Search America's historic newspaper pages from 1789-1963 or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the
National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress. external link Learn more
Image provided by: Montana Historical Society; Helena, MT
Newspaper Page Text
, MONTANA'S FARMERS on dryland can grow more forage per acre with corn. The use of corn with longer maturity dates has made it possible to produce more adequate fèed for livestock dryland. Corn varieties with maturity dates of 90 to 110 and 110 to 140 days have produced higher yields because of their ability to produce more leaf and stalk. Perhaps this is associated with hybrid vigor. Only hybrids have been used in the trials listed. on Average yields of green com up until the advent of hybrids was about 5,000 pounds per acre on summer fallow. After the use of hybrid com, with long er maturity dates, there was an im mediate increase to about 10,000 pounds plus per acre. The importance of this yield cannot be appreciated until ranchers see how effective silage can be as a winter supplement for beef cattle and how useful it becomes in a ranch operation. The use of silage presents a radical change in the accepted method of win tering cattle. It can be a cheaper, more effective system, as it more near ly duplicates the use of green feed the year around. The use of silage provides unmeasured values in livestock feed ing, such as thriftiness, ease of calving, increased milk flow, more gain on calves, and cheapness of operation when properly organized. Also, the additional advantage of silage is that it can be stored in large quantities for a reserve that does not depreciate materially in value in storage. The Montana Experiment Station at ♦Claude Windecker is superintend ent of the North Montana Branch Station at Havre and Gordon Geese man is assistant in agronomy. THU*APR 1A WED APR 15 FRF APR 17 .SAT APR 18 n CÇ5.ÔL* £ m cool « • c • • o p k •4 V-; •im JL A .VERY OÔÔI OOL % »« 0.0 « o • • • • "A '// w TUE APR 2Î SUN APR TO WED APR M MON APR 20 * VBR£ WARM April 13 to May 2 «Kess WARM By Oscar L, Moldenhauet NUMEROUS DAYS WITH light rain or snow are indicated for Montana and northern Wyoming through May 1st. Although the quantity of precipi tation may not always be significant there will be frequent delays in field work due to adverse weather. We expect a gradual decline in the intensity and frequency of the main storms from now on, leaving mostly minor dis turbances to cross this region. However, the arrival of May should bring a northward shift in the southern weather patterns. This in turn will eventu ally give Montana and Wyoming, east of the continental divide, a larger share of the available moisture. A few cold nights are likely between April 15th and 24th. They will tend to retard plant growth and pastures and may also be unfavorable for young livestock. A noticeable increase in the ratio of warm weather is due about April 25th which should reduce the chances of killing frosts. The frost season is expected to end a little earlier than usual this year. Following are the average dates of last killing frost in the spring for some representative states: Montana—Miles City, April 30; Helena, May 2; Kalispell, May 5; Havre, May 11; Billings, May 15 and Poplar, May 16. Wyoming—Sheridan, May 15, Cody, May 17, Lander, May 18 and Lusk, May 26. Precipitation and Températures: Average about normal. Vp Ä ■WARM WARM i APR 54 SUN APR 26 _SAT APR 25 THU APR 23 « • OtfERY COQ1 \ VERY \COOL & I» % • • * • £ • • ^>VERYe f\W£ MON APR 27 I» • ARM • », WED APR Ï9 TUE APR 78 THU APR 30 EM? 7?iWARH • • 0 • 0 Coi$l v* • • V • COOL WARM • « • • e o t V . ♦ ■ v.\l COOL ARM WARM 1EGEND FRF MAY V SAT MAY 9 J Show*«; lettered op * » .*1 «pony precipitation. JT] Snowstorm; moderet, to hoavy snowfall. Major storm? hoavy precipitation. TJ Storni, ganaral I I precipitation. COOL i'4: These miniature weather maps are designed to give yon a quick, easy-to read forecast of approximately when certain kinds of weather may occur, but the actual occurrence may be occasionally as much as two or three days early or late. With these variations, the map forecast should prove correct at least three times out of four. Light to medarat* rrrjSnow showors, of " light rain and snow. mAMH COOL □ Substantial showof Dry woathar indicated. activity; widespread. i APRIL Later Maturing Hybrid Com Produces Maximum Forage Per Acre on Dryland . . By GORDON GEESEMAN and CLAUDE WINDECKER* TABLE 1—TONS OF SILAGE PER ACRE Maturity Date 80-90 1955 5 ton 1957 1.5/A. 1957 Maturity Date 90-110 1955 6.5 ton 2.3/A. 1958 5.4 1955 8.4 1957 2.5 1958 6.6 1955 8.7 1957 3.3 1958 6.0 Maturity 110-140 6.4 ton 2.1/A. Plants per acre 5,000 Approx. 