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Montana Farming Topics
MARKETING PRACTICES IN CREAMERIES G. L. Martin, Bozeman, Montana. The marketing practices followed by many creameries in Minnesota and Wisconsin might be of value to Montana dairymen. The marketing is concerned chiefly with the buying of the milk and cream from the pro ducers and the marketing, of the fin ished products to the trade. There are two kinds of creamery organizations, the cooperative and the non-cooperative stock company cor : The Business of F arming In the business of farming, BUYING is just as important as RAIS ING and SELLING, and there are three powerful reasons for buying lum ber "TODAY" : Buy lumber because tbe price is right. Lumber is back to normal and it is our belief that, everything considered, there is nothing gained by waiting longer. X*. 4 Buy lumber to protect your investment. Repairs which have been postponed from previous years can now be made at normal costs. Re pairs made when needed often save many times the amount expended. Buy lumber to bring greater returns from your farm.. Lumber is the big item in many improvements which will cut the cpst of hired help, reduce waste, give greater storage, or add to the comfort and convenience of the home—and lumber prices are down where they ought to be. -, Bring your building problems to us. We believe that our busi ness can serve your business to your best interests, and our friendly help and counsel are at your disposal, without obligation. ■* Copeland Lumber. Co. EVERYTHING TO BUILD ANYTHING b!» mm 7b I Springtime Clean-up I. « 4 WIPE OUT THE DUST AND DIRJ ACCUMULATIONS OF YEARS WITH A NEW COAT OF PAINT. GIVE NATURE— YOUR LAWN, TREES AND FLOWERS—AN EVEN BREAK DO YOUR PART WITH PAINT. ' • m. a . SKILLED WORKMANSHIP IN INTERIOR DECORATION. ' • 0 THE BEST STOCK OF WALL PAPER IN THE CITY. WE DO OUR WORK TO PLEASE YOU. ' i Dixon & Dodson : ' ; <f y a 130 West Main Phone 120-J. i porations. As a rule the stock com pany creameries purchase the butter fat from the farmers outright at a price based on a recognized wholesale butter-markets like Chicago or New York. Sometives they will pay the farm butter less a fixt manufacturing charge of from 2 cents to 4 cents per pound. It is the general custom among the cooperative creameries in these states to receive the raw material then manufacture and sell the finished products at the best possible price. At the end of the month the cost of manufacturing and other operating expenses plus a small sinking fund are deducted from the gross returns of sales. The net returns are then prorated among the patrons on the basis of the number of pounds of butterfat delivered. This plan is perfectly fair to all patrons but is not so satisfactory as the more modern plan of paying mar pet price for the cream each day then at the end of the year prorate back to each patron the surplus that may accumulate each month. This plan en ables the farmer to realize on the product that may go into storage for a short period. Cost of Collecting. It is customery for local coopera tive creameries to require the farm er to deliver his milk and cream or to pay the cost of collecting. Farm ers' Bulletin No. 690 shows that re ports from 125 creameries in Wis consin indicate that 71 creameries in clude the cost of collecting in the operating expenses while 54 charged the cost of collecting to the patron. The cost of collecting varied from half a cent to 4.6 cents per pound of butterfat with an average of about 1.7 cents. The patrons of many lo cal creameries in Minnesota have or ganized "rings" of two or more farm ers in which each takes is turn in hauling. This plan gives each mem ber full benefit of a delivered price. At about 20 per cent of the creamer ies, all or a part of the cream is gathered by routes, the average leng th of which is about 23 miles at a cost averaging 2.7 cents per pound of butterfat. In transporting of cream by rail way to 40 centralizing creameries the average express cost is reported to be 1.6 cents per pound of butter fat. However, this does not include the cost to the farmer of getting the cream to tbe railway station which would naturally be about equal to de livering the same cream to a cream ery. ery. : Buying by Grade. A large number of creameries, have recognized the relation of first grade cream to the securing of high grade butter so have tried to encourage the cooling of cream on the farm and to I encourage more frequent deliveries by paying a lower price for off-flavored I second grade cream. Two grades are ; usually employed with a cut from pre vailing market prices of 2 to 5 cents per pound of butterfat on all second grade cream. I; The results from eight creameries that graded the cream and churned the grades separately show an aver * age increase in price of 3. 6 cents per pound, for the butter churned from the first grade cream. This is the only safe and proper way to con duct a creamery in these days of keen competition on the butter markets. Frequency of Payment. There are 811 cooperative cream eries in Minnesota. About 80 per cent of them pay their patrons once a month and 15 per cent twice a month, while the frequency of pay ment varies with others. In Wiscon sin reports from 250 creameries shows 48 per cent paying monthly, 39 per cent paying semi-monthly, and the rest daily or weekly. The more modern way is for the cooperative creamery to pay market price for butterfat daily then at the end of the year apportion the extra dividend to each patron on a patron age basis. The averages are the eli mination of delay in sending out the checks as it is not necessary to wait for returns on the butter then it also gives the manager more range in changing prices to meet competing buyers in the same locality. STATE NO LONGER IS EGG DUMPING GROUND A law enacted at the last session of the