay no attention to the matter of breeding stock except to keep one or two turkey hens. This has reduced many of the turkeys throughout the country almost to a condition of im becility. The lack of vigor in a large portion of t ie breeding stock through lng, people have become so disheart ened in some localities with the mea ger results of their efforts to grow turkeys for market that they have de sisted from the attempt. Mr. T. F. McGrew, of New York, a well-known judge of poultry and a writer on breeds and breeding, has written a turkey bulletin for the De partment of Agriculture which is known as Farmers’ Bulletin No. 200, and in this be says that there is no other kind of livestock that will return so large a profit to the successful pro ducer as will poultry, and no kind of poultry is more profitable than turkeys when properly handled. The fact that turkeys will, from the time they are six weeks old until winter sets in, gain the greater part of their entire living from bugs, grasshoppers and waste grain that they pick- up in their wanderings over the range, assures their existence through this period at little or no cost to the grower. In other words, they may be termed self sustaining foragers, where they have sufficient range. The Bronze Turkey. This turkey holds the post of honor. It is possibly a cross between the wild turkey and the tame turkey, which lat ter is generally believed to have de scended from either the North Ameri can wild turkey, the Mexican wild turkey or the Honduras or Ocellated turkey. Its beautiful rich plumage and its size have come from its wild progenitor. To maintain these desir able qualities, crosses are continually necessary. In this way the mammoth size has been gained, the standard weight ranging from sixteen to thirty six pounds, according to age and sex. The coloring of this- variety is a ground of black blazoned or shaded with bronze. This shading is rich and glowing, and when the sun’s rays are reflected from these colors, they shine like polished steel. The female is not as rich in color as the male, but both have the same* color and shadings. Much of this richness of color is lost I I .=^=^========a=gss^^^^ GROUP OF WHITE TURKEYS. cnrougn int>reeaing, as it is improved by each cross with the wild specimens. Of all our domestic fowls none suffer from inbreeding so much as turkeys. This should be guarded against at all times, if it is hoped to gain the best results. Naturally the Bro^e turkey should be the largest in size, the most vigor ous in constitution, and the most prof / A FORTY POUND BRONZE GOBBLER. out the country has jeopardized to a certain extent the production of a sufficient number of market turkeys to supply the demand. In fact, not fully realizing that thsWailure was large ly due to undermining the vitality of their breeding stock through inbreed* itable to grow. This would be the sta tus of the variety at present were it not that too little attention has been given to the selection of the females for breeding stock. It should be fully understood that size and constitutional vigor come largelv through the female, and, to have this Influence to the fullest extent, well-proportioned, vigor ous females In their second or third year should be selected as breeders. THE NORTH AMERICAN WILD TURKEY. Do not select the very large specimens for this purpose; those of a medium size are usually the best Discard the undersized females at all times, as they are of but little value as pro ducers. Length of shank and thigh, If out of proportion, should not be mis taken for size; rull-roundea body and breast Indicate value most clearly; size >nd strength of bone indicate constitu tional vigor which should be maintain ed through the selection of the very best at all times for producing stock. When special care is given to the se ection of the breeding stock, and the grower bears in mind those profitable :haracteristics—compactness of form, ength of breast and body, and con ititutional vigor—the most satisfactory •esults may come from the growing of this variety. But no matter how nuch care may be given these condi ions, only partial success will come if nbreeding is permitted. The use of iversized males with small females is >f less advantage than the use of imaller males with well-matured, nedlum-sized females. The Narragansett Turkey. This turkey Is a noble looking, full hested bird but is not so large as the ironze. His color is a black back fround with a steel-gray edge to the eather which imparts metallic ilack-and-bronze luster. The cocks, or oms, weigh from 20 to 30 pounds, and ome old ones have gone 40 pounds. ?he Narragansett is a desirable breed nd some growers declare that they rill reach market size and condition u less time than the Bronze