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The warm, Mediterranean climate of Israel makes it ideally suited for
the raising of citrus fruits. Jo Anne Fulbright is shown working in an
Israel's Limited Farm Land
Produces Variety of Products
By JO ANNE FULBRIGHT, Cascade County
International Farm Youth Exchange Delegate
(HELLO) from Israel!
Israel is a tiny country with a land
area of about 8,000 square miles, 1/20
the size of Montana. It consists of an
irregular narow strip of land, 260 miles
long and 70 miles at its widest point.
Most of Israel's 2 million population live
in the coastal plain bordering the Med
iterranean Sea. Of these 2 million peo
ple, 22 per cent are engaged in agri
Geographically, Israel's location is
well suited to many different types of
agriculture. However, in some parts
the topography and the amount of rain
fall make living off the land a prob
lem. Mountains make up the central
column of the country, averaging 2,000
feet in height. This mountainous back
bone is cut by several valleys. One of
these, the Jordan Valley, is the lowest
on the earth's surface. About half the
area of Israel is comprised of desert—
In agriculture, unique types of coop
erative settlements have been estab
lished. The four main types are the
kibbutz, moshav, moshav shitufi and
Most similar to the private farms in
Montana is the moshava. It is an ordi
nary village based on private land own
ership and private enterprise. Each
individual farmer has his own farm
yard in the village and farm land in
the surrounding area. He is responsible
for his own farm and the products
grown. Almost every private farmer
belongs to one or more marketing co
Oranges For Effort
My last two host families have lived
in a moshava. In Benjamina, the citrus
belt of Israel, my host father had four
acres of pardiss (orange orchards) and
four acres of karem (vineyard) plus
the one acre his home and farm build
ings were on. He raised chickens (both
for eggs and meat) to supplement the
Jaffa oranges, famous the world over,
are grown in this area. It is one of the
chief export products to Europe. Sev
eral large packing houses, owned by
cooperatives, prepare the fruit for ship
ping. A special process of waxing gives
each orange protection against spoilage
during the journey to foreign countries.
An invasion of Mediterranean flies
was giving the citrus growers many
troubles during my stay in Benjamina.
My host father said colder weather and
rain would be the only sure method
of destroying the pests. These 'flies in
jected a stinger into the fruit causing
spoilage after a short period of time.
In Gedera, further south than Ben
jamina, my host father was a member
of a cooperative that grew vegetables.
This cooperative is one of the biggest
land owners in Israel. Cotton, barley,
tomatoes, grapes, onions, cucumbers,
peppers, beets, spinach and numerous
other crops are grown. All these crops
are raised for seed only.
A type of settlement I found most
different was the kibbutz. All property
is collectively owned and work is or
ganized on a collective basis. The mem
bers give their labor and are supplied
in return with housing, food, clothing,
education, culture and social services.
There is a central dining room and
kitchen, communal kindergarten and
children's quarters, communal social
and cultural centers and central stores.
1958 IFYE Delegates
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These three young Montanans have been named to take part In the
summer phase of the International Farm Youth Exchange program,
according to Geraldine G. Fenn, associate state 4-H club leader at Mon
tana State College. Left to right are Robert F. Woodmansey, Highwood;
Esther E. Polette, Florence, and Verle E. Lanier, Billings. Woodmansey
will go to Denmark, Lanier to Japan and Miss Polette to Luxembourg.
They will leave in June and return in November or December.
Ramat Yoehanan is a fairly old kibbutz
and is considered one of the more pros
About one-third of the
annual income comes from poultry. A
herd of 250 dairy cows brings in the next
biggest income. Grapes, grapefruit,
quinces and sheep are other important
Can you imagine an agriculture set
tlement looking somewhat like a sun
flower? Nohalal, a moshav, is laid out
in such a pattern. In a moshav each
farm is worked by the members and
his family, but the produce is sold
through a central cooperative and pur
chases are undertaken cooperatively.