legislature, House Bill No. 320, prohibits the sale in Montana af all eggs unfit for food, provides that all eggs from foreign countries must be labeled when offered for sale and all cold storage or preserved eggs shall be marked as such. "With this law in force, Montana no longer will be the dumping ground for bad eggs from other states," says John F. Ware, agent in marketing for the State college extension ser This law places a premium on fresh Montana eggs, protecting the consumer and aiding the farmer who produces eggs. According to Mr. Ware, Chinese eggs have been shipped at times to Montana and sold in competition with the local product. Also eggs that could not be sold in other states because of inspection laws have at times been shipped to Montana. Under House Bill No. 320," says Mr. Ware, "the sale of cold storage and foreign eggs is not prohibited but such eggs must be marked plain ly in order that the consumer ma^ know what he is buying." Section 5 of the new law requires that every retail or wholesale mer chant or person buying or selling.eggs within the state, before offering eggs for sale shall candle the same and when eggs are found to be unfit for food shall not be offered for sale for food purposes. U vice. y> li PRODUCING BIGGER POTATO . CROPS. When a boy or girl in a potato growing club succeeds in raising tub ers at the rate of 300 to 600 bushels per acre, as many of them have done, it is a source of inspiration to other members of the club who are less fortunate, and what is perhaps* of greater importance, an object-lesson to their elderg as to what can be ac complished when the crop is given proper attention. Gravelly or sandy loam soils are generally considered especially well adapted to the production of large crops of potatoes, provided they are well drained and well supplied with plant food. A very light sandy «oil or a «tiff clay soil should be avoided. The ideal soil is one that does not run together with rains, that works easily, is well supplied with humus, and while well drained, is naturally supplied with moisture. Clover and alfalfa are regarded as the best pre paratory crops for potatoes. Potato soils should be plowed as deeply as possible, but always re* member not to turn up more than an inch of the subsoil, the best season to plow. When the land is plowed at this time it should be disked and harrowed as early in the spring as possible to conserve the moisture and to prevent weed gi*owth. Spring-plowed land should be disked immediately, in order to prevent the possible packing of the newly turned soil- In preparing the seed bed spare no pains to put it in good condition. If the crop is planted on land that is poorly prepared no amount of sub sequent remedy the defect. The fall is cultivation will entirely Select that variety that is known to be adapted to the section. Use the best seed obtainable, and if possible make sure that it has been produced from strong, healthy plants that have developed a goodly number of tubers of even marketable size and uniform shape. Before planting, the seed should be disinfected with formalin solution to prevent potato scab. Bet ter yields are obtainable by the use of from 15 to 18 bushels of seed per acre, tho the average for the United States is 8.6 bushels. Cut blocky seed pieces, weighing from 1 to 2 ounces each. After planting keep the surface of the ground loose until the plants ap pear, then deep cultivation should be gin, but as the crop develops shallow tillage is recommended. Insects and diseases should never be allowed to get established, but should be con trolled by suitable fungicides and in secticides such as are described in the bulletin. When the crop is being harvested, a systematic effort should All Work Guaranteed Estimates Furnished P. J. JENSON I The Painter and Decorator I PAINTING, PAPERHANGING, CALCIMINING AND DECORATING Prices Reasonable Phone 885-W I ALMONDINE An elegant preparation for chapped hands, face and lips, or any roughness of the skin. Removes tan and sunburn. Not sticky or greasy. 25c bottle Roecher's Drug Store Phone 327 116 E. Main Prescriptions a Specialty 9 fi : 9 MW a o -Jr- - m The? Best Low Priced Healthful Baking Powder Obtainable Con t ains no Alum * Use it r ^PRICES Phosphate Baking Powder . Mg • , I I I I I I I I I V I j | i I , I 11 ' -<* » a mtKÊÊÊÊÊÊKÊÊÊÊ ^. Write for New Dr Price C ook Book- Its 1 rc( : Frio Baking Pow der Fact <n \ tooo Imlepcndenre Hlvd . i - rr ' ;• U4 ■m., Sv'C...' T : 'aUulii V-:-C --.i r be made to select desirable tubers for next year's seed, PUT CREAM IN NOSE ' AND STOP CATARRH j - j f Tells How To Open Clogged Nos trils and End Head-Colds. r You feel fine in a few moments. Your cold in head or catarrh will be gone Your clogged nostrils will open. The air passages of your, head will clear and you can breathe freely. No more dull ness, headache no hawking, snuffling mucous discharges or dryness; no strug gling for breath at night. Tell your druggist you want a small bottle of Ely's Cream Balm. Apply a little of this fragrant, antiseptic cream in your nostrils, let it penetrate through every "air passage of the head; soothe and heal the swollen, inflamed mucous membrane, and relief comes instantly. It is just what every cold and catarrh sufferer needs. ' Don't stay stuffed-up and 'miserable.' ' ITCHING ECZEMA DRIED RIGHT UP Any breaking out of the skin, even fiery, itching eczema, can be quickly overcome by applying a little Men tho-Sulphur, says a noted skin spec ialist. Because of its germ destroy ing properties, this sulphur prepara tion instantly brings case from skin irritation, soothes and heals the eczema right up and leaves the skin clear and smooth. It never fails to relieve the torment and disfigurement. Sufferers from skin trouble should get a little jar of Mentho-Sulphur from any good druggist an/* use it like a cold cream.