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A NEW FRONTIER « a By RICHARD LAKE The inquiry we are making might be called a course In How to Avoid Lesson One Being Propagandized, told how to square your shoulders when someone calls you a propagan dist and answer, "Well, you're an other!" We must complete our les son in the technique of name-calling and then consider briefly each of the other propaganda devices before we are ready to resume our discussion of the broader aspects of the propa ganda problem. Remember that in propaganda de scription, as distinguished from scien tific description, a thing is named for the purpose of Influencing people's thinking about it in terms of good or bad. We will leave for later consid eration the problem of whether scien tific description may have a propa ganda content. We should note here only that the word "science" is wide ly used as a propaganda word. It is one of the so-called virtue words, of which more later. Let us consider an obvious case of name-calling, which illustrates incidentally a num ber of propaganda devices. The words "communist" and "com munism" have been for the past 20 years and more the world's greatest shock words. It is my belief that they have furnished the handiest name-calling amunition of all time. I doubt if "heretic," "atheist," "traitor," "thief," "liar," "abolitionist," or "tory" has carried so much power for emo tional persuasion. Not even "heaven" and "hell" have been so potent, for communism, to different groups, has meant both heaven and hell on this earth. Now on December 13, 1939, a Butte paper carried a front-page editorial headed, "American People Moving to Eradicate Communist Plague in the United States." The article reviewed the pact between Russia and Ger many, and asserted that communism was now exposed to the world at large for the horrible thing it had always been. America and Butte, the article said, had suffered from "Communist propaganda," which had been evident "even in the Miners Union of Butte." Now, however, communist influence would vanish like mist before the sun. By one of those coincidences which seem always to follow propagandists, this harmless barrage, shot into the air, found on the very next day a target close at hand. The communist party of Butte Issued a pamphlet an nouncing a mass meeting to be held in Miners Union Hall, at which the people of Butte could leann the truth about "Finland, the Soviet Union, and the Finnish People In Butte." The paper referred to reproduced this pamphlet on its front page and fol lowed through with another front-page editorial entitled, "Is Butte Miners' Union a Haven and Shield for Com munist Agitators?" Please, now, try to disregard your emotions in considering this contro versy. Try to forget that you favor or do not favor communism; that you have either respect or contempt for the Butte paper in question. This is a lesson in propaganda ataalysls. Consider the question; "Is Butte Miners' Union a Haven and Shield for Communist Agitators?" Because if it is, then, in the paper's view, the Miners Union is guilty of communist sympathy, and no more damnable at titude can be imagined—in the view of the paper. Listen: "Today we are to be told in Miners Union hall that such a fine humanitarian effort for Finland is wrong, is done with an ul terior motive. No honest Butte miner can consent to such a program, car ried out in this hall, without hanging his head in shame." Again: "Why are these communists here in Butte, as everywhere else In America, so furtive, so slimy, so distinctly un American?" Would you like to associate with such a person? It would be bad SUBSCRIBE TODAY TO THE PEOPLE'S VOICE Co-operatively Owned and Controlled by the Organized Farmers and Organized Labor of Montana—Free of All Indebtedness. NO ADVERTISER AND NO SPECIAL INTEREST CAN INFLUENCE OUR EDITORIAL POLICY Read the Truth About Conditions in the State FILL OUT THE COUPON BELOW AND ENCLOSE YOUR PAYMENT TODAY. $1.00 Per Year PEOPLE'S VOICE PUBLISHING CO. BOX 838 HELENA, MONTANA in payment of years subscription to The People's Voice. Name. - Enclosed is $ Address -enough if he were a communist, as charged, but worse if he were furtive, slimy, and un-American. If the Min ers Union were dominated by, or even sympathetic toward, such persons, you would certainly feel that it was an untrustworthy outfit, to say the least. Wouldn't you? But more to come; "These Butte communists are conspirators along with other communists in America. Their ultimate purpose is to tear down our government and establish here the red flag of hate, intolerance, and oppression." Now what do you think of the Min ers Union? The editorial wound up with the assertion that the honest and respec table people of Butte should not per mit such a meeting to take place. This assertion, however, was deleted