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Image provided by: Montana Historical Society; Helena, MT
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ÇiyyrjLxCuuif ) 5 O ' fMkQMwSgpWW Of MONTANA IP LEN a r m I MMMt , Jfegg " ce*» ßj DON R. BOSLEY W HAT is good wheat? Simplest answer to that Is: It's the kind of wheat we produce in Montana. It's so good that it commands a substantial cash premium over other wheats. And what's good about it? Well, it's usu ally high in protein and the premium prices are paid on the basis of protein content. In fact these premiums alone probably added not less than $26,000,000 to the value of Montana's record 1953 wheat crop of than 114,000,000 bushels. And 1953 wasn't an unusual year for protein either. Spring wheat averaged about 14.6 per cent and winter wheat 12.5 per cent. That's good but no means a record. In 1947 the spring wheat averaged 16 per cent and the winter wheat 14 per cent. But important and valuable as protein is, it isn't the only reason why Montana wheat is good. In fact it is quite possible for a wheat that is high in protein to be inferior in quality to one that is lower in protein. more Comparative Analysis Standard Silver Tip Mont. Winter 61.5 12.00 Soft 60.5 .410 Very Poor 63 % Poor Poor Poor Poor Type Characteristics Test Weight Protein (wheat) Milling Characteristics Yield (of flour) Ash Gluten Characteristics Absorption Mixing Tolerance Fermentation Tolerance Response to Oxidation Response to Malt Gassing Power Loaf Volume Loaf Grain and Texture Loaf Symmetry Wheat Evaluation 61.5 11.80 Good 66.25 .410 Good 66 % Fair Fair Good Good 420 378 2125 Coarse Flat Poor 2350 Normal Good Good m t± f ] it \ a è VvA Wr V This gluten record is poor. It is the record of a win ter wheat that tested 12.7 per cent protein. The markings are narrow and fall off rapidly, indicating that if dough made from this flour were kneaded Just a little too long the bubble-making capacity would quickly fall off and the bread would be coarse. S MONTANA AND NORTHERN WYOMING Montana wheat is good for the simple reason that it makes good bread. That's the ultimate test of any wheat, but it is by no means simple. In fact it is extremely com plex. Protein content is only one of many measures of a good bread wheat and Mon tana wheat meets more of these measures than most. Because the qualities that make for a good bread wheat are so complex, milling companies maintain large laboratories to test all shipments of wheat before they make them into flour. How extensive these tests are is indicated by the analysis on this page comparing the qualities of a variety of win ter wheat known as Silver Tip with those of a standard or approved variety of winter wheat. The comparative analysis was made by the laboratory of a Montana milling pany. As a result of the analysis, the labora tory reported these conclusions; com "This sample of the variety Silver Tip is definitely inferior to our standard Mon tana winter wheat. We have been unable to trace its origin. It was raised by a group of farmers near Danvers and apparently was bi ought in from Canada. This variety has the appearance and some characteristics of Red Fife. If this sample was a true repre sentative of this variety, we certainly want to discourage its planting and the possibility of its getting mixed (Please turn to nage 21 The three graphs reproduced below are the doodling* of a Farinograph, the machine pictured at the right. The machine measures the gluten quality of a. wheat, one of the most important qualities needed for mak ing good bread. A small amount of dough is placed in the machine and kept at carefully controlled, con stant temperature. The machine kneads the dough and records on the chart the pressure required for the kneading. The wider and the more nearly level the markings are, the tougher and more elastic the dough is, the more bubbles of gas from the yeast it will hold and the lighter the bread will be. (Photos and charts courtesy Montana Flour Mills Co. Labora tory.) s - 4 - 1 .;. pfff ~l flUj f-H -FF I r ÖL i " This gluten record is good. It is the record of a win ter wheat that tested 12.3 per cent, slightly lower than the wheat recorded at the left. Note the mark ings are wider, indicating greater elasticity, don't fall off so rapidly. Thus the critical point of maxi mum elasticity is more extended. Timing of knead ing would not have to be so exact. Jl >Ä; : ; - : ' : ü $0 1 :! Montana wheat is good because it makes good bread, the ultimate test of any wheat. Pictured here is an oven in a flour mill laboratory where loaves mad« from tested samples of flour are baked under care ful scientific controls. After running the gamut of various chemical tests, the final test of any wheat is the baking thereof. ill if | 1 ; ? |: j a i \ ■ s, I x ipr ■ i J Etl tttt !! i 3 r .1 i m 35 r ■S Ï 5 A 8 V This is good gluten record of an average spring wheat that tested 13.9 per cent protein. Again the markings are wide and hold steadily at about the same level for an extended period of time. This wheat will make good bread.