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PROPER DEPTH FOR PLOWING
Conditions and Circumstances Vary with Locality and Season Farmer Must Determine. How deep to plow is a question that often confronts the farmers in all localities and it Is almost impossible to cite any definite answer to this Question. Circumstances and condi tions vary with the locality and with ike season. This Is a question that the farmer in each locality must de termine for himself. However, in order to answer the question intelli gently himself he must understand the object of plowing, or, in other words, he must know why he plows. It is generally known that the ob ject of plowing is to prepare a seed bed. Manure and other inorganic mat ter is turned under and the soil is mellowed that the roots may easily penetrate in all directions in search of plant food and moisture. The fact is known that the deeper the farmer plows the more moisture he will save. However, the length of time between the plowing and the seeding is very Important. The land should be plowed long enough before seeding that It will have time to settle and exclude the unnecessary amount of air before the seed is put in. From this it will be seen that it is wisest to plow deep in the fall and shallow In the spring. In all seml-arld regions it is wise to plow deep enough that the seeds can be placed in the moist soil. By plow ing deep in the fall and leaving the soil open during the winter a larga amount of water and moisture is col lected during the wet season. If then, early in the spring the field is plowed or harrowed this moisture can be con served in the soil and saved for fu ture use. Again when the land is plowed deep the roots have better place In which to grow and conse quently penetrate deeper. Then when the hot, dry months of July and Au gust come they are prepared. The land should not he plowed as deeply in the spring because there will not be sufficient time in which to settle and become firm in order that capillary attraction will work to the best advantage. It is always wise to follow spring plowing with either a disk or a harrow. This will place a dust mulch over tbe surface and will materially stop evaporation from the surface soil. It will also prevent the formation of chunks or clods upon the field. USING ROLLER ON DRY FARM Implement Must Be Used with Judg ment as Possibilities for Doing Injuries Are Many. The roller la a tool which must be used with much Judgment in dry farm ing, aa iia possibilities for working in jury an fully as great as its possibil ities for good. It can bs used to great advantage in packing down sod which Is broken shallow In the spring. It Is valuable for crushing clods. 8omt day our farmers will be able to dis pense with it for that purpose, be cause they will pay much closer atten tion to ths moisture condition of tha soil at the time of breaking, and wilt find that they will have much lesa need for a clod crusher than at prsa eut Another condition that some times arlsea ander which the use of tha roller is very essential, la where seed have beta planted in a soil which Is quite moist below, but dry near the surface. Rolling will compact the surface, thus causing concentra tion of thc> moisture there for a short time, and give the aeed a chanoe to sprout. If the surface remains packed for very long, the aotl will dry out. The great danger in the use of tha roller is that it leaves tha surface fine and compact, which favors evap oration. The surface should always bo loosened, best with the drag har row, after it has been rolled. The es sential difference between the roller and the sub-surface packer, is that the roller packs the surface of the soil, leaving it in a condition which favors evaporation, while the packer firms the plowed layer against the plow sole and leaves the surface loose. The Value of Charcoal. Charcoal has great value as an an tiseptic. Smoked ham will keep for years packed in charcoal. A few lumps of It in a cistern will keep the water pure and sweet. A quantity of it in a cellar will absorb the odors, and a small lump boiled with cabbage or onions will do the same. Butter put in a small vessel completely sur rounded with charcoal will keep sweet a long time. A paste of powdered charcoal and honey makes a good den tifrice. It not only cleans the teeth, but disinfects them and sweetens the breath. Taken inwardly is good for the digestion and relieves constipa tion. Pine and Spruce Trees. More than a million pine and spruce trees were planted last spring by pri vate land owners in forty-eight coun tries of New York state as the result at the plan of the state forest commis ■loner to furnish trees for planting at eost. The commissioner la quoted as saying that not one-half of the appli cations for young trees could be filled. Heeled-In Trees. Trees and shrubs heeled In for winter should be heavily mulched and completely covered with straw or cornstalks during the coldest part of the winter to prevent them from dry ing out. The soil about the roots ■»•old not be allowed to free-.e deeply. Montana News Notes Box car thieves were caught last week near Lewistown and brought back with the plunder. Columbus expects to improve its business since the organization of its commercial club. It is rumored that Hunter's Hot Springs have been sold to the Northern Pacific Railway company. At the state land auction held in