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m « ; s Bunch type range in Madison county. Watch Use of Better Grasses To Judge Range Condition By BEN SLANGER, Soil Conservation Service JUST HOW MUCH can we graze our ranges and still secure maximum production? This is a question often asked by ranchers. In answer it has been found by experiments that proper utilization of our bunch-type ranges does not mean that all vegetation is uniform ly grazed br that all vegetation is removed. Livestock have their likes and dislikes and therefore are nat urally attracted to the more palatable grasses and will graze these in pref erence to more unpalatable types. Data furnished us from utilization tests carried on mostly by forest service men show that on an aver age the total vegetative production per acre on bunch-type range varies all the way from 600 to 1,500 pounds, or about 1,000 to 1,200' on an aver age. production only a little over 300 pounds is con sumed by livestock when the. range is grazed as fully as it can stand and still maintain or increase the more palatable plants. Few Species Palatable It has been found that, although a range may have more than 25 grass species, yet relatively few are regarded as important as producers of palatable and nutritious forage. On bunch-type range bluebunch wheatgrass, prairie June grass, and Idaho fescue are regarded as the more important grasses, or the in dicating plants which are used in determining range conditions. To maintain or increase the pro duction of these indicator bunch grass species, it has been found that from 40 to 50 percent of the herbage should be left at the end of the grazing season. This leaves suf ficient leaf growth so that food may be stored in the root system, enabl ing the plant to make a fast, vigor ous growth in the spring. Watch Palatable Grasses Actual experiments carried on by the forest service in eastern Oregon showed that bluebunch wheatgrass produced only 10 percent of the total vegetation yet furnished 80 pounds or 25 percent of the entire forage grazed. Thus a range in only a poor or fair condition might have so much ungrazed unpalatable for age that a casual observation would indicate- extremely light use. How ever, a closer inspection would re veal that the important forage species are grazed as heavily as they could stand. Efficient utilization, therefore, is m. judged, not by the total amount of forage, removed, but by the degree to which the better grasses are grazed. Trainees Here From Ireland SEAN J. MURPHY and Patrick J. Scully, agricultural trainees from County Cork, Ireland, arrived in Montana and will remain until July 15 studying American agricultural methods and rural organizations, R. B. Tootell, director of the Montana Extension service, said. While in the state Murphy will make his home on the Ralph V. Hurl bert farm in Valley county and Scully will live on the Ralph Nile farm in Rosebud county. Trees Take to the Air . I \ m -X- v MS H : ilii » : i Snowbound, roads and the need for early spring planting made air ship ment of 100,000 white pine seedlings only a natural procedure to U. S. for esters at Missoula. Actually, the air delivery early in May into remote areas of the Clearwater forest of Idaho was probably the first ever made on such a large scale. The Ford tri-motor air plane seen above was one of two used by a Missoula flight operator under contract with the forest service to do the job. The shipments of seedlings were packed roots-to-center in 65 burlap covered bundles totaling 6,000 pounds in weight. Photo to right shows a bun dle of seedlings being lifted into one of the planes by G. M. DeJarnette. left, chief of the planting section for the Missoula region, and J. W. Augenstine, nurseryman of the Savenac nursery. Haugen, source of the seedlings. Defense Production OPS ANNOUNCES NEW WOOL PRICE CEILINGS THE OFFICE of price stabilization announced new ceiling prices for wool and wool top futures traded on the wool associates of the New York cotton exchange which are 9 percent below ceilings which have been in effect since April 6. The downward revision is in line with the trend of the world market, which has declined 20 percent since April 6, and with the new ceilings fixed May 9 on commercial sales in ceiling price regulation 35. The new ceiling on exchange standard wool top is $3.895 per pound as compared with the previ ous ceiling of $4.265, and the new ceiling on exchange standard wool is $3.22 as compared with $3.535 formerly. HONEY PRICE SUPPORTS MOST FLAVORS OF HONEY will be supported at 10 cents per pound under the recently announced sup port program for the 1951 marketing year, the USDA has announced. About a dozen flavors having limited commercial acceptability will be sup ported at 9 cents a pound. These prices will reflect to bee keepers about 60 percent of the March 15, 1951, parity price for honey. Highest support rate under the 1950 program was 9 cents per pound. Honey equivalent to U. S. grade C or better will be eligible under this year's program. 1950 PMA CLAIMS DUE JUNE 30 FARMERS AND RANCHERS who participated in the 1950 agricultural conservation program and have not yet made application for assistance payments earned have only until June 30 to file a claim. Operators who have yet to file an t » i. ... ■ V« it Ht : j. application for work done during the 1950 program year are urged to act promptly rather than waiting until just before the June 30 deadline. Applications should be submitted to • the county PM A office. > • I Mr. and Mrs. Doug Dear. Cascade, are presenting a Quarter Horse colt to be awarded at the second annual Mon tana championship high school rodeo to be held at Augusta. July 15. They are shown here with the Palomino filly they gave last year and which was awarded to Montana McClintock of Silesia, winner of the titles of all around cowgirl and rodeo queen. (Tit ter photo) High School Rodeo At Augusta July 15 MONTANA'S SECOND annual state championship high school rodeo will be held this year on July 15 at Augusta. Mr. and Mrs. Doug Dear of the Birdtail ranch at Cascade are do nating another quarter horse this year to be used as one of the top awards. A Palomino filly was given by the Dears last year and went to the all-around cowgirl, the honor be ing won by Miss Montana of Silesia. The quarter horse will be sired by the stallion "Turk McCue." A special trophy for schools has been arranged this year. This will be a traveling trophy and will be presented to the school winning the greatest total number of points. The school will have possession of this trophy for one year. The winning of the school trophy three years in suc cession will entitle that school to permanent possession. Seven winners of last year's first annual high school rodeo represented Montana at the National, which was held in Santa Rosa, N. M. This year Augusta will send as many winners as possible with expenses paid to the national at Sulphur, La. In 1952 the national high school rodeo will be held at Augusta, with Montana acting as host to the youth ful cowboys and cowgirls of approxi mately a half-dozen or more rodeo minded states. Shorthorn Group Elects Officers A. H. ALLEN, Livingston, was elected secretary of the Montana Shorthorn Breeders Assn., other of ficers were re-elected at the associa tion's annual meeting held at Bil lings June 2. Allen succeeds Henry. Holecek of Boyd. Officers re-elected were I. B. Mor rison of Billings, president, and Orlyn W. Oswald of Joliet, vice president. Wilbur Spring Jr., of Belgrade was re-elected to the directors' board. Holdover directors are Frank J. Cole of Red Lodge and Bryan T. Lovely of Wilsall.