turkeys. The Buff Turkey. As bred for market these turkeys are . reddish buff or light chestnut color nixed with white and some dark hadings. They are highly valued in ome localities for their quick growth nd for their attactiveness when Iressed, although they do not run as he Naragansett or the Bronze. The White Turicey In America the white variety Is ailed the White Holland turkey. In England they are known as "Austrian iVhites,” where they are considered iports from other turkeys. They range pom 10 pounds for young hens to 26 rounds for old cocks, although they lave run as high as 35 pounds at fairs, dr. McGrew states that white turkey^ ire quite as easy to grow as any other variety, and he states that one cannot select a better kind for all uses than the White Holland. They grow to the most profitable sizes, dress beautifully tor market, their lights pinkish-white shanks add to their appearance; and with them, as with all white poultry, the pin feathers show less than In darker varities. The very largest tur keye are not as profitable either to grow or to sell. The medium sizes— from 9 to 18 pounds dressed—ore the most desirable for family use. Other turkeys are the Black turkey, similar to, If not much the same, as ——— ill i —. the English Norfolk turkey, thr Slate turkey, and the red Bourbon turkey, which is similar to the Buff turkey . In addition to the North American wild turkey, the Mexican wild turkey still affords splendid sport, as does also the Honduras turkey, which is found in various parts of Central America, both birds being resplendent and of savory flesh. The turkey buHetln of the Depart ment of Agriculture above mentioned is a brief booklet which will certainly be read with interest by anyone grow ing or caring for turkeys. It describes the different verities, and devotes fif teen or twenty pages to the selection and care of breeding stock, turkey houses and ranges, Incubation, hatch ing, growing and feeding the birds, marketing and also the ailments to V which turkeys are subject Drop a postal to your member of Congress or Senator, and he will send you one. Food Value of Egga. Popular belief to the contrary, there , i3 no difference in the nutritive quali ties of eggs with dark shells and those , with light. Their flavor is affected by , the food of the fowl for good or for ] evil. Exhaustive experiments by well , equipped investigators prove that the . egg deserves its reputation as an , easily assimilated and highly nutri- , tiou8 food, if eaten raw or lightly . cooked. Such experiments also show ] that eggs at twelve cents a dozen are . a cheap source of nutrients; at six- , teen cents, somewhat expensive, and at twenty-five cents and over, highly extravagant. . The basis of comparison was the market prices of standard flesh foods s considered in relation to their nutri- | tive elements. But there is a physio- . logical constituent of eggs which is of ' great value, yet it defies the search of j the scientist or the inquisition of the statistician, and that is their palata- . bility. Unless a food, however rich in proteins, is relished, it loses much of its value, while, per contra, a less ] chemically desirable food that is en joyed hecomes valuable by reason of that fact. ] FAIR STUDENTS IN REVOLT. ' Object to the Measuring Methods of Their Gymnasium Instructor. , The girls of the freshman and sopho- j more classes of the University of Cin- i cinnati have been going about with .< traces of tears on their cheeks, and asking each other, “Have you been < scheduled?” i At first the girls did not know what “scheduling” meant when they re ceived confidential notes from Miss i Edna Earl Hope, teacher of the girls’ i gymnasium work at the ’varsity. Their presence alone in her private room was requested at such and such j a time. The “alone” looked mysteri- 1 ous and the girls held a consultation. < Then the bravest faced Miss Hope, s When she went in to Miss Hope her 1 face was eager, but when she came out it was scarlet. “And what do you think?” she whis pered: “You—have to—take off all your clothes. "And after-she gets your clothes off, what then?” chorused the girls. Then the first girl told, with tears md gasps, how the new gym teacher placed an adjustable rig about the hips and measured them—the hips—yes! And she measured the arms and the er—’er—legs. The bust expansion and the length of the fingers, and how big the chest is when the girl takes a long breath, and how little it gets when the girl expels her breath. Then she subtracts the difference, divides It by two, and multiplies the result by three, and says: “There’s where you ought to be, and maybe you’ll be that by the end of the year, when the second physical exami nation comes.” The girls held an indignation meet ing the latter part of the week, and a committee was secretly appointed to wait on President Dabney. “But,” said the girls on the commit tee, “we would rather take one of those scheduled things than to tell a man about it” Because of the excitement of those girls who were “scheduled” MIbs Hope has now provided a garment in mak ing the “test". lacking In Sdaeation, Little Freddie, having lost a nickel was crying bitterly. An old gentleman who had stopped to Investigate said: “My boy you shouldn’t cry that way.” “But," said the little fellow, "I d-don’t know how to c-cry any o-other way."