Opportunity for Democratic Action
"IT'S UP TO YOU—the citizen—leaders
of a democracy—to set the future course
of your society. It's up to you to face the
major challenges of our times and to reach
your own decisions about the wisest ways
to meet these challenges. Once you have
made up your mind, it is up to you to work
for what you believe in. This is the way
things get done in a democracy."
With these words Montana State College
introduces its new Vital Issues program
which is now being pushed vigorously
throughout the state by the Extension
Designed to encourage Montana citizens
to give serious and constructive considera
tion to important public problems, this new
program can become a dynamic influence
for better government and greater progress
The intention of the College is to en
courage the development of discussion
groups in every community of the state.
Background information regarding these
Vital Issues is provided for use of such
groups along with simple suggestions as to
When the Experts Disagree
A MIDWESTERN FARM paper con
ducts an interesting department in which
farm management experts give their an
swers to timely problems confronting prac
tical farm and ranch operators. Comprising
the panel of authorities are two college econ
omists and three bankers. The answers
given by the panel members are definite
and usually informative.
But, almost invariably, the panel mem
bers disagree as to the course the farmers
should follow. The advice of one is quite
frequently contrary to the advice given by
Sometimes three out of the five will
take one position while the others take an
other. On other occasions they all seem to
"ride off" in different directions.
Here is one of the recent questions: "I
have 80 choice steers weighing 750-800
pounds on grass. Should I sell them off
grass or full feed them?"
And here are the answers: (1) Sell them
unless you have unusable grain and for
age; (2) split your risk, sell half and feed
out half; (3) feed them out if you can afford
to take $4 a hundred less than they will
bring as feeders; (4) finish them out to 1,
A New Technique in Tenderizing
A NEW METHOD OF enzyme injection
for tenderizing meat gives promise of
sharply increasing consumer demand for
beef. While this simple technique was de
veloped by research scientists a compara
tively short time ago, it has already brought
encouraging results in extensive market
tests. It has been found that consumers im
mediately notice the marked improvement
particularly in the cheaper cuts of meat so
treated. Test stores selling the new product
have experienced a sharp increase in sales.
The technique as described in Herrell
DeGraff's new book, "Beef Production and
Distribution," is extremely simple: "A nat
ural food enzyme preparation is injected
how discussion groups can be started and
The following subjects are suggested for
this first series of informal discussions:
1. Education—what goals for Montana?
2. How can Montana grow?
3. Welfare in Montana—what needs?
4. What do we expect from Govern
5. How should Montana finance public
6. What can Montana afford?
The basic objective, fundamental to
sound democratic action and good govern
ment, is an informed public. Informal dis
cussion has the effect of stimulating thought
and developing a better understanding of
Success of this worthy endeavor will de
pend upon the extent to which you and your
neighbors take an active interest in for -
ing and attending these interesting inf on
For detailed information, see your Coun
ty Extension Agent.
000-1,050 pounds; (5) full feed them for 90
to 120 days.
Another interesting question tackled by
this panel of experts was: "Debt on my 320
acre farm is $16,000 payable in 20 annual
installments at 6 per cent interest. I need
the adjoining 160, for sale at $300 an acre.
Can I afford to go into debt for the full pur
chase price on the same kind of a loan?"
Here are the answers to that question:
(1) It's a long shot and I wouldn't risk it;
(2) if that is the going price for the land, you
probably can pay it off in 20 years; (3) no,
unless you have other reserves—there are
better $48,000 investments; (4) yes, provided
you don't need to buy much additional
equipment; (5) risk would be great—you
would have to net $26 an acre just to pay
interest, principal and taxes on the 160.
