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Life at Fort Pouchette
Was a Constant Routine of Hardships; Trading Post Was Established on Missouri River 1870 - 71 ; Was Harrassed hy Sioux Indians Who Were on the Warpath Most of the Time m BOUT 20 miles below the mouth of A the Musselshell, where Telegraph creek, known in the early days as Pouchette river, empties into the Missouri river, there stood until recent years a half-dismantled adobe chimney, aii that was left of old Fort Pouchette. once one of the liveliest trading posts on the Missouri river. The story of its building, of its stormy life, of the daily perils faced by its adventurous garrison. was told in 1900 by the late Thomas Curry, a pioneer of northern Montana, who died a few years ago after having spent the last two decades of his honor able career in Great Falls. Curry was one of the men who helped to erect and garrison the fort. Curry, in company with a large party of men detailed to erect trading posts at Fort Belknap, Wolf Point and the mouth of the Pouchette, left Fort Buford in 1870, Curry's party starting out on foot for Fort Peck, an overland trip of about 200 miles From Fort Peck the trip was made by the river and the story of this exceedingly arduous Journey and of life at Fort Pouchette is best told in the words of Mr. Curry as follows: "After a few days' rest the various parties which had rendezvoused at Fort Peck started out for their destinations, Our party got the big flat boat ready and started upstream for Pouchette river, The party consisted of Jerome Higbee, William Courtney, William Skelton, George Powell. William Ivey, myself and two scouts, Billy Benair and an Asfein niboine Indian. Sunkawasta (or Good Dog). The trip up the river at this time of the year meant hardship and lots of it, and our expectations were Justified by events. "Our flat boat was loaded with 30 tons of freight for the projected trading post at Pouchette. Attached to the bow was a heavy line 300 feet long by which we pulled the boat along. As it was low water at this time of the year, we were forced to wade nearly every mile of the long way. Close Brush VV 1th Indians "The two scouts followed us. one on each bank of the river, to give timely warning of the approach of any Indian war parties. On one occasion Good Dog discovered a Sioux war party about a mile away and he came running in. howl ing like a coyote begging us to take him across the river out of danger. We sent a boat across and got him and then made a stand on the opposite bank ready to fight. The Indians soon found that we were in a most imprêgnable po sition, and after firing a few harmless shots at us. went away. "Every night as a precaution against surprise. for the country was full of In dians. we selected our camping ground on a wide sandbar, digging a trench in which to sleep. It was a far from com fortable method of getting a night's rest after wading in the cold water some times up to our necks, but safety de manded it. It was growing colder as we advanced and some mornings we had to break the thin ice as we pulled our boat along. "One night about 10 days out, we de elded to take a chance and get one nieht's good comfortable sleep in dry quarters. We selected a dry creek where there was plenty of driftwood, and made our camp. We made a great fire and thoroughly enjoyed the sensation of get ting warmed up and dried out again, During supper we heard a suspicious noise up creek in the timber. As bear tracks were quite thick around there the rest of the men laughed at my sugges tions of something more dangerous, but Ivey and I took our guns and walked up the bank a little way, but discovered nothing. The others Joshed us for our fears and called the place Fort Bear, We never knew until later how near we were to Eternity. "Five days afterward we reached our destination at Pouchette creek and were glad to get any place out of the Mis souri river. Our hardships, however, had Just begun. We had to start in to cut timber for a stockade 20 feet high with block houses on the corners, and within this erect buildings in which to live and of Massaore oim Marias River m 9 6 number of letters appeared in the Montana Post, telling of the clr cumstances. The first two were written from the steamer Cutter which had ac companied the Chippewa Falls, the two constituting what was called the "Idaho Fleet -" (By MRS. M. E. PLASSMANN) OLLOWING the killing of from 10 to 12 men on the Marias in 1865, a F When the Chippewa was impressed in to the service of General Sully, its freight and passengers were transferred to the Cutter which, heavily loaded, neverthe less managed to reach Fort Benton July 14, 1864, where it discharged its passen gers and freight, and its engineer and crew discharged themselves, leaving the boat unable to return down the river that season. It