when the editorial was reprinted along with a general review of the controversy on January 4, 1940. The deletion is important. It is important because the asser tion gave another Butte paper, a labor journal, the chance to claim that the first paper was trying to arouse mob hysteria and suppress freedom of speech. The communist - sponsored mass meeting did take place in the Miners Union hall. The communist Influence which had seemed negligible in the December 13 editorial now was upon Butte like a catastrophe. The com munist speakers, however, delivered such a clumsy and specious brand of propaganda and presented such flimsy and ridiculous arguments that the pa per which had been alarmed was able to report the meeting in a sedate and factual manner in the knowledge that it w T ould discredit itself without any help. The agitated paper resumed its dis cussion of the communist menace in an answer to the labor journal, which had described the tyvo front-page edi torials as an attack on labor and an attempt at suppression of free speech. It unlimbered the bandwagon device: "In the disgust and antipathy which fills every American heart over these horrible European development there can be Involved no question of our American problems of capital and labor. The (labor journal) can take no honest exception to the universal condemnation, voiced by practically all Americans, of these happenings In Europe." The labor journal's defense, as set forth in several statements of officials of the Miners Union, and in editorials was that it was simply insisting on the right of free speech for all Amer ican citizens, whether communists or not, and that in lending its hall the Miners Union was not necessarily en dorsing communism. The argument might have ended there had not the Miners Union, rush ing in where students of propaganda analysis would have declined to tread, wrote a letter to the paper that had started the hellabaloo, in which it "bitterly resented" the paper's inter ference in Its business and "your pub lication's attempt to smash free speech in this community." The let ter closed in this manner: "The Butte Miners' Union will not tolerate an other editorial of the kind which were run in your paper on December 14th and 16th." Now you will understand why there was omitted from the general sum mary that appeared in the same issue of the paper which carried the letter quoted above, the statement that Butte people should not allow this commun ist meeting to take place. Conveniently forgetting this alleged attempt on its own part at suppres sion of free speech, the paper rolled out an editorial-that employed beauti fully a number of propaganda devices : "When 1. Glittering Generality: (this paper) is challenged because of its devotion to American ideals and institutions, when it is threatened be cause it loves and advocates the American way of life and because it points to Russian communism as a bloodthirsty oppression and repres sion of the liberties of man, (it) brooks neither argument nor threat against its full exercise of the right and the obligation of free press." 2. Transfer: "This threat addressed to (this paper) by a little group from within the Miners Union might be effective in Stalin's Russia and it might go in Hitler's Germany, but it doesn't work In Butte, Montana." 3. Card Stacking (because of the de letion of its own recommendation that a communist-sponsored meeting should not be allowed to be held): "(This paper) has never on any oc casion endeavored to interfere with the business of the Miners Union nor has it ever in the remotest degree sought to obstruct free speech." 4. Plain Folks: "It is not conceiv able that the thousands of miners in Butte, devoted and loyal to our gov ernment, are honestly and sincerely represented by the threat and intimi dation against a free press which has been received by (this paper)." 5. Bandwagon: "This threat might be regarded as a ludicrous absurdity were it not for the intense devotion of the vast majority of our citizens to our American ideals and our Amer ican way of life." Hack of space does not permit me to list at this time Illustrations of the same propaganda devices as used by the labor journal in this controversy. In an early column we will consider various propaganda by themselves, and labor will come in for examina tion then. Remember now only that we have not been spiking propaganda only to Indulge in name-calling our selves. by which people persuade each other, and our purpose will come clear as we proceed. We are examining the ways FEDERAL TRADE COMM. ORDERS AND COMPLAINTS Prime Hat Company, Inc., 97 East Houston St, New York, and Vincent Gerbino, Samuel Scifo, Vito Digreg orio and John Scifo, individually and as officers of the corporation, have been ordered by the federal trade com mission to cease and desist from