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Of Irrigation (Continued from page 6) pump capacity should be designed to balance the power available for most efficient ooeration. Of course, the limit ing factor, -/hether it be water supply, number of acres of irrigable land, or the power unit, will govern the entire plan. Attention should be given to pre vailing winds, both as to direction and velocity. The designer will be able to specify the sprinkler heads and op erating pressure so as to minimize the disturbing effect of wind. A high pres sure and a large capacity nozzle are least affected by the wind. Data per taining to temperatures and rainfall - -- - Angus cows ore not mothered wi SNOWBURNED UDDERS! H f i : ■ ■■ .. : : ÿ a . :ii .. ' a? '■Vf- ' ' : I m ■ ■ ■ ; sm ■ ism - * V.; mm ■ ' I j mfëê. ■■■■■■ ä il I: U IJ >■: * . > , - •: ' m m Pi m m p ÜI I i 1 m ■ wm MM % m Mm W ■ : Æ'. m ■M >* ■ ■' ' .5 i mi % ■M m in doctoring, but also save the time and trouble of milking out cows with sore udders. Calves grow bigger, too Calves that can suck every day without missing stay healthier and grow bigger. It's just an other reason why you can proßt more with Angus cows. Remember, Angus cows give more milk than most, too—another reason why Angus calves weigh more at weaning. Buy commercial Angus cows There are many good Angus cows or heifers available in your area. Or you can breed your herd black by crossbreeding your cows with naturally-hornless Angus bulls. Not only will you prevent these costly udder troubles, but you also improve the beef type of your herd and breed the horns off at the same time. Be ahead ! Breed Blacks! Block skin prevents sunburn Many cows have severe trouble with sunburned or snowburned udders during late spring snows. But not Angus. Why? Because the black skinned udders of Angus cows do not sunburn enabling Angus calves to suck regardless of weather. Calves suck without trouble Sunburned or wind-chapped udders and sore teats cause cows to kick off the calves. Fre quently calves can't suck light-skinned cows for several days. This causes a severe setback be cause calves don't get the nourishing milk they need for life and growth, Soves work! Saves doctoring! Some cattlemen have to doctor more than half of their light-skinned cows due to sunburned udders, whereas Angus cows on an adjoining ranch will have no udder trouble. Not only do Angus cows save the work and money involved American Angus Association 3201 Frederick Blvd., St - . Joseph, Missouri m ere also important, since they deter mine in a large measure the frequency of irrigation and, therefore, the ca pacity required to cover the desired acreage. Principles of Design The following general principles of design should be followed, keeping in mind that a balanced design is the most economical and efficient to operate. By this, it is meant that the capacity of the system should be sufficient to sup ply the needs of the irrigated area at peak demand. This capacity should also be equaled by the capacity of the pump and by the available water sup ply. Regarding the operating pressure, it is a "rule of thumb" that the capacity of the pipe should be such that the drop in pressure in the lateral should not exceed 20 per cent of the avail able pressure at the first sprinkler. Lateral lines should not run uphill but should be laid on the contour, or, slightly downhill if convenient, on a grade in order to maintain uniform pressure in the entire, line. If the available water supply will permit, the capacity of the system should provide a minimum of 7 gallons per minute per acre, and for econom ical design should not exceed 8 to 10 g.p.m. per acre. The 7 g.p.m. is suf ficient to apply a 1-inch irrigation to acre of land each week by operating 12 hours per day for 6 days each week, or by operating 15 hours per day for 5 days a week. This allows for an application efficiency of about 90 per cent which covers evaporation an losses. Uneven application due t© wind would tend to reduce the efficiency and allowance should be made for such conditions, In trying to keep down the initial cost, operating head should not be sacrificed for size of pipe. A 3-inch pipe carries more than double the amount of a 2-inch pipe and with less friction, Generally speaking, a sprinkler sys tern will give satisfactory service only when designed to suit the field condi tions under which it will be operated, The saving of a few dollars by using pipe of too small a diameter may re suit in such a high operating cost that the system becomes economically not profitable. A reliable dealer who plans to stay in business in the community is much less likely to use high pres- sure when making the sale. Efficient Use of Irrigation Water (Continued from page 8) not lose sight of the fact that the timing of irrigation is of vital importance. Always Available Prize cattle are not raised by giving them a certain number of gallons of water to drink per year or by watering them at fixed intervals—perhaps giving them more water than they can drink one week and letting them suffer for lack of water the next week. Water must be available to them at all times and they determine the amount of water they need, depending on the temperature. The same principle ap plies to plants. Therefore irrigations should be based on the amount of available moisture in the root zone and not on the calendar or some other criteria. It has been amply demonstrated that yields can be increased by a higher rate of fertilization provided water is not a limiting factor. In other words, buying extra fertilizer is a waste of money if the soil is permitted to dry out at times during the growing season. On the other hand, excessive irrigation prevents root aeration and leaches out plant nutrients. Not only irrigation but controlled irrigation is essential to avoid either of these extremes and in sure efficient use of fertilizer and maxi mum yields. Three Essentials Control of irrigation affords three essentials to all plant life — moisture, nutrients and air. Knowing when to irrigate is just as important as knowing how to irrigate, since too early or too late irrigation can make a difference in crop growth. One good way to tell when to irri gate is to use the squeeze test. This is done by using a soil auger to sample each foot of soil in the root zone. When soil of medium texture remains somewhat crumbly and will not hold together after squeezing firmly with the hand, it indicates that only one-half or less of the available moisture re mains. When the soil forms a ball that will slick" slightly with pressure, it has a good degree of moisture and about one-half to three-fourths of the n available moisture remains. Soil that forms a ball, is pliable and slicks 99 readily, rates excellent in moisture and indicates that the avail able moisture remaining is from three fourths to field capacity. If free water can be squeezed out of the sample, the soil is wet and above field capacity. When one-half or less of the available moisture remains, the field should be Irrigated rather, soon and completely before plants show visible signs of drought.