was said the Cutter tied up at the fort but from these letters she seems to have been moored the next spring at the transient town of Ophir below Port Ben ton. After giving an account of the massa cre, the writer from the Cutter gave as the reason for the tragedy that Frank Angevine, one of the men killed, had slain a Blood chief, and the Indians were out for revenge, while another report had it the trouble came about because Char lie Carson, a cousin of the famous Kit Carson, during the trapping season when with two companions near the Missouri had their horses stolen by the Bloods. Going in pursuit, the three men came upon the Indians while they were eating, killed them and regained their horses. The sound of the shooting at the time of the massacre, the letter states, was distinctly heard at Ophir, but the men there, having families, did not dare to leave town, fearing the Indians would attack their wives and children. Was Not a Surprise The attack was not in the nature of a surprise, as the men who were sent up the Marias to fetch the logs already cut went unwillingly, thinking Indians might be in the neighborhood. The first report of the massacre was dated May 26. On July 8 is printed a re port from no less an authority than Neil Howie. He writes : "It appears that some of the Bloods were very saucy and impudent at Ben ton. One bad Indian actually ventured to slap a white man's face and declare he would have a white man's scalp that night. A mountaineer named Bostwlck heard this and also that the inhabitants wished for some one to open the ball. He and his party accordingly shot the redskin and two others, flinging the bodies into the river, the third getting away desperately wounded but he never reached camp.' This story was afterwards denied. It, and the foregoing are given to illustrate how gossip takes form. In trade. It was Christmas before we had these up. In the meantime we built llt tie shelters, four feet high, open at one end so we could crawl in, and Just big enough for two to sleep in. They were put up in a circle with the opening to ward the camp fire in the center, Steamer Was Stranded There "The location of the post was chosen p ecause 0 ( the heavy and plentiful tlm ber in that loca i it y. it was called Tro ver - s point from the stranding of the ste amer Trover there. One night a few years previously, the Trover tied up here for the n ight as the boats did then when tbere wa s no moon. During the dark bours the treacherous current of the Missouri shifted, and when morning broke the Trover was high and dry and the cook had to walk quite a distance to get water enough for breakfast. They stayed there three weeks trying to dig a channel across the point so as to float the boat into the current, but were finally forced to give it up as Impossible, The timber in the stranded Trover was of great assistance to us in building our post, and we utilized much of the old steamer. "After we had been in camp about three weeks a war party of Sioux came in as we were having supper. They ap peared quite friendly and after having something to eat, borrowed a kettle and some hump ribs of buffalo, inviting us to Join them in a 'soldiers' feast.' Of course we were particularly anxious not to offend them and a refusal would have been taken as an insult, so we appeared to accept cheerfully, although the buffalo meat was as fat as soap and not very palatable. "During the feast one of them told us what a flne chance they had of killing us all a few -sleeps' back. We questioned ^em as to how and when and naturally did not Relieve them. They appeared angry a t this and forthwith described the p j ace> an( j it wa s Port Bear at the dry creek They furthermore described just how every man was sitting and the little excursion Ivey and I took. The only thing that saved our lives that night was the fact that the Indians wanted a trad ing post at Pouchette for the winter, otherwise our scalps wouldn't have been worth a rapment's purchase as there was always sufficient temptation for an In dian to kill a white man in order to se cure his gun and scalp, "We finally got the post fixed up in January, 1871. There were no Indians around us to speak of until the middle of January, when 3.000 lodges of Sioux moved in. We had been fortunate enough, some days previously, to kill 11 buffalo, and by good luck had the carcasses hang in S in one of the buildings when the In dians arrived. All of our supplies were soon disposed of in trade, so that we were left with absolutely nothing to eat but nieat; not even salt was left, Eat Poisoned Meat "Owing to the deep snow that winter and so many Indians in camp, we had nothing else to live on. The Indians made a rule among themselves that no hunting should be done except on one day of the week, which they named hunting day. The object was to let