__ "Say not goodbye, bolt In some brighter clime, bid me good morning.” . . ' FOR A YEARS’ SUBSCRIPTION TO "'V - ‘ ■ Maxwell’s Homemaker Magazine Because, for one reason, it—is worth more than ten dollars for one year for the music page alone in every family where there are young children wh° are being taught music—or if they are not then they ought to be. Music in the Family* is the surest way to interest the children and entertain the boys and girls where they will be under the uplifting influence of the Home Environment. The Music Department in Maxwell’s Homemaker Magazine is conducted by a successful teacher of music Of more than ten years’ experience, who has a re markable insight into the musical needs of child life and an unusual ly clear and concise way of explaining all things pertaining to the laying of a solid foundation for musical development. Keyboard Drill, Staff Drill, Note Drill and Dar 'training nave already been worked out. Scale Building begins in the December Number. Be sure and get it if you are interested in Teaching the Children Music. Other Departments in Maxwell’s Homemaker Magazine are Home Study Home Cheer, Home Entertainment, Home Gardening, Health in the’Home, besides a Story and Interesting Miscellany of special in terest to the Homemaker, And Everyone is or ought to be a Homemaker. Bear in mind that Maxwell’s Homemaker Magazine will be sent to you for One Whole Year for len Cents. Send a Dime or five two-cent stamps to Maxwell’s Homemaker Magazine, 1409 Fisher Building, Chicago, 111. He Was Ineorraptable. In the opening days of the American Revolution, when France had recog nized the independence of the United States, and we had shown ourselves letermined upon stubborn resistance, he English Parliament were driven to i final “conciliatory bill” for the re ;overy of their colonial possessions, (lost everything was conceded by this ict, but nowhere was allusion made o absolute Independence. Lord Oar isle, William Edsen and Gov. John itone, in the capacity of special com nissioners, brough the bill to America ind lost little ^ime submitting the plan >f conciliation to Congress, together vith an insolent letter. That body lardly gave it consideration, but forth vith rejected the plan proposed by he ministry. Foiled in every attempt, but not dis nayed, the commissioners now re sorted to measures distinguished in nfamy and basenebs. They" opened secret correspondence with members >f Congress, and, through a female igent, Mr. Reed, a delegate from Pennsylvania, was offered $50,000 and he best office in the colonies that his najesty could bestow if he would use lis influence in favor of the coneilia ory bill. Mr Reed’s reply, as well as nemory, should be enshrined in the learts of every loyal Pennsylvanian, t was simply this: “I am not worth >urcha8ing, but such as I am, the Sing of England is not rich enough to lo it.” The Alexandrian Library. Said Omar, “Either those books are n comformity with the Koran, or they ire not If they are, they are useless, ind if not, they are evil; in either (vent, let them be destroyed.” Such was the logic that led to the lestruction of seven hundred thousand Danuscript volumes in Alexandria. Pliny tells us that Homer’s Iliad, vith its 15,000 verses was written in a pace as small as a walnut shell. In more remote times an account Is iven of an ivory chariot constructed iy Mermicides, so small that a fly ould cover it with one of its wings, nd of a ship that could be concealed y the wing of a bee. Kirk’s AMERICAN CROWN SOAP * .jp '’*■ i • s a green soap, consistency ot paste, a perfect cleanser for automobile machinery and al* vehicles; will not injure the most highly polished surface. Made from pure vegetable oils. If your dealer does not carry American Crown Soap in stock, send us his name and address and Ve will see that your wants are supplied. Put up in 12% 25 and 50 lb pails. James S. 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P„ horizontal type, stat* ionary; and 6, 8,10, ia and 15 H. P., horizontal type, portable. WRITS FOR GASOLINE ENGINE BOOKLET. International Harvester Co. of America (locarpmtcd) 7 Monroe StreetChicago, DL, U. S. A, ✓ '