mis representation in the sale and distri bution of hats made from second-hand materials. In the conduct of their business, the commission finds, the respondents buy' old, worn and used felt hats, which are then cleaned, steamed, Ironed and shaped, and fitted with new trimmings, sweat bands and labels. jobbers and wholesale dealers, the findings continue, and they resell them to retail dealers, who sell them to the public without disclosing the fact that the hats are manufactured from felts previously worn, and are not new hats. The Herman Nelson Corporation, Moline, Ill., manufacturer of ventilat ing equipment, has been served by the federal trade commission with a complaint charging misrepresentation In the sale and distribution of its product. The hats are then sold to logs and other printed matter, the complaint alleges, the respondent des ignates and refers to its equipment as "air conditioning," and represents that it will air-condition school build ings and other buildings in which it may be installed. Fred C. Mattia, trading as Premier Color Works and as Mattia and Bri ganti Company, 382 Pearl St., New York, has been ordered by the fed eral trade commission to cease and desist from misrepresentations in con nection with the sale and distribution of a line of effervescent and laxative products designated "Ave " Maria," "Ave Maria Effervescent Preparation" and "Ave Maria Laxative Preparation." The commission finds that the re spondent Mattia is engaged in the manufacture and sale of the products, and that on cartons and containers in which they are packed, are printed statements among which are; "... Made in U. S. A. from a highly rec ommended formula of Dr. Arnaldo Piutti, director of the Pharmaceutical Institute of 'Reggio Universita' di Napoli' (Italy)," and "Highest awards in the Hygienic divisions of Interna tional Expositions." The commission finds that the re spondent Mattia's products are not made from formulas recommended by Arnaldo Piutti, and that the medals and decorations depicted on the con tainers and cartons are not reproduc tions of decorations awarded the pro ducts at expositions, and that the pro ducts have not been awarded any medals or other prizes at international expositions. The federal trade commission has issued orders in two cases requiring New York corporations to discontinue misleading representations in connec tion with the fiber content of fabrics or garments sold. Respondents one cases are A. Schottland, Inc., 1441 Broad way, and Valmor Undergarment Com pany, Inc., 149 Madison Ave., and in the other case, Glmbel Brothers, Inc., Broadway and 33rd St. A. Schottland, Inc., l manufactures fabrics at its factories in Rocky Mount, N. C., and Nanuet, N. Y. while Valmor Undergarment Company, Inc., manufactures women's undergarments and allied products. The Schottland corporation was found to have sup plied customers with tags and labels featuring the words "Pure Dye" and "Crepe" in prominent type and the words "DuPont Rayon and Silk" in smaller type, so that purchasers and garments manufacturers were given the impression that the products so designated were silk, when in fact they were composed entirely of rayon. Findings are that Valmor Undergar ment Cohipany, Inc., purchased cer tain fabrics from the Schottland cor poration and used the tags and labels furnished by Schottland and also dis play folders to designate its finished undergarment and allied products as silk, when they were not composed of silk. 1 I INTEREST IN TECHNOCRACY IS GROWING In Helena, Great Falls, Fort Peck. Roundup. Butte, Missoula and other centers of the state. Technocracy study groups have been buzzing with activity, as the interested citizens dig for the economic facts, without which no sane solution of our problems can be reached. Authorized Technocracy speakers. Herb Clark and Cyril Large addressed wide awake citizens in some of the above centers, during the past year, expounding Technocracy's stiictlv American approach to economics. The interested groups sponsoring these educational features, hope to have Fred Hockey of Seattle, Wash., an authorized Technocracy speaker, tour Montana in the near future to further present Technocracy's scien tific, factual approach, which, from re search laboratory to finished machine, has been so successful in solving our means of production. FARMERS BORROW HUGE SUMS FOR OPERATIONS In six years of operation ending September 30. 