2.5 lb. seed per acre 10,000 Approx. 5 lbs. seed per acre 15,000 Approx 10 lbs. Date 1955 1957 1958 1955 1957 1958 1955 1957 1958 not included because a poor location of trials results in too great variation due to soil variations. 1958 2.7 6.1 1955 7.8 8.8 1957 2.7 2.7 1958 6.1 3.7 1955 9.8 7.6 2.6 1957 2.4 seed per acre * 1956 yields were 1958 6.3 4.8 Havre has found that corn has pro duced the highest total digestible nutri ents per acre of the grain crops used for forage or silage. This could also include legumes used for hay or silage under dryland conditions. The station workers have concerned themselves with determining the num ber of plants per acre, maturity dates, varieties and seeding dates that might give the greatest tonnage of silage per acre. These results were obtained with checkrowed corn using 36-inch spacing in 36-inch row width. One plant per hill provides a stand of 5,000 plants per acre. Two plants per hill provides 10,000 plants per acre and three plants for 15,000 plants per acre. If a drilled planting was used, the 10,000 plants per acre would place the plants about 18 inches apart in the row; 15,000 plants per acre, 12 inches apart; 20,000 plants, 9 inches apart. The population and maturity date table gives a comparison that almost anyone can use in determining the better population and maturity dates to use. These trials were all on clean summerfallow. The annual rainfall for 1955 was 14.69 inches; 1956, 9.6; 1957, 10.91 inches, and 1958, 8.92 inches, which explains the variation in yield. ♦This figure considered to be an error. The results of this study indicate that corn, with a maturity date of 90 to 110 days can be expected to produce the highest economic yield and that the population per acre should be at least 10,000 plants per acre and not over 15,000 plants per acre on dryland receiving approximately 11 inches of moisture. Every attempt should be made to get corn into the silo just before frost, and, in case of drouth, before any serious drying of plants occur. In 1956 a trial with different rates of fertilizer on rates of seeding gave some significant yields and might be a guide to applying nitrogen to corn. TABLE 2—FERTILIZER TESTS Lbs. of Nitrogen Tons/A 5.56 5.84 9.53* Check 6.46 6.60 6.69 7.49 Check 5.27 Plants/Acre 15,000 . 60 40 20 10,000 60 40 20 5,000 6.41 60 40 6.01 20 6.8i Check 6.46 In the same year another trial with out fertilizer and testing maturity dates with a population of 15,000 plants per acre gave the following results. Maturity 140 days 100 days 80 days It is evident that the response to nitrogen fertilizers was greatest on the heavier rates of seeding and that the 20-pound rate of nitrogen was about optimum. Fertilizer responses are like Tons/A 10.6 9.94 4.65 ly to vary considerably from year to year in a dryland area. It is interesting to note that continu ous corn on spring plowing will yield 6 per cent more than oat hay on fal low. Corn on fallow yields 36 per cent more than corn on spring plowed wheat stubble. Continuous oat hay will only yield 56 per cent of oats on fallow and a large percentage of this is weeds. Some ranch operators would like to use corn before wheat, in order to keep the ground free of weeds. Using com as a tillage practice to control weeds has resulted in a yield of wheat about 82 per cent of the average of summer fallow yields when the crop ping system is corn on spring plowed wheat ground. Explained another way, yields of 4 to 10 tons of silage can be expected followed by a wheat crop of 82 per cent of the average yield on fallow. We understand this is a com mon practice on livestock, wheat farms in western North Dakota. The final question in corn production is the date of seeding. After numerous trials, the most tonnage has always been secured when the seeding date has been between May 10 and 20. Ap plying a few of the principles learned throughout these trials, anyone can make corn grow successfully under Montana dryland conditions.