the buffalo come close up to camp, as on ac count of the deep snow neither the In dians nor the ponies could have gone far from camp, as they would have starved to death had indiscriminate hunting been permitted. We were always asked to Join them on hunting days, as we were all enthusiastic sportsmen, but the fear of a stray bullet kept us back. The stay of the Indians lasted six weeks and our stock of meat was reduced very low, but still we did not dare take part in the weekly hunt. "Finally the Indians were reduced to such a state that they couldn't spare the usual bone they had been accustomed to bring us. By this time we were begin nlng to feel the pangs of hunger and it was a question of hustle or starve. Final ly we went out about a half mile from the fort and picked up a bear we had poisoned in December. We had seen the Indians frequently cook poisoned wolves, and we tried the same plan, that is by long boiling which takes the poison out both instances there were the mystic three, and white men the heroes. The report continues, and from this point can be credited, "The road from ^he Cutter lay over the Teton, which the party forded, going up the Marias about one a mj a half miles from the Cutter, river bottom here is about 400 yards between stream and bluffs. Near the river is dense underbrush, more scat tered where the men were killed. The bot tom narrows on the side of the river farther on, the bluffs coming right down to the water. They are penetrated by water-worn gorges and gullies affording excellent positions for defense. The bot tom again opens out, and there is not only thick brush here, but a belt of tim ber running close to the river and Just below the road. Turned Wagon About "Not far from this the Indians were encamped at the time of the massacre. The men had gone to escort the train for fear of trouble and had nearly reached the timber, which had been cut some time previously, when they turned around, as was seen by their tracks. They must have seen the Indian camp, for no man would turn a wagon where they did in the narrows, having a fine open spot ahead. Probably the Indians dis covered the whites about as soon as the whites saw the Indians, and while they were getting their ponies the party start ed back for the boat and were overtaken and massacred as before stated. "The Indians were in camp no doubt with the intention of attacking and rob bing a small mule train down the Mis souri and to finish by burning the steam er and killing the crew. They did not expect the men at so late an hour. . . . The Indians killed Burris' horse because it was so lazy. Firing began with a vol ley, and was continuous for fifteen min utes. At the end of the engagement the »» Indians fled hurriedly, an earlier account states, "leaving a large quantity of meat drying and some cooking before the fire." If this is true, it is likely they had been on the Marias for some time—quite long enough for the whites to learn they were in the neighborhood. A large amount of game is not generally killed in a short time, as any hunter will testify, and the Indians would have dried it near where it was killed. In this case, if the hunting was done with the men at shooting, as they were reported to have done at the time of the massacre? When the story of the massacre came to the ears of the Piegans they were badly frightened, as they might well have been. The Bloods, who had committed the outrage were Blackfeet like them what was to prevent from hearing the guns, Ophir selves, and the whites, not being given to discrimination where Indians were concerned, might wreak their vengeance on the guiltless Piegans. They hastened of the meat. We boiled that bear and It tasted good to our famished stomachs and no 111 consequences followed. Had we baked it, it would have killed us all. The Indians were likewise reduced to the extremity of eating poisoned wolves which we had killed during the fall. "Durfee & Peck, the firm for which we were working, were well aware that we must be running short of provisions and supplies, and three times they started out mule trains to our post but every time they were driven in by Sitting Bull. Finally Tom O'Hanlon, who died at Port Belknap in 1899, started out with one Sioux Indian to drive the team, and after many narrow escapes arrived at the post one night about 10 o'clock. There was a happy party in the fort that night, every man sitting up until morning cooking flapjacks and eating them. It was our first square meal in many days. "One day while Joe Butcher and I were sitting in one of the block houses an Indian came in and squatting down beside us after a while began to tell us r: ■ - ■ *4 ■ ■ r A . i '/m. ■ F « a ■ yjt ir* ; m i v v : fW V .0 ' m A mm .. f W . ■ ■■ * i m ■ ■ •• ■■ 0 W- ■ - * It ■ Wm ■ mm & V' IÆ. ■ »■ 9' »IfA < *■*■/*» * i A iUl ?.