Great Falls last week record prices were broken the price being $53 per acre. Much improvement is to be done by the Great Northern company in Montana this year,fnew stations and tracks being planned. It is expected that the double tracking of the. Northern Pacific road between Missoula and De Smet will be completed by June 1. No immediate action is to be taken by Montana senators in re ference to the appointment of register and receiver for the Havre land office. The figurehead of the armored cruiser, Montana, will be shipped to this state, according to a letter re ceived by the governor from secre try of the navy, G. Von L. Meyer. The bill introduced by Senator Dixon providing for the sale of sixty acre lots of land by the Indians and for sale of two and five-acre tracts of land fronting on Flathead Lake is now law. Steven Strouf, who was working in his field near Standford, was killed by lightning, and at Kendall three horses and were killed and and the driver knocked down while being driven from a field, the storm being the first of the season, of which report was given early in the week. Northern Pacific train No. 5 was wrecked by an open switch near Tosten early last week and many passengers were bruised and shaken up but no serious harm was done. Six passenger cars left the track and were overturned and the fact that no one was killed is marvelled at. On Tuesday the report came that the Chicago, Milwaukee and Puget Sound, and Great Northern com panies were putting in the connec tion ordered by the railroad com mission at Ubet. A platform is to he built and a walk leading to the present depot at Ubet, and this depot is to he used by both roads. Jesse Lifer, convicted of man slaughughter in the district court of Lewis and Clark county in 1905 and sentenced to the state penitentiary at Deer Lodge, has been paroled by the state board of prison commis sioners. His term was to expire in June, 1911. He will be given em ployment at once by Henry Sieben of Helena who recommended his parole. A number of persons intending to j file on land now included in the 1 Glacier National Park discovered they were too late in speaking for the land they had chosen. Forest i officers say there are between thirty j and forty families now living on land they got from the forest under the \ June 11 act, which will probably : not be required to ielinquish. j Decision from the department of ! the Interior reverses an opinion of the Great Falls land office in regard to issuing certificate of land to Miss Ida Stonecliff. The local land of fice claimed that the homesteader had not lived on her land and that she had taken it up for another party, A. B. Palmer. The decision, which gives her certificate of the land, results from the hearing she demanded. She is shown by it to have lived on the land in vacations and on Sundays—she taught a neighboring school—and that she had paid Mr, Palmer to fence it in and had allowed him to use the land as pasture. The gypsy moth, which has cost millions of dollars to the state of Massachusetts, and the destruction of hundreds of elm trees there, has been discovered in Utah and in spector-at-large of Montana. M. L. Dean, has issued a warning against the pest in this state. Get your Spring Suit at Mar shall's. All new goods. FORESTS-DRY FARM Several Reasons Why Farmer Is Interested in Conserving Trees. They Catch Snow in Blizzards and Hold It Late in Season, and Leaves and Rubbish Form Dams, Holding Water Back. The dry farmer is interested in the conservation of the forests for several good reasons, writes E. R. Parsons in Ranch and Range. The trees catch snow in the bliz zards and hold it late in the season, the leaves and rubbish dam it back from running off Into the streams and thus prevent waste of moisture and erosion of our mountain soils. Every drop of water that remains with us to help dampen our atmo sphere is so much gain. Every drop that finds its way into the rivers and down to the sea. a dead loss. But the most important reason of all is this. Every plant, every tree takes tip its food in solution with water; when this plant food in the sap has been di gested and assimilated tbe surplus water is thrown off by the leaves and transpires into the atmosphere. Aa ardlnary apple tree may give •ff from 20 to 30 gallons of water a day, a good-sized cottonwood 100 gallons, a big Engelmann spruce, sev eral hundred gallons. Now, if one tree can transpire Into tbe atmosphere several hundred gal lons, a forest ten miles square can throw off during the day enough moisture to make a good-sized cloud burst over nn area of several square miles. This is easy to figure out. Now most of this water is from melted snows which but for tbe exist ence of these trees would hay* run off and been lost. The roots of some of our big evergreens reach a hundred feet down to bedrock and pump water back into tbe atmosphere from great depths which otherwise would have escaped from the surface, perhaps forever. Perhaps you will say: "What has all this to do with the dry farm?" Just this much: In the growing sea son, when our clouds come floating gayly over the mountains and strike a dry streak of air they begin to dis sipate and dry up without giving us a shower. They are absorbed by the hot, dry atmosphere. But on the other hand, suppose they strike a damp forest, lakes and reser voirs, what happens then? vThe clouds begin to gain in