1939, the production credit $1, 347,000,000 of which $1,173,000,000 was repaid by September 30, and the amount of current financing on the books af that date was $174,000,000. The 13 banks for co-operatives, now providing approximately one-fourth of the credit used by farmers' co-opera tives in the United States, loaned about $82,900,000 in 1939 compared to $94,900,000 in 1938. The decrease was largely accounted for by a smaller volume of financing by the Central Bank of Co-operatives in Washington which lends primarily to associations of national or regional scope. Busi ness of the 12 district banks for co operatives remained at about the same level as in 1938. The 12 federal intermediate credit banks, in addition to extending credit to production credit associations and banks for co-operatives amounting to approximately $385,000,000, also made loans to and discounts for privately capitalized financing Institutions and co-operative associations in 1939 ag gregating $89,600,000. The emergency crop and feed loan offices, also operating under supervi sion of the Farm Credit Administra loaned farmers $15,138,000 in 1938. tion, 1939 compared to $19,648,000 in Secret Lynchings On Increase, Reports Indicate (Federated Press) Five lynchings in 1939 are reported by the Inti. Labor Defense and the Natl. Assn, for the Advancement of Colored People, listed by the commission on inter racial co-operation and the Tuskegee Institute. The latter two reports put lynch ings for the year at an all-time low but the other two pointed out that unreported lynchings of negroes taken to the woods without publicity were Noting 20 such on the Increase, lynchings in the past year, the I. L. D. gave a summary of most flagrant ex amples of Ku Klux Klan revival. Included in all four reports was the case of Joe Rodgers, negro lumber worker and church deacon of Canton, Miss., who was shot and tortured with hot irons after an argument with a foreman in which he refused to ac 'creased guards. cept a $5.50 weekly wage cut for rent of a company shack. Also included in all reports was Miles Brown, a white of Panama City, Fla., convicted of murdering his employer, and Lee Snell, a negro taxi driver of Daytona Beach, Fla., who accidentally ran over and killed a white child. The I. L. D. report also mentioned the lynchings of Walter Lee Frazier, an lldorado, Kans., negro alleged to have molested white couples, and of an unidentified Woodelift, Ga„ negro also accused of molesting a white woman. The N. A. A. C. P. report cited the drowning of Walter Eggles ton, a Natl. Maritime Union (CIO) official in New Orleans. C. I. C. report points out that its figure of 3 lynchings is much less than average and 99% less than the peak year of 1892, when 231 lynchings occurred. Tuskegee compares its fig ure of 3 with 6 in 1938, 8 in 1937, 8 in 1936 and 20 in 1935. Both these reports found 25 cases in which lynch ings were prevented by transfer of victims to other localities or by in Connecticut Bars Compensation To Strikers HARTFORD, Conn.—(FP) -Strikers are not eligible for state unemploy ment benefits, Unemployment Com pensation Commissioner Frank R. Od ium ruled December 30 in a test case. Involved were two of the 270 mem hers of local 63, Textile Workers Un ion (CIO), who had struck in July 1939 at the plant of Cheney Bros. Co., Manchester, Conn. Odium ruled that they had disquali fied themselves by participating in a labor dispute in which their own in terests were involved. The petitioners were William Dun can, one of four weavers ordered to operate four looms instead of the cus tomary two, and Henry Tedford, who did not report for work when ho learned of the walkout. Crux of the disputé was the stretchout from two looms to four. You cannot control what you do not own! POLITICAL BOSS CANCELS GUILD CONVENTION BID MEMPHIS—(FP)—Boss Edward H, Crump, mayor of Memphis for about 10 seconds, devoted his entire term to an attack on the CIO. Standing on a railroad platform before leaving for a football game in New Orleans, Crump canceled an Invitation to the American Newspaper Guild (CIO) for its 1940 convention, extended by his predecessor, Watkins Overton, who had held office for 12 years. "I have always believed in fair or ganized labor and my record so speaks, but I am opposed to the CIO," Crump declared. "If the CIO could entrench itself in Memphis, this city would go back 10 years." In New York, Executive President Milton Kaufman of the ANG retorted that "if Memphis is more than Boss Crump, then the Guild will meet in Memphis." "The Guild is meeting there at the invitation of working newspapermen who live there," he said. "These men are members of a CIO union which is promoting and defending democracy in America, plains his attitude." Crump was elected as a substitute candidate for Rep. Walter Chandler who, because of a local law, could not run for the office while he held his congressional seat. Upon assum ing office and delivering his Jdast Perhaps this fact ex against the CIO, Crump promptly re signed, and the city council shortly afterward elected Chandler as mayor. under the direction of Merlin Miller, educational director of C. C A., and V. S. Alanne, member of the educa tional staff of Central Co-operative Wholesale. The training school, running to Jan uary 27, includes courses on co-opera tive principles, public relations, busi ness problems, organization and edu cational methods, merchandising of Co-op products, bookkeeping ami fi nance. Special evening lectures are being given by cooperative leaders from many sections of the country. Midland Co-operative Wholesale, Minneapolis, will hold its annual in stitute for Co-op managers and cm ployes at Camp Ihduhapi on Lake In dependence January 29 to February 24. Using instructors drawn from the business and educational staffs of Midland, the school will offer courses similar to those at the C. C. A. school. CO-OPS LAUNCH RECORD PROGRAM OF TRAINING NEW YORK.