All of which demonstrates that even
recognized authorities disagree on compara
tively simple questions. As far as the pro
ducer is concerned, it suggests that if ad
vice is needed, it is best to consult more
than one expert. And after the consulta
tions are finished, the farmer still has to
depend on his own common sense in de
ciding whose advice to follow.
into the blood stream of an animal a speci
fied length of time before slaughter. This
material soon circulates throughout the
"The number of blood capillaries and
volume of blood is naturally greatest in the
muscles that are most used and that con
sequently are toughest. The enzyme mov
ing through the blood stream affects the
tough muscles of the carcass in greater de
gree than it does the more tender muscles
■—thus having a differential tenderizing ef
fect in precisely the desired direction.
"The enzyme remains in the meat after
slaughter but does not exert its tenderizing
influence until the meat has been brought
to cooking temperature in final prepara
tion for the table. This is the point on which
this company's research has achieved a sig
nificant break-through. The enzyme frac
tion that is used is one that operates—that
is, exerts its tenderizing influence—only be
tween temperatures of 120 degrees and 170
degrees Fahrenheit. This means that the
meat can move the chan
nels of trade and requires no special han
This new method which gives promise
of coming into general use is of particular
interest to Montana and Wyoming feeders.
enzyme, tenderizing should fur
ther increase the already improving market
demand for the kind of short-fed beef for
which most of our feedlot operations are
It is one more example of the impor
tance of scientific research in broadening
markets for farm and ranch products.
jotkaiû^ in tla ÙJâhcI ^=
Rural communities are being trans
formed. Farm and non-farm families, in
cluding the people in small towns and sub
urban areas, "increasingly work, play, wor
ship and study together." Perhaps from this
closer association of town, city and country
people will come a better all-around under
standing of the "farm problem."
* ♦ ♦
Don't expect either presidential candi
date to be specific to what he in
tends to do about the farm program. There
will be lots of talk about objectives, inten
tions to raise farm prices and other gen
eralities. But both candidates will shy away
from specific statements about just how
they will proceed if elected. And whatever
they might promise, Congress will probably
call the real turn.
"There's a special zest in the academic
life here about. In one week at Montana
State College, the college was host to the
American Legion, Girls State, a session of
the Agricultural Stabilization Committee
men from all the Montana counties, and a
meeting of the school for the blind. A uni
versity here is the cultural center for the
state."—William H. Stringer, in Christian
"Power to produce" is the title of
USDA's 1960 Yearbook of Agriculture. It
tells the dramatic story of the change from
horse operation to the "marvels of pushbut
ton automation." You may be able to secure
a free copy from one of the Montana mem
bers of Congress. Or you can buy a copy
from Superintendent of Documents, Wash
ington 25, D.C. for $2.25.
—COVERS MONTANA AND NORTHERN WYOMING
OFFICE 414 2nd Ave. North. Great Fails. Montana
LESTER COLE. Publisher, DON R. BOSLEY, Associate
Editor: LARRY GILL, Livestock Editor; RAY OZMON.
Field Editor; CASEY ANDERSON. Livestock Field Repre
Department Editors; AMY MARTIN, Rural Hopies Depart
ment; DR. W. W. HAWKINS JR., Veterinary *be phrtmeot;
RALPH D. MERCER. ARTHUR F, SHAW, Soils' and Crops;
ERIC B. WILSON, Farm Mechanics; GILBERT GUSLER.
Market Analyst; OSCAR L. MOLDENHAUER, Weather
Forecast; MONT H. SAUNDERSON. Ranch. Farm Manage
ment; STANLEY W. HOWARD, Irrigation.
LARRY GILL. Advertising Director; EARL STEFFANÏ.
Local Advertising Representative.
Advertising Representatives, Western Farm Paper Unit—
CHICAGO 4, Fred Tool, National Adv. Manager, 28 B.
Jackson; NEW YORK 18, Walter J. Schaff, Manager, 500
Fifth Ave.; SAN FRANCISCO 5, J. J. Mattus, Manager, m
Shat *n Building.
Members of Western Farm Paper Unit, Audit Burean a t
Circulation and Agricultural Publishers Association
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