Going back to the shape of the sun
flower—the common store, post office,
dairy, produce center and community
hall make up the very center. Extend
ing out from the center like petqls are
Each farm has 26 acres located di
rectly behind the house. Some farms
are farmed by one family but very
often two families work together. With
such a small acreage very intensive
farming is carried on. Every farm has
a few milk cows and chickens which
are used for home use and also sold
Montana Completes 10th Year
In Youth Exchange Program
MONTANA HAS COMPLETED its
tenth year of participation in the Inter
national Farm Youth Exchange Pro
gram. During that time 27 young Mon
tanans have been sent to visit with
farm families in 21 different countries
in Europe, South America and the Far
In return, Montana has been host to
53 young men and women guests from
24 countries. They have been enter
tained by farm and ranch families in
Following is a list by counties of
families who have been hosts to one or
more exchangees from other countries:
BEAVERHEAD—William Garrison. Glenn; Ray
Forrester, Dillon; Emil Schindler, Jackson;
Robert H. James, Grant; Jack Brenner, Grant.
BIG HORN—Tom Yellowtail, Wyola.
BLAINE—John Kathman, Chinook; Don Mc
Guire, Homeland; E. C. Meyers, Billings; Clar
ence Ritter, Turner; Warren H. Ross, Chinook:
Charles Tilleman, Chinook.
BROADWATER—Sewell Marks, Townsend; Ned
CARBON—Joe V. Ballard, Luther; Vernon
Koskl, Roberts; James O'Shea, Red Lodge;
James Croft, Red Lodge.
CARTER—Ted Bickerdyke, Capitol; J. Oliver
Teigen, Capitol: Ellis Burch, Ekalaka.
CASCADE— R. C. Jonnson, Cascade; Ben Mc
Coy, Belt; George McKamey, Great Falls; C. E.
Smiley, Eden; John Staigmiller, Eden; C. L.
Briggs, Great Falls.
CHOUTEAU—Matt Gasvoda, Big Sandy; C. J.
Lenington, Fort Benton; Hardee Phillips, Wal
at the produce center. The rest of the
farm land is planted with crops accord
ing to the owner's likes and dislikes.
The fourth type of settlement, a mo
shav shitufi, is based on collective
economy and ownership but each family
being responsible for its own domestic
services such as cooking, laundry and
care of children. Work and pay are
adjusted to individual family circum
Similar to Montana
This settlement, Moledeth, reminded
me very much of Montana because dry
land farming is practiced. In this par
ticular section of Israel it is very dry
and water is very scarce. Wheat and
barley are the two main crops.
Being an IFYE to Israel has been an
experience I'll remember all my life.
Some of my hosts couldn't speak Eng
lish and I couldn't speak very much
Hebrew, but I soon found a common
language wasn't necessary. We con
versed, sometimes with sign languages,
and developed wonderful friendships.
I firmly believe world understanding
can be achieved by such programs as
Iffy. It has often been said, "The way
to transmit an idea is to wrap it up in
tham; Ernest Ahrendes, Hlghwood; Harold Gold
ham, Geraldine; George R. Peterson, Waltham;
Roy F. Pegar, Big Sandy; Arnold Engellant,
Geraldine; C. H. King, Fort Benton.
CUSTER—Mrs. Fritz /ook, Miles City; Elmer
T. Brink, Miles City; Bruce Orcutt, Miles City;
Dan Lockie, Sheffield.
DANIELS—James C. Hanrahan, Whitetail;
John F. Lee, Scobey; Milton Fladager, Peerless.
DAWSON—Leon Anderson, Lindsay; Edward
Ekland, Glendive; Harold Hanson, Lindsay;
Clarence Wolff, Lindsay.
DEER LODGE—Don Tavenner, Deer Lodge.
FERGUS—Gail W. Burleigh, Lewistown; Dean
Burnham, Lewistown; I. O. (Crval) Fairbanks,
FLATHEAD— B. W. Carr, Kalispell; Don Clay
pool, Kalispell; Henry Ficken, Kalispell: Floyd
Johnson, Kalispell: Harold Passmore, Creston:
George Wendt, Columbia Falls; Charles Jellison,
GALLATIN— AI Nikles, Bozeman; J. E. Nor
ton, Bozeman; E. P. Orcutt, Bozeman; W. Ora
Olson, Bozeman; Louis Reichman, Wilsall;
Walter Storey, Belgrade.