moist ure, growing before our very eyes, un til the point of saturation is reached— they can hold no more—the floodgates are opened and we get a shower. When our hygrometers show plonty of moisture in the air and we hear the train whistles from afar, wo know that almost any cloud will make a rain, but whoa the air overhead is dry then our clouds go floating by to raise crops in Kaneaa and Nebraska. Our rainfall has undoubtedly suf fered through tbe firing and dévastât lag of our forests, but on the whole I believe we have gained more than we have lost, by the buiMlng of reser voirs, ditches and Irrigation works in general, the water from which when turned onto the heated soil of our fields evaporates millions of tons into the atmosphere every day of the sum mer season, besides this we murt take Into account every plowed field which catches and holds moisture, every crop which transpires this moisture lato the atmosphere, for every hill of corn, every plant of al falfa or grain, throws off into the air many times its own weight in water vapor before it reaches matur ity. Thus we see that the conserva tion of forests and the settling up of a country conduce to a moisture con dition of the atmosphere, and, as I have already shown, a moist condition of the atmosphere conduces to more dew and more rain. Years ago dew was a rare occur rence and when we did happen to discover any we would call out the whole family to look at it. Nowadays we have so much dew and so many damp nights in June that we usually wait until July before cutting our al falfa, which we used to put up two weeks earlier. The weather bureau people contend that wet and dry weather comes in cycles and that it will become dry again before long. However, I have never been able to discover any evi dence yet that the difference amount ed to more than aa inch or so, or that any of these dry cycles have ever been too dry to raise crops. In fact, many men, myself among the num ber, have raised crops every year for 30, and some for 40 years, without a failure, dry cycles or wet cycles, but of one thing I feel certain, that in years to come our dry cycles will not be so dry, and our wet cycles wetter than ever, for sooner or inter nil of this atmospheric moisture must and will make itself felt. For nifty neck wear visit The Fad. Every day is "Bargain Day" at Marshall's. The New York Bargain Store for ; real, genuine bargains. New shirts for men in all the lat est patterns, at Marshall's ^ List your relinquishment with the Northwestern Land Development Co. t List your relinquishment with the Northwestern Land Development Co., for quick results. Relinquishments bought a n d sold. Montana Land Co., office Commercial Hotel. Tell your friend you will meet him at The 1 'ool Hall. Aiwa vs open, always welcome. H. 1. Case A Co. M • S. S m i t h at Lewistown handles the I 1 Cow Home sewing machine. Rep airs and needles for all machines. Can sell 100 acres to ten thous and acres of land. Sec J. R. Rose Mgr. Northwestern Land Develop ment Co. If you buy a piano from \Y. S. Smith at Lewistown you will get a number one instrument at a moder ate price. The Miles City Creamery gives special attention to shipping orders for ice cream, any style or quantity. Write or wire your order to Miles City Creamery, Miles City. 5-6 Oh, You_Tailor! Spring is here We'll take your measure For a suit — 'Twill he a pleasure. Styles are here In all perfection; Patterns, too, For each complexion. Prices here Are low and steady Why not order? Are you ready? THE FAD SHOE & CLOTHING STORE Up-to-Date Haberdashers. It's the Talk of Roundup THE Great Pit action AT THE l-X-L CLOTHING STORE REMEMBER Saturday, April 30th Is positively the Last Day; must vacate May 1st MEN'S $20.00 SUITS, FOR $8.50 Come and TaKe Advantage of this Big Sale I -X-U Clothing Store TOWN LOT AUCTION SALE AT Clarkston, Gallatin County, Montana Saturday, May 14,1910 The new town of Clarkston is located on the main lines of the Northern Pacific and Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railways, at the extreme lower end of the Gallatin Valley, at an altitude of 3,800 feet. Five thousand acres immediately surrounding the new town is choice irrigated land, the water supply coming direct from the Missouri River. One hundred and fifty thousand acres of Gallatin Valley's finest bench wheat land surrounds the new town. Abundance of timber, cheap coal for fuel, best of pure soft well water, two great Trans-Continental Railways for transpor tation, richest and best soil, Butte, Helena, Missoula, etc. for market, a sheltered warm valley for fruit and gardening, are a few reasons why you can double your money within less than two years on any land or lots purchased at our sale. All lots to be sold to the highest bidder, no previous reservations made. 0,000 acres of choice Gallatin County bench land to be sold to the highest bidder at this sale. Terms to suit. I'or more detailed information address The Montana-Milwaukee Land Company Musselshell Valley National Bank HARLOWTON, MONTANA iSSIAWMAWWiWSWV »wywi The European Hotel Under New Management J Entirely Re-Furnished jj Up-to-Datein Ev ery Respect % Rates for Rooms, $3.00 and up, per Week \ , J L. C. LAKE, Proprietor f Main Street 5 % i V.V.W.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.W.nW.V.W.V.V.V.V.V.VVLVVJVC RECORD WANT ADS lc the Word They Bring Results. Read them.