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for setting up a staff and administering the
Livestock Laws and directives and regula Board adopted by the Livestock Sanitary Extensive Background P r " ^afford holds this post. This native of Buffalo, Mont., worked in nearly all departments of livestock sanitation prior to his appointment to the top position six years ago. He was the meat inspector at Missoula for several years; technical veteri narian at the State office for two years* district deputy state vet at Butte and Mis soula for seven years; he did research at Montana State College for four years, and was assistant state veterinarian for one year. Under Dr. Safford are six district deputy state veterinarians. These are Dr W E Stahl at Missoula. Dr. H. L. Nordell at Great r ails Dr. H. W. Jacobson at Havre, Dr. S. ■*:. Flora at Miles City, Dr. G. M. Wright at Billmgs, and Dr, N. W. Nelson at Butte. . A total of 93 resident deputy state veter inarians assist the six district deputies Nearly all practicing vets in the state re ceive appointments to these positions. In addition, there is a meat inspection division; dairy and milk inspection, with Dr. K. W. Conklin in charge; the diagnos tic laboratory, under Dr. G. A. M. Sharman; brucellosis control, headed by Dr. G. C. Hal ver, who is also the chief deputy state vet erinarian, and the poultry disease control division, under Dr. A. M. Jasmin. . Koutme Duties The usual day-in, day-out activities of this organization aren't particularly exciting. They consist mainly of inspecting packing plants and examining cattle before and aft er slaughter; inspecting dairy farms and milk processing plants and running tests on market milk; inspecting rendering plants; issung licenses to artificial insemi nators; inspecting auction markets; check ing health certificates of animals imported into Montana; diagnosing diseases; prescrib ing treatment, and conducting investiga tions into the cause of livestock losses. But when an emergency arises, the State Veterinarian and his staff have the'power to act decisively, as in the case of the 1914 foot-and-mouth threat. In 1961 anthrax was diagnosed in north eastern Montana. There is an effective vac cine for this disease, but the micro-organ isms that cause it are practically indestruct ible. They can withstand heat, cold, drying and chemicals. They can lie dormant in the soil for years. Dr. Safford tells of a case where a gunny sack was soaked with the blood of a cow that died of anthrax. The sack was buried and after 80 years it still contained viable bacteria. According to Dr. W. W. Hawkins, Jr., au thor of Montana Farmer-Stockman's veter inary column, an epidemic in 1952 in the Midwest was traced to some bonemeat that had been imported from Europe which con tained anthrax spores Prmnnt Action . * ... °" „ A , The situation m northeast Montana de manded immediate action. District deputy state veterinarians, Dr. Flora at Miles City, Dr. Jacobson at Havre and Dr. Halver at Helena, and resident deputies rushed to the area and immediately put it under quarantine. Infected animals were treated and the carcasses of dead animals burned. Exposed animals were vaccinated. In 42 days the epidemic had been brought under control. . The State Veterinarian and his deputies have the authority to enter any premise in the state where dangerous livestock dis eases are suspected. They are empowered with the responsi bility of enforcing the Montana Livestock Laws and taking all reasonable measures as are necessary to control or eliminate livestock diseases. Failure to comply with the official directives of these officials is a misdemeanor. Teeth of the Law This is a comparatively minor offense punishable by a small fine or jail sentence. The real teeth in the law are contained in Section 46-239 which deals with civil li ability. The law states that any person or firm violating any of the provisions and regula tions of the Livestock Laws or orders of the Sanitary Board and State Veterinarian ''shall be liable for all damages" which may be sustained by any person by reason of such acts. Damages can be recovered in court. For example, should a farmer fail to comply with the laws regarding the test ing of dairy cattle for tuberculosis, and a person should contract TB from drinking milk produced on his farm, the farmer could be sued. Tracing the contaminated milk to the farm that produced it isn't particularly difficult. Inspectors merely find out which dairy the person buys milk from, then tests the cows supplying milk to that dairy. Because of our effective disease control programs and sanitation laws, Montanans in Plentywood or Plevna, Glendive or Great Falls, Libby or Lennep, Hardin or Hamil ton, can enjoy a glass of milk without fear of contaminating their systems with deadly bacteria. raw Meat Inspection The same is true of the meat we eat. Ninety-four per cent of the meat sold at retail outlets in Montana is inspected by Federal or State officials. Our State meat inspection regulations are patterned after the Federal regulations, so the meat proc essed at the 15 plants having State inspec tion meets the same rigid sanitation quirements as that processed at our five Federally inspected plants. Many diseases have been conquered through Montana's livestock disease re con tro1 machinery. We were one of the first states to outlaw the use of live virus hog cholera vaccine. Because of this and laws prohibiting the feeding of uncooked garbage and our strict health inspection requirements on imported animals, Mon tana hasn't had a case of hog cholera the P? st tw0 years. Complete elimination of the disease was a 30-year job, and it takes con stant surveillance to keep it out. Sheep scab, which can cause serious losses to our entire sheep industry, hasn't been a problem since 1920. Glanders, a disease that kills both horses and humans, hasn't shown up in 45 years. Minor out breaks of cattle scabies occur occasionally, but for a11 practical purposes, Montana has been free of this disease since 1945. Continuous Job But livestock disease control is like house work—it's never finished. When one disease is conquered, others appear. Today 20 to 30 P er cent of the animals born do not reach market in spite of the advances made in the field of animal health. Red w ater > cattle asthma, anaplasmosis, water belly, atrophic rhinitis and calf scours are just a few of the diseases that ea Lt in ^°o.^ b L e Profits L ve stock producers, ^he ^ate Veterinarian keeps informed on the status of livestock health in Montana through monthly reports sent in by every practicing vet in the State. These reports list the number of specific diseases that have come to their attention, the number 0 f infected herds and the county where the diseases exist. cur Modern Facilities While we don't have the answers to all livestock disease problems yet, we do have the facilities for finding those answers in our new veterinary research and diagnostic laboratories at Bozeman, Whether losses are caused by viral or bacterial infection, parasites, poisons or nutritional deficiencies, we have the skilled technicians and the most modern scientific tools for finding the cause, treatment and eventual cure for animal diseases. By having the research and diagnostic laboratories housed in the same building, researchers can work in close cooperation with diagnosticians, enabling them to keep abreast of current livestock health prob lems in Montana. Diagnostic vets keep on top of the latest research findings on causes, treatment and prevention of spe cific diseases by conferring with their col leagues in the research branch. m i mi i ■ Dr. G. A. M. Sharmon, head of the diagnostic lab, performs an autopsy on a calf. The large table is for restraining and treating live animals. In the background is a cooler used for storing carcasses that are to be examined. Carcasses are burned in a special incinerator designed for that specific purpose. III 1 m J m f Organs and tissues are examined to determine cause of death. Pictured are Dr. Sharmon and Dr. Donald Barns, veterinarian diagnostician. SI: iÄ n mm mü s. m .... Dr. Sharmon injects a mouse with an inoculated culture from the intestinal fluid of a sheep to find out if entrotoxemia was the cause of death. The toxin is identified by neutralizing it with antitoxin. 'fig Ü S:- x "'S W: :■ m 3® «■Î I m Jo Ann Cremer, left, medical technologist, and Clara Eldridge, laboratory assistant, prepare milk cul tures for bacteria counts. From 75 to 140 tests of raw and market milk are made each week to as sure the purity of Montana's milk supply.