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J OF MONTANA HELENA October 1, I960 W2 Pp F. m / m m. % m m y. % mk w W/Ä There's Farming to Be Done in the Fall & i .t W ; T: ¥ [v Itpf&k v >0 M ' ' V T j T If 1 f .ÿ $ 0 - /■ :h W w : ''&?:■ ■ Jr mpm % W&r. MÊÊ ■ WS ; ■ |p| m ,wu jay y §U» mem 5-,i VS Éi« V - ; ■' •v > jHWl Fall applications of high rates of 2,4-D amine are especially effective against leafy spurge, Russian knapweed, whitetop and toadflax. >/ . ' V Controlliiifif Weeds — By EUGENE HEIKES FALL IS NOT the season usually associated with chemi cal weed control, but some hard-to-kill perennial weeds are easier killed when treated in the fall. Several chemical treatments for control of such weeds as leafy spurge, Russian knapweed, whitetop and toadflax, are effective when made in late fall. These weeds are al most resistant to normal rates of 2,D-D when treated in the spring or during the growing season. At this time 2,4-D will give some degree of top-kill but usually the weeds will emerge again the following spring and show little effect from the previous year's treatment. High rates of 2,4-D amine applied in late fall have given 90 per cent kill or better of the four weeds mentioned above. Fifty pounds of the basic 2,4-D per acre are recommended. This would be 12V2 gallons of a 4-pound-per-gallon 2,4-D material. Thirty pounds per acre have been enough for whitetop. more October Treatment The treatment should be made in late October, just before the soil freezes. At this time, soil bacterial action is less and there is more chance of moisture to take the chemical into the soil. The 2,4-D moves through the soil, coming in direct contact with the weed roots. Best results have been obtained when there is little vegetation and the 2,4-D solution can be applied directly to the soil, such as in summerfallow. It is also well to use a high volume of water—160 gallons of water per acre, or more. This type of treatment will sterilize the soil until about the middle of June the following season, or until the soil warms. It does not kill most native grasses. This treatment may sound unreasonably high in cost. It is expensive, but cheaper than other forms of soil sterilants and does not sterilize the soil for any long period of time. The 2,4-D amine costs about 75 cents per pound of parent material. This makes the cost for chemical about $37.50 per acre. The usual soil sterilants cost between $150 and $250 per acre and render the soil unproductive for two years or more. ... A 2,3,6-TBA treatment has given a higher percentage kill of these weeds than the 2,4-D treatment mentioned. TBA is more expensive but, for spot treatments or small areas, it may be better to use than 2,4-D even though the cost is high . The chemical, 2,3,6-TBA, is sold under several trade names in Montana. It, too, can be applied in the fall, or when ever moisure can be expected. It may be applied in early spring also. (Continued on page 14) er NORTHERN WYOMING AND MONTANA COVERS tr-i. ■ w Applying Fertilizer By ARTHUR F. SHAW I PLANS FOR SPRING should begin in the fall. And a good place to begin in the fall is with soil sampling. A representa tive sample from a field may be obtained with a soil probe or a spade. When using a spade take a thin slice of soil to a depth of 5 to 6 inches. Put this in a bucket and repeat in 10 to 15 places over the field. Mix the soil well and take out a 1-pound coffee can full. Take this to your county extension agent and fill out a ques tionnaire and have the sample submitted to the laboratory for analysis. A small fee is charged for this service but it is worth it. And don't wait until spring. Do it now. I was reminded of fall fertilization when watching a com mercial operator apply liquid phosphoric acid with soil injec tion equipment. His machine was equipped with a 30-foot boom and applicator shoes, allowing him to cover a large acreage in a day's time. The owner of the land that was being treated has learned from experience that it pays to fertilize heavily for sugar beets and alfalfa. With fall phos phate applications he is able to get his land prepared for early seeding. Apply and Plow Many farmers now own broadcast spreaders and can apply the dry pelleted forms of phosphate fertilizer. Apply the phosphate and then plow down. There is no danger of loss of nutrients from leaching. It has been estimated that two-thirds of our irrigated soils are low in available phosphorus. Unless you have been fol lowing a good fertilization program, chances are your soils are low. For highest production as well as for improved quality of the hay, alfalfa needs a high level of phosphoric acid. That's nearly 300 pounds of (continued on page 14) « ii mß % i *■: 'I f ii s *> : ■ij : \ L g HAVE YOU HAD A SOIL TEST ? ASK ABOUT IT HERE 4 » 9 * *■' i •J. H y 44 J IÎM k 'F ■ TA Kf ONf :: 4 ¥ I m ÜÜ 1 mm m % I I .V •v J I... : L t 4 . 4m 4: 4 ■ 4: : \ !• : '4' ' , 4-' y 13 I mb 4 I H î ■■■■ ■ I -4 0 mimm '■4 -J £ ■y : 4 4 ■> i : 4 4 M4 M ! I 44 f r iüii —. mi ... - iW ■M m •• if y. $044: 4 £ m4 * ii M: WÊ C m myy y ! i; * Ï i % #■ 4 % Ol ilF k I U / , ■ .>■ ■ 5 . ß; £3 Î gttit V s < i i 0 * I! i. f *> ass : ■ 8 ii < r ■ Si •:*»■ 'i Walt Mauritson, Flathead County Extension agent, shows a display of soil testing equipment and methods as used in his county fertility pro gram. For advice and assistance in taking soil samples, see your county agent.