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Image provided by: Montana Historical Society; Helena, MT
Newspaper Page Text
Mn , T 80c, m MONTANA September l/f«!** rarictipickiiw OF »■ ßcüthsüüu^ ßhadkjcdwrL- SJjuiàMjcL ÛA, Tkw (RjLàiâu JhMaJbut, 5 1 /uxm, By JERRY LESTER, Roving Reporter THE RUST SPREADING BARBERRY BUSH still exists as a threat to Montana's wheat and small grain production. Despite the continuing and highly effective eradi cation program largely responsible for the facts that from 1941 to 1946 there was damage amounting to only a trace on our wheat acreages and since 1946 thére hais been no damage, the bushes are still being found in the state. This fact is proven by the pictures on this page and reports from the state department of agriculture erad ication crews working in the state this summer. The crews started working in the state late in June and in two months found and eradicated 1,341 bushes in Lewis and Clark county, according to L. J. Barthell, USDA agent, supervising the barberry control program in Montana. Barberry bushes were found on three private properties in Cascade county in just the first few days of the survey now in progress. Added to the fact that the barberry still exists as a breeding ground for the now commoner varieties of black stem wheat rust, such as race 56 of Ceres, is the recent occurrence of the new race 15-B, This new race 15-B has proved to be the most virulent and destructive race of wheat stem rust ever found in North America. In 1950 the loss to durum wheat alone, caused by race 15-B, amounted to $19,060,000 in North Dakota and Minnesota. New rust races have been produced on the barberry that were able to attack all of the commercially grown varieties grain thought previously resistant, i new races will continue to come into being as long as barberry bushes are growing in ter ritory where they will rust, according to the department of agriculture. Some 300 races are known to date and new ones are coming up constantly on the barberry breeding grounds. To older farmers in some parts of Montana, the mention of black stem wheat rust still brings a look bordering on terror to their faces as they recall • the years of 1904, 1906 and 1916 when disastrous crop failures occurred over large areas of the nation. Losses amount ed to over 200,000,000 bushels in just one of those years. There is on record an instance of crop destruction amount ing to $50,000 in one year from rust * infection originating on a single bar berry. Montana has lost as much as 12 percent of her wheat, oats, barley and of m ■l JC jp / S3 9 ;>• ■Mils' —*Ti J / 1 Perhaps Montana's situation looks pretty good by comparison in this map above showing the extent of the barberry control program in 18 of the northern grain producing states co-operating with the federal government in the eradication program. But the fact is, each of the dots above represent one rural property on which barberry bushes have been destroyed from 1918 to 1950. Some 52,288 bushes were destroyed on 720 properties in Montana. MONTANA NORTHERN AND WYOMING rye crops in one year because of this rust. Just one of the rust spreading bar berry bushes makes local and widespread epidemics possible. A single bush under favorable weather conditions can pro duce about 70 billion spores in a season. Each of these spores from the barberry can start a single infection or postule on a grain or grass plant. The postule on a plant could contain 50,000 to 400,000 spores. In turn each of those spores can reproduce every 10 days. Windblown Spores These dustlike infection spores may be carried by the wind for many miles and start infection centers in grain fields. Each new rust center continues to reproduce and spread the disease. Live rust spores have been collected from airplanes at elevations of 10,000 feet. With proper wind and weather con ditions, rust originating from one bar berry may cause a very destructive epidemic. The disease spreading potentialities of just a few bushes was well demon ^ =ss % RED STASE OF STEK^^i :■■'" Rust on growing grain f REPRODUCES EVERY SEVEM^TO TEN DAYS >. V;.M >. M > T'JTd mm * £Vîa SUMMER .a^ât ^STAGES OF RUST* Sjf!ä??ÄON 'SüSiW ""MATURE GRAIN, Tj *r CLUSTER CUP \ STAGE OF RUST ON BARBERRY LEAF un crut lUSCEPflBLE] feBARBERRWa or m STEMMEST v'iVv^S HARVEST TIME I SPRING i/ m WINTER sas .r.Sfci-v' «f 1 jtn >^BÜAÉK\SifÀO€ ON WILD „ „ ■tf$Ç RAS SES STRAW AND STUBBLE m ■ «•Vi* f/i Stem rust is a disease of cereals and grasses that attacks the stems of plants. It is caused by a fungus, a low type of plant life that spreads alternately on barberries and on grain and grasses as indicated in the illustration abore. The rust is spread between host plants by the wind-borne seeds or spores. It survives the winter in the black-spore stage on grain stubble, in straw piles and on wild grasses. These black spores cannot attack new crops of grains and grasses in the spring. But they do infect susceptible bar berry bushes, and the spring stage of the rust develops on the leaves. Then the diseased barberry leaves infect wild grasses and grain fields nearby and tb-> red or sum mer stage of the disease develops on these plants. Once this stage is established in a grain field, the rust sprrads by its windblown spores from plant to plant and field to field over large areas given proper conditions. After har vest. the over-wintering or blac% spore stage again forms on the ripened straw and grasses, thus completing one year's life cycle. r.- > i \ i I | I I I I 1 1 I j j j !f m.* Hi ■ I 0H 4 f H t ■ V •V ; r v ÜÜ Pictures above show barberry bush "finds" in Lewis and Clark county this summer. Department of agriculture eradication crews talk with a property owner explaining the reason that her fine barberry bush seen to right will have to be killed out. Picture to right shows crew mem ber starting to down the bush. Kext step will be to apply "animate" chemical onto the cut-off canes or apply salt to the canes and surrounding area. learn to know the RUST-SPRE BARBERRY W EAVC NAVE i BERRIES) I IN \\ BUNCH I! W LIKE •I i-2 PINY DGE M & < JobteiK ff BARK [J BRAY d INNER f BARK [BRIGHT^ Five PoifclS toUarh [spines' THREE!