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AL b V, HlSTORl OF MONTANA HELENA 0 A A April 1, 1959 mm : mm 5 : m IV i x - ■: mM V PROGRESS IN THE field of chemical weed control has been fantastic during the past 10 or 15 years. Many new chemicals and weed control techniques have been developed to help farmers control weeds. Now one farmer using 2,4-D can replace 3,000 hoe-wielding farm hands. This spectacular advancement in weed control began with the development of 2,4-D. We can expect greater advancements in the future. Experi ment station workers have tested many new chemicals. Some of these have looked very promising for use in Montana. However, farmers should test these under local conditions before using them on any large scale field basis. The sug gestions included in this article should not be taken as "tried and true" recommendations. Randox and simazine are two recently marketed chemicals. They are both pre-emergence weed killers that have shown up well for controlling annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in corn. These chemicals have been tested in the Bozeman, Sidney, Moccasin, Creston, Havre and Billings areas. They should be applied at or soon after planting time before weeds emerge. These materials do not affect weeds after they emerge through the ground. For best results with randox or simazine, it is well that temperatures be fairly warm and there be enough moisture to get good weed germination. Both compounds are absorbed through the roots and kill weed seedlings soon after ger mination. They are selective and do not affect the corn plant. Both of these chemicals may be applied as an over-all broadcast spray or in bands directly over the rows. Band treatments will reduce the amount of chemical needed 60 per cent or more. Randox should be used at between 4 and 6 pounds per acre of area sprayed and simazine between 2 and 3 pounds per acre. These rates are based on active material. Simazine is a 50 per cent wettable powder and Randox is a liquid containing 47.7 per cent active material (4 pounds per gallon). . Simazine appears very selective for weed control in corn; however, its residual affect in the soil on following crops m m & • .«a I -X ■ ot \ mm •* : x. £/ '■ ED CONTROL : MONTANA TE$« SHOW PROMISE IN É I Wm m By EUGENE HEIKES, Extension Weed Specialist m D A A A « such as small grains, sugar beets, flax, etc. is still unknown in Montana. Vegedex is another new product. It is similar to randox in its heribicidal action. It is also applied pre-emergence and is primarily active against germinating seeds—mainly annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. It has been used mainly on horticultural crops in areas of higher moisture. It is a liquid containing 4 pounds active material per acre. EPTC or eptam is another new pre-emergence selective weed chemical. This chemical (Continued on page 19) What can we predict in the development of new weed chemicals for the future? Research work is being directed along some of the following ideas: 1. Herbicides that are specific for control of par ticular perennial weeds. 2. Chemicals that will stimulate germination. This would help to control weeds that may nor mally remain dormant in the soil for periods of time. 3. Chemicals that are more selective with a high degree of tolerance for specific crops. Simazine is this type of chemical. It is very selective for weed control in corn but is injurious to most other crops. 4. Soil sterilizing chemicals with a shorter resi dual life in the soil that will kill weed seeds and weed plants. Vapam is a chemical of this kind. Vapam is a soil fumigant commonly used for prep aration of lawn seedbeds and flower beds. It kills germinating weed seeds and weeds already up. It has been said that a pebble can start an ava lanche. 2,4-D was the pebble; the avalanche in the development of weed control chemicals is just get ting started.. ■ f V This picture shows how effective the chemical simazine can be for band treatment of corn. The chemical is applied in a band over the row at the time of planting. Band treatment reduces the amount of chemical needed 60 per cent or more. It is a simple matter to cultivate out the weeds between the rows.