GLACIER—Tom Harwood, Valier; John Quist,
GRANITE—Howard Lord, Philipsburg; Fred
HILL—Stuart Herron, Havre; Wilfred Tow»
Laredo; Norton Johnson, Kremlin.
JEFFERSON—Donald D. Powell, Cardwell.
LAKE—Clarence Bick, Ronan; B. F. Johnson,
Jr., Ronan; Clarence E. Savik. Ronan; John
Unger, Poison; Richard Lcnsman, St. Ignatius;
Ralph G:pe, Poison.
LEWIS AND CLARK—Tom Herrin, Helena;
Norman Chevallier, Canyon Creek.
LIBERTY—John W. Duncan, Joplin.
MADISON—Donald L. Clark, Ennis; Peter V.
Jackson, III, Norris; Charles Miller, Silver
Star; J. C. Jackson, Harrison.
McCONE—Phillip Haglund, Brockway; John
Haglund, Brockway; David James, Circle.
MEAGHER— Olaf Brckke, Bozeman; Ross
MISSOULA—Otto Benson, Missoula; Roy Han
dley, Clinton; Victor Loiselle, Missoula; Matt
Pomajevich, Missoula; Kenneth Richardson, Mis
soula; R. H. Richardson, Missoula; Boy Wills,
MUSSELSHELL—Herbert C. Hougardy, Round
op; Clarence Lindstrand, Roundup.
PARK—Chris Karell. Livingston; B, T. Lovely,
Livingston; Warren Pepper, Wilsall; Mrs. Aus
tin Swandal, Wilsall.
PHILLIPS—Charles G. Barnard, Regina.
PONDERA—J. H. Arnst, Valier; Fred Bills,
Dnpuyer; LaVern Keil, Conrad; John Kiel,
Ledger; Fred C. Nickol, Ledger; E. H. Orcutt,
Ledger; David Ratzburg, Ledger: Frank Hughes,
POWDER RIVER—Randolph Deibel, Olive.
PRAIRIE—Fred J. Sackman, Marsh; David
RAVALLI—Walter Polette, Florence; Morris
A. Strange, Stevensvifle; Charles Thomas, Ham
ilton; George Vogt, Sola.
RICHLAND—Asa Bradley, Crane; Arthur S.
Miller, Sidney; Soren Nelson, Sidney.
ROOSEVELT—Jerome Friedenbach, Brockton:
John Simard, Bainville.
ROSEBUD—John Barringer, Hathaway; Sivert
Mysse, Jr., Ingomar; William Lockie, Rosebud;
Art C. Mees, Forsyth.
SANDERS—William Cole, Plains; Mrs. George
Relterline, San Bernardino, Calif, (formerly of
SHERIDAN—Carl Lacrsen, (moved to Iowa);
George Lund, Reserve; Mike Nathe, Redstone:
Mr. T. S. Nelson, Antelope: Alfred Tange, Bed
SILVER BOW—Henry D. Horton, Butte.
STILLWATER—Webster Kellar, Fishtail; John
Leuthold. Molt; John Mohr, Park City: Sid
Fraser, Reed Poidt.
TETON—C. O. Juelfs, Dutton: Mrs. Bessie
Silberman, Collins (formerly Mrs. Requiam);
Jesse Malone, Choteau.
TOOLE—Ole Enneberg, Cut Bank; Karl M.
Nutter, Sunburst; Clarence D. Stoltz, Sunburst.
TREASURE—Robert Cunningham, Hysham.
VALLEY—Frank Ferrin. Glasgow; Ollie Heik
ens, Nashua: August J. Hentz, Hinsdale; John
Wesen, Glasgow; Walter Furhman, Opheim,
WHEATLAND—John Miller, Twodot.
YELLOWSTONE—Alvin W. Hageman, Broad
view; George Lackman, Billings; Adolph Len
hardt, Sr., Billings; Theimer Mosdal, Broad
view; D. F. Cleveland, Ballantine.
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