— (FP)—The consum ers co-operative movement is starting the new year with its most intensive program of employe training to date, the Co-operative League announced. Before the New Year's bells ceased ringing, employes and prospective em ployes from Co-ops in every state served by the Consumers Co-operative Assn, gathered in North Kansas City, Mo., for a four-week training course For the first time, the school will be co-educational. Fanners Union Co-ops in North Dakota will hold their annual train ing school In Jamestown, N. D., for four weeks beginning January 29. At Columbus, managers of 79 country wide co-operative associations in Ohio will meet January 1G for the annual managers' institute of the Ohio Farm Bureau Co-operative Assn. A unique management training course in New York will be offered jointly by Rochdale Institute, Consum er Distribution Corp., and Eastern Co operative Wholesale. These three or ganizations have set up a Council for Co-operative Business Training which full-time managers' training school. The school, which will run from February 5 to May 27, will be under the direction of Dr. Rudolph Treun fels, who has had years of experience as an executive and consultant on grocery distribution. Mississippi To Abandon Subsidies For Sweatshops JACKSON, Miss.—(FP)—Mississip pi's "Balance Agriculture with Indus try" plan, which has attracted wide attention throughout the country, will be either abolished or completely re vised by the new state administra tion, Gov.-elect Paul B. Johnson has indicated. The "Bawi" plan, inaugurated by present Gov. Hugh L. White, has been criticized inside and outside the state because of its subsidization of private manufacturers who pay low wages. A number of sweatshop industries have migrated to Mississippi. "I am opposed to public bond issues for the benefit of a private firm or individual," Johnson told reporters. He did not say whether his adminis tration would lead any effort to cor rect some of the labor abuses preva lent in many of the state's Industries. NOVEMBER BUSINESS SHOWS INCREASE WASHINGTON. — (FP) — Reports from a selective group of wholesale firms throughout the country reveal that wholesalers' sales in November Increased more than 9% over Novem ber, 1938, the department of com merce has announced. Reports from 2,814 wholesale firms placed the total amount of sales in November at $217, 124,000, as compared with $198,807,000 in November, 1938, and $230,634,000 in October, 1939. SOUP KITCHENS TOLEDO.—(FP)— The Toledo In dustrial Union Council may establish public soup kitchens to feed the city's 37,000 unemployed, few of whom are now receiving relief. •Î— INSURANCE EXECUTIVES BROADEN ATTACK ON CO-OPERATIVES Insurance executives and the Na tional Association of Insurance Agents which launched an attack on the co operative movement at their annual convention in Boston, October 3, 4 and 5 have extended their attack on co operatives to almost every section of the country, according to the Co-op erative League of the USA. Speak ers attacking the co-operative move ment accuse it of "the creation of a new economic democracy" and declare that it is "un-American" because it attempts to give the producer more for his goods and at the same time lower the purchase price to the con sumer. Speaking at Little Rock, Arkansas, before the mid-year meeting of the Arkansas Association of Insurance Agents, Frederick W. Doreraus de clared, "This (co-operative) plan has as its foundation the sale of produc ers' goods and services through mar keting co-operation at the highest pos sible figure and the purchase of com modities at wholesale for distribution through consumer co-operation. . , We know that such a plan doesn't square with the economic foundation upon which the business of this country has been built." Addressing a Rotary Club luncheon In Rochester, New York, Ray Murphy, former national commander of- the American Legion and now assistant general manager of the Association of Cdsualty and Surety Executives, de clared. "The co-operative movement is revealed as a planned program for the complete overthrow of our tried and true system of