«*•! H •C A. Ji* —— t. - * >• . -> v ; ■ V ✓ h . " v> ^.v Ihj. - THE RIVER STEAMER TROVER, which tied up one night at Trover Point on the Missouri river and which was left high and dry before morning by t he treacherous current of the ever shifting river. From the lumber cargo in the Trover Mr. Curry's party obtained much material to aid in the construction of old Fort Pouchette. V i.j r>< J AMT —4? I C his troubles with the whites. He was a Santee Sioux, a member of Long Hair's band, and had taken an active part in the Minnesota massacre. He told us a story of frightful barbarity. At one house which they entered on their raid they found all the occupants dead except a baby in the cradle. They took it and after starting a hot fire in the stove, put the live child in the oven and baked it. It seemed to me while the Indian was telling the story that he was suffering from remorse, Just as a white man would after such an act. After he had finished Peck the snow disappeared to some ex tent, allowing the Indians to hunt again and relieving the tension to a great ex tent. About this time Lou Silcott and I quit working by the month and went to chopping wood on Trover's point for which we would get $5 a cord when the | steamboats began running. Although i amateurs at the work, we averaged two 1 cords a day each. We had been at this his story he went to his tepee and brought us some coffee, which he offered in reparation. Attacked by Indians Soon after O'Hanlon returned to Fort to protest their innocence, declaring themselves ready to Join the whites in fighting the Bloods. Go For Reinforcements These, after the massacre, said they would go to Belly river to get reinforce ments, either for their own protec Jon or in order to return and wipe out the few whites at Ophir and Fort Benton. They must have visited the Piegans for they told the latter they had killed 12 whites, and if that did not do they would kill more. They further said that only two or three of the massacred men fought. They shot these, but did not mean to shoot the others. They would take clubs and fight them like squaws. This last boastful remark is not clear, leaving one to put his own construction on it. They certainly did not mean that thgy killed the remainder of the men with clubs, as they were all shot, in some Instances with both bullets and arrows. If it were the whites at Benton and Ophir they intended to fight in this way, would they use clubs alter the manner of squaws, or as if the whites were squaws? Probably the latter. The club has ever been an effective weapon in taming wom ankind. The home of the Bloods is across the line. Instead of hurrying there for re cruits, they very likely felt that safety lay in flight, and it would be well for them not to be caught in United States territory. We shall never know the whole truth of this massacre, there were so many conflicting stories then, near the time of its occurrence, and now with so few liv ing who were in either Port Benton or Ophir when it happened. The story of one who, as a child, saw the corpses of the slain when they were brought into Ophir, and witnessed their burial, has al ready appeared in these columns. Bodies Are Stripped The bodies were all stripped of cloth ing with the exception of the sole negro of the party, who was also the only one scalped, I have never read that any measures were taken to punish the Bloods. Once over the line and under another govern ment, it was useless to attempt their cap ture. Their victims, unceremoniously loaded into a wagon, were brought into Ophir, and buried together in the long trench that was dug for their reception. No coffins could be bought or made, so the bodies were laid to rest wrapped in blankets or robes, and there was little ceremony observed at this last service not rendered the slain. The Inhabitants of Ophir must, for some time after the massacre, have been apprehensive of a return of the Bloods with the promised reinforcements, as they were not so well prepared for de fense in such an event as were those who lived at Port Benton. about three weeks when one morning we ) went to work as usual near the bank of the Missouri. Silcott went down to the river to get a drink. He left his rifle leaning against a stump and mine was against the other. I was busy lopping off the branches of a tree I had felled while he was away, probably about 10 minutes. "When he came back he found that his gun was gone from the stump and indignantly accused me of tricking him. I thought he had mislaid it and while helping him search for it found the im prints of moccasins in the soft ground near the stump. It was evident that an Indian had stolen it while I was busy not a hundred feet away. The fact that it was a needle gun, and unloaded, and that I had a pistol in my belt probably saved our lives. We went immediately to the fort and got another gun and re turned to our work. "For two days we were not molested but during the third day we discovered a party of Sioux crawling upon us Bette Boy Is Home After Stimuli Adveeteres In Riff iae W er le Moroeeo ECUPERATING from a wound and attack of malaria suffered while R an besieged by native forces in ai blockhouse in the mountains of Africa, a Butte and Anaconda boy arrived back home. He is Capt. Walter, Hauser, who was a member of the sul tan of Morocco's Cheriffian troops in the recent warfare with the African tribes men. and who during 1925 saw all of the _ . .. . .. . _ .. Under the name of Maurice Fortnet, the young Montanan, who is a dentist, enlisted in the strange battle forces of all. nations that operated directly under the sultan, Mouley Youssef, and with the adventure and romance of the fighting that held the attention of the world be fore Abd-El-Krim, the Riff chieftain, sur rendered to the forces of the French. French in the mountain warfare that be sides its perils of battle çarried the added dangers of climatic illness. Still showing the effects of the days on the African fighting front, Dr. Hauser ar-: rived recently in New York and came on to Butte to visit his mother, Mrs. Annie Hauser. After four months of fighting against the Riffs, Captain Hauser's service ended when a bullet of one of the sharp-shoot ing natives brought him down in the Bi bane blockhouse of the Moroccans in the district that the Riffians considered the "door to Fez," the capital. Besieged with 50 others for 22 days, while the force was gradually decreased by Riffian bullets and illness. Captain Hauser went through one of the stirring events of the war. Once without food and water for four days, the Bibane garrison, in which Hauser was the only American, held out for 22 days before the tribesmen stormed the fort and took possession. Captain Hauser and his comrades were prisoners for two days before French and fighters of the famous Foreign Legion retook the post. Of the defending force of 51 men, only 19 were unwounded. "The Riffs dug entrenchments and hid in mountain protection around our iso lated place for more than a week before signals to the next blockhouse brought help," Captain Hauser said. "Then planes came over and dropped us ice, for there was no water for us. The aviators also swooped low amid fire from the ground and left Us ammunition, food, medicines and even mall, which went to bolster the ebbing morale of our bunch." The Riffs made a number of attacks and kept up intermittent firing on the blockhouse, according to Captain Hauser. "I was detailed originally as a dental of ficer, but all of my work was giving medi cal attention and later fighting during the siege." It was about a week before the siege was raised that Captain Hauser fell with a Riff bullet through his stomach. He was unable to take part in the flnni fight ing when the tribesmen made a victor ious drive on the Bibane blockhouse. "The Riffs, who were left in charge, paid little attention to us for the two days they were in the blockhouse," Cap tain Hauser said. "Finally the French forces routed the Riffs outside and it proved my last part in the war. Captain Hauser was taken to a hos pital at Haza and then to Fez. There he was decorated with a Moroccan medal by the sultan. Later in 1925 Captain Hauser was transferred to a military hos pital in Prance. The hot days, rain and cold nights, along with his wound, had left him in serious physical condition and he was nine months in hospitals be fore being released. He then'spent close »• to a year at resorts in Europe trying to regain his health. The Montana soldier of fortune has especially high regard for the activities of the French fliers and the Riffian esca drille of Americans under Colonel Sweeney of Spokane, a noted soldier. "The filers removed close to 1,000 wounded and did perilous firing on through the timber and it took only an instant to drop behind stumps and get ready for them. Hardly had we done so before firing began and it was pretty warm while it lasted. "Shortly afterwards Mr. Courtney, who was engaged as clerk, went across Pouch ette creek to get a dry stock of fuel, as each man furnished his own for cooking. He had Just cut it and put it op his shoulder and was in the act of re-cross ing the stream when an Indian Jumped up a few feet behind him and shot him in the back. Courtney was in the act of stepping down when the Indian fired, and the bullet ranged downward and came out a little above the knee on the inside of the leg. We all considered it a fatal wound. The Indian was in the act of cocking the other barrel, when Court ney, wounded as he was, turned on him with the axe and bluffed him off, and then fell. "The shooting aroused the two men at the fort and they sent for us in the tim ber on the point. We