private enterprise. Once the American people know the truth about the co-operative move ment in America they can be trusted to send it back to Europe." The Ohio Farm Bureau News, tak ing issue with the charge that co operatives are "un-American" count ered with the question, "Is Democracy un-American?" The same Mr. Murphy, who is cred ited by many sources as being the chief instigator in the drive against co-operatives and author of the vicious anti-co-operatlve pamphlet, "The Road to Ruin" which is being privately cir culated among insurance agents, de clared later in an address before the Indiana Association of Insurance Agents that "If properly directed and in the right bands, the co-operative could do a service for the consuming public." 'agency Bethea declared co-opera At White Sulphur Springs, W. Vir ginia, T. W. Bethea told the Interna tional Association of Casualty and Surety Underwriters and the National Association of Casualty and Surety Agents that he had been retained to seek methods of dramatizing the capi tal stock insurance system and as a result, urged insurance agents to stress the "security" and service" of the private profit insur ance companies and point out the dangers of the co-operative movement. He declared "the biggest and most dramatic point and the one we have most successfully employed (in selling capital stock company insurance) has been the story of the co-operative movement." that in order to fight the Mr. COOPERATIVE PRINTERS FOR Montana Co-operatives Labor Organizations and the Farmers Union CHECK YOUR NEEDS And Place Your Orders Early for Tank Wagon Books Salesbooks Circular Letters Annual Statements Notices of Meetings Posters Dance Tickets Receipts Filing Cards WE ARE EQUIPPED TO FILL ALL YOUR PRINTING NEEDS Letterheads Envelopes Invoices Statements Checks Wheat Storage Tickets Grain Checks Order Blanks We Employ Union Workers and Use Union Made Paper Co-operatively yours EDUCATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE PUBLISHING CO. Box 838 Helena, Montana 4 lives, "agencies hold night meetings— two or three agencies at a time—and even the stenographers and office boys, .persons not usually associated with the soliciting of insurance, are present." In Oakland, Calif., Raymond L. Ellis, assistant vice president of the Fire men's Fund Insurance Company made a slashing attack on the consumer co-operative movement before the Cal ifornia Association of Insurance Agents. Immediately following his attack, the Hunters Point Co-operative Society in San Francisco Invited him to become a member of their co-oper ative and participate in the grand opening of their new co-operative store. Mr Ellis, in his address to the In surance Agents pointed out that "too frequently we see business men buy ing from co-operatives for a passing advantage—possibly these business men who have transactions with con sumer co-operatives do not realize that in the final analysis all business men are consumers." Following the convention the Profit Motive Institute of Los Angeles announced a concerted campaign against the consumer co-op erative movement. In Springfield, Mass., Harvey R. Preston, a local Insurance executive threatened to resign as a director of the Springfield YMCA because the "Y" had allowed the local consumer Mr. Preston denounced the consumer co-operative movement as "a commun istic trend" and "a menace to the economic structure of the U. S.," and announced that he would bring Harold P. Janisch, general manager of the Associated Insurance Agents and Brokers in Springfield to "expose" the co-operatives. Prominent Springfield citizens im mediately sprang to the defense of the Co-op. Quentin Reynolds, man ager of the Eastern States Farmers Exchange declared that "the co-opera tives believe in individual initiative and private property," and declared "Consumer Co-operation is as antag onistic to communism as it is to fas cism. It is incompatible with either. It is a bulwark against both." The Springfield Republican in an editorial, declared "to accuse these private voluntary co-operatives of be ing 'fellow travelers' with 'commun ism' and therefore as being dangerous to the American system and way of life is seen to be ludicrous in the light of their long history in Great Britain, Scandinavia, Canada, and this country. "The Republican congratulates the manager of Eastern States Farmers Exchange, Quentin Reynolds, on his brief, clarifying and convincing de fense of the co-operatives against un warranted attack." The Springfield Co-operative re ported that the resultant publicity brought it the biggest business it had ever had, strengthened the loyalty of its present members, and brought in new members. Co-operatives in other sections of the country welcomed the reams of free publicity growing out of the private profit Insurance mens' at tack.