carried the wound f troo PS. besides dropping bombs and do valuable reconnaissance work," Cap tain Hauser said. He also relates some . .. . , , , , , „ _ famous skirmishes of the Foreign has^^n the Afr ' can batt A le field f- „ Dr. Hauser was born in Anaconda. He . . . J ^ y ent Anaconda high school for some tim e and graduated from Butte high .. . , . ? uett ® university in Milwaukee study ing dentistry. He completed his work when America entered the World war and was given a captain's commission with the 29th machine gun outfit. In 1921 and 1922 Dr. Hauser was with the Anne ! Morgan French relief unit and worked j in the devastated regions of Prance. Later he returned to the United States and I school in 1914. He later entered Mar was with the Veterans' bureau at Kan sas City, Mo. He returned to Paris in 1923 and later went to Nice, where he practiced dentistry for two years. He enlisted in the Cheriffian squad a few months after the trouble started in 1925. Dr. Hauser is a brother of Ed Hauser, famous athlete of Anaconda high school, who is now living in California. With his mother. Dr. Hauser will visit his brother during the holidays and will then return to Butte for a short visit before going to Nice, where he will again locate. RAILS TO BUTTE 46 YEARS AGO OLD TIMERS DOUBT THAT EVEN AIR PLANE MAIL WILL GIVE EQUAL THRILL When First Utah & Northern Train Chugged Into Mining City on Narrow Gauge Track It Was Real Event; Spelled Disaster to Stage Coaches Butte is a center on the main route of two transcontinental railroads today. Two other great lines reach the city. Bus lines also ply greatest mining city on earth, few months the city will be on an air to and from the In a mail line and a little later will prob ably be one of the main points on an ajr passenger route. With all of those facts, it is interest ing for Butte old-timers to recall that it is 46 years since the coming of the first steam railway train into the mining camp of Butte. The forerunner of modern locomotives into Butte was the packhorse and later the narrow gauge road. It was 46 years ago this month that miners, prospectors and even some Indians, paused to watch and a reception committee was thrilled, when the first Utah & Northern railroad train steamed into the old U. & N. sta tion. Since then the development of the railway has been rapid and Butte has oc cupied an Important place as new miles of tracks were laid and new roads came into existence. It was aboqt 64 years ago that the first freight came into Butte, strapped to a pack saddle on a horse's back. Then fol lowed the horse and muls trains, called into the small mining camp by the de mand of placer miners. Freight was hauled by those teams from Helena, Vir ginia City and Corinne, Utah. The old Utah town was for years the starting point of the freighters that came into Montana with supplies for the pioneers. Corinne continued to be headquarters with Fort Benton, the head of naviga tion. as a rival, until the Utah & North ern company began to build its narrow gauge road northward. In the early '80's Bed Rock, Dillon and Silver Bow were the chief points of in terest on the railroad map in Montana. Finally Butte was fixed as the terminus of the U. & N. road and in December of 1881 the first train pulled in over a nar row gauge track. A few years later the road was widened ed man to the block house and supposed* he would never leave it alive. I volun teered to attend him. Medical assistance was out of the question, as none was nearer than Helena, and it was impos sible to go one-quarter of the distance on account of Indians. My patient grew rapidly weaker and could hardly speak. A few days after the shooting a party of Sioux arrived and brought me some roots,, telling me how to use them. "I washed the wound in the decoction*. Colonel Clendenning, who was then run ning the post at Musselshell, sent word to bathe the wound with ice water to reduce the Inflammation, and also sent a syringe, with which I washed out the wound every day. It was frightful agony but it saved the poor fellow's life and in 30 days he was able to work around. "One morning in April we discovered our cord wood had been set afire. At that time there were only three or four of us at the fort, so we decided that the three of us should go down and try to save the wood. 1 remained at the fort and a signal was agreed upon in case of dan ger—two shots in quick succession. "As soon as the men were out of sight the Indians came in large numbers. They found the big gate locked. It was made of dry timbers from the Trover and was 20 feet high. I expected they would try to set it afire. I denied them admission which they peremptorily demanded, and got into the blockhouse, from which I had command of the gate and its ap proaches. "The Indians began to examine the gate closely, and I gave the prearranged signal and prepared to sell my life as. dearly as possible. The three men came to the edge of the timber and seeing the Indians in such overwhelming numbers, two of them hesitated but Skelton in sisted that I was still alive and was de termined to come to my aid. The others followed. They crept along the bank until close to the fort and then made a rush for the gate while the Indians were some distance from it. Seeing the re inforcements I had received the Indians gave up their hostile intentions and went away. Indians Steal Horses "A few days afterward, while at din ner, we heard a whoop, and looking out saw a party of Indians had Jumped out of the timber and had stampeded our horses and mules and were driving them off toward the hills. Three of us start ed to follow: one, Ivey, remained behind to guard the fort. We had gone but a short distance when we heard the signal, and looking around saw a big party of warpainted Sioux coming out of the tim ber to cut us off from*the fort. "We made a run for the fort which we reached Just in time and going to the roof watched our animals disappear to wards the hills. The Indians were in plain, sight and we could see them mocking us. The distance was too far for a Winches ter, so one of the boys got a Hawkins Spencer rifle and put a number of leaden messengers into the group. The only fatality, however, was one of our own mules. "The following summer Mr. Higbee was succeeded by A. Juneau who later lived at Fort Benton. He was soon after sent to open a trading post at Frenchmen's and I was asked to take his place, a proposition to which I at first agreed. But upon the return of Mr. Peck and Mr. Juneau from Fort Benton I reconsidered the proposition and concluded that I did not care to spend another such winter* and so I took the next steamboat for Bu ford, and that finished my hardships at. Fort Pouchette." GRAVE MARKER GIVEN TO STATE HEAD BOARD FROM RESTING PLACE. OF LONGHEAD PEEL, RECALLS EARLY DAY TRAGEDY Records Death in Helena In 1867 of Miner Who Was Slain by Partner After Quar rel About Worth of Claims; Was Pre served by Col. Sanders in Attic of Home The early mining days of Helena were recalled at the state historical li brary recently when a board over five feet long and 18 inches wide that marked the resting place of Longford Peel, who was killed in Helena in 1867, was placed among the relics of Mon tana history. When the body was re moved from its original resting place in what Is now the Helena high school athletic field to the graveyard on Ben ton avenue, W. F. Sanders took the marker and placed it in the attic of his house, where it remained until & few days ago. Although it was 60 years ago last July that an epitaph was printed on the crude marker, the printing has been carefully preserved and one reads: "Sacred to the memory of Longford: Peel, born in Liverpool, died July 23* 1867, aged 36 years. In life, beloved toi his friends and respected by his enemies* 'Vengeance is mine,' salth the Lord, T know that my redeemer liveth.' Erected by a friend." Peel went to Salt Lake City from Leav enworth, Kansas, in 1858, and from there went to Nevada. In 1867 he left Nevada and with John Bull as a partner started for Helena to open a mining claim. They quarreled on the way but became recon ciled when reaching their destinations Bull had examined the mines at Indian creek and reported favorable of the find to Peel, who went to the mines and when he discovered they were not a» represented, accused Bull of falsehood and misrepresentation. Some days later he met Bull in Hur ley and Chases saloon and they contin ued their quarrel. Peel seized and was In the act of drawing his pistol, when Bull said: I am not heeled." Go then and heel yourself," said Pee?* Bull left the saloon and in a short time returned. He met Peel in the door or the saloon and before Peel had a chance to lay his hand on his holster. Bull fired three shots, one entering Peel's head and two his body. He feel and died without uttering a word. Bull was indicted, tried and his con viction failed by a disagreement of th* Jury, which stood nine for acquittal anil three for guilty. The body was buried In the old grave yard Just to the west of the high school building, which ground Is now used as a playground for the school children. All bodies were removed to the graveyard on Benton avenue. to the standard tracks and later lost it» original name, becoming, the Oregon Short Line, as It is known today. Old-timers doubt If the Butte folks of today would get the thrill out of the first passenger air line Into Butte the pioneers did when the old-fashioned e Utah As Northern first chugg city. ie of the Into the Names County Surveyor The board of Custer county commis sioners has appointed W. P. Flynn coun ty surveyor. Mr. Flynn was former state representative.