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The People's voice. [volume] (Helena, Mont.) 1939-1969, January 10, 1940, Image 3

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The inquiry we are making might
be called a course In How to Avoid
Lesson One
Being Propagandized,
told how to square your shoulders
when someone calls you a propagan
dist and answer, "Well, you're an
other!" We must complete our les
son in the technique of name-calling
and then consider briefly each of the
other propaganda devices before we
are ready to resume our discussion
of the broader aspects of the propa
ganda problem.
Remember that in propaganda de
scription, as distinguished from scien
tific description, a thing is named for
the purpose of Influencing people's
thinking about it in terms of good or
bad. We will leave for later consid
eration the problem of whether scien
tific description may have a propa
ganda content. We should note here
only that the word "science" is wide
ly used as a propaganda word. It is
one of the so-called virtue words, of
which more later. Let us consider
an obvious case of name-calling,
which illustrates incidentally a num
ber of propaganda devices.
The words "communist" and "com
munism" have been for the past 20
years and more the world's greatest
shock words. It is my belief that
they have furnished the handiest
name-calling amunition of all time. I
doubt if "heretic," "atheist," "traitor,"
"thief," "liar," "abolitionist," or "tory"
has carried so much power for emo
tional persuasion. Not even "heaven"
and "hell" have been so potent, for
communism, to different groups, has
meant both heaven and hell on this
Now on December 13, 1939, a Butte
paper carried a front-page editorial
headed, "American People Moving to
Eradicate Communist Plague in the
United States." The article reviewed
the pact between Russia and Ger
many, and asserted that communism
was now exposed to the world at large
for the horrible thing it had always
been. America and Butte, the article
said, had suffered from "Communist
propaganda," which had been evident
"even in the Miners Union of Butte."
Now, however, communist influence
would vanish like mist before the sun.
By one of those coincidences which
seem always to follow propagandists,
this harmless barrage, shot into the
air, found on the very next day a
target close at hand. The communist
party of Butte Issued a pamphlet an
nouncing a mass meeting to be held
in Miners Union Hall, at which the
people of Butte could leann the truth
about "Finland, the Soviet Union, and
the Finnish People In Butte." The
paper referred to reproduced this
pamphlet on its front page and fol
lowed through with another front-page
editorial entitled, "Is Butte Miners'
Union a Haven and Shield for Com
munist Agitators?"
Please, now, try to disregard your
emotions in considering this contro
versy. Try to forget that you favor
or do not favor communism; that you
have either respect or contempt for
the Butte paper in question. This is
a lesson in propaganda ataalysls.
Consider the question; "Is Butte
Miners' Union a Haven and Shield for
Communist Agitators?" Because if it
is, then, in the paper's view, the
Miners Union is guilty of communist
sympathy, and no more damnable at
titude can be imagined—in the view
of the paper. Listen: "Today we are
to be told in Miners Union hall that
such a fine humanitarian effort for
Finland is wrong, is done with an ul
terior motive. No honest Butte miner
can consent to such a program, car
ried out in this hall, without hanging
his head in shame." Again: "Why
are these communists here in Butte,
as everywhere else In America, so
furtive, so slimy, so distinctly un
Would you like to associate with
such a person? It would be bad
Co-operatively Owned and Controlled by the
Organized Farmers and Organized Labor of
Montana—Free of All Indebtedness.
Read the Truth About Conditions
in the State
BOX 838
in payment of
years subscription to The People's Voice.
Name. -
Enclosed is $
-enough if he were a communist, as
charged, but worse if he were furtive,
slimy, and un-American. If the Min
ers Union were dominated by, or even
sympathetic toward, such persons, you
would certainly feel that it was an
untrustworthy outfit, to say the least.
Wouldn't you?
But more to come; "These Butte
communists are conspirators along
with other communists in America.
Their ultimate purpose is to tear down
our government and establish here
the red flag of hate, intolerance, and
Now what do you think of the Min
ers Union?
The editorial wound up with the
assertion that the honest and respec
table people of Butte should not per
mit such a meeting to take place.
This assertion, however, was deleted
when the editorial was reprinted
along with a general review of the
controversy on January 4, 1940. The
deletion is important.
It is important because the asser
tion gave another Butte paper, a labor
journal, the chance to claim that the
first paper was trying to arouse mob
hysteria and suppress freedom of
The communist - sponsored mass
meeting did take place in the Miners
Union hall. The communist Influence
which had seemed negligible in the
December 13 editorial now was upon
Butte like a catastrophe. The com
munist speakers, however, delivered
such a clumsy and specious brand of
propaganda and presented such flimsy
and ridiculous arguments that the pa
per which had been alarmed was able
to report the meeting in a sedate and
factual manner in the knowledge that
it w T ould discredit itself without any
The agitated paper resumed its dis
cussion of the communist menace in
an answer to the labor journal, which
had described the tyvo front-page edi
torials as an attack on labor and an
attempt at suppression of free speech.
It unlimbered the bandwagon device:
"In the disgust and antipathy which
fills every American heart over these
horrible European development there
can be Involved no question of our
American problems of capital and
labor. The (labor journal) can take
no honest exception to the universal
condemnation, voiced by practically
all Americans, of these happenings In
The labor journal's defense, as set
forth in several statements of officials
of the Miners Union, and in editorials
was that it was simply insisting on
the right of free speech for all Amer
ican citizens, whether communists or
not, and that in lending its hall the
Miners Union was not necessarily en
dorsing communism.
The argument might have ended
there had not the Miners Union, rush
ing in where students of propaganda
analysis would have declined to tread,
wrote a letter to the paper that had
started the hellabaloo, in which it
"bitterly resented" the paper's inter
ference in Its business and "your pub
lication's attempt to smash free
speech in this community." The let
ter closed in this manner: "The Butte
Miners' Union will not tolerate an
other editorial of the kind which were
run in your paper on December 14th
and 16th."
Now you will understand why there
was omitted from the general sum
mary that appeared in the same issue
of the paper which carried the letter
quoted above, the statement that Butte
people should not allow this commun
ist meeting to take place.
Conveniently forgetting this alleged
attempt on its own part at suppres
sion of free speech, the paper rolled
out an editorial-that employed beauti
fully a number of propaganda devices :
1. Glittering Generality:
(this paper) is challenged because of
its devotion to American ideals and
institutions, when it is threatened be
cause it loves and advocates the
American way of life and because it
points to Russian communism as a
bloodthirsty oppression and repres
sion of the liberties of man, (it)
brooks neither argument nor threat
against its full exercise of the right
and the obligation of free press."
2. Transfer: "This threat addressed
to (this paper) by a little group from
within the Miners Union might be
effective in Stalin's Russia and it
might go in Hitler's Germany, but it
doesn't work In Butte, Montana."
3. Card Stacking (because of the de
letion of its own recommendation
that a communist-sponsored meeting
should not be allowed to be held):
"(This paper) has never on any oc
casion endeavored to interfere with
the business of the Miners Union nor
has it ever in the remotest degree
sought to obstruct free speech."
4. Plain Folks: "It is not conceiv
able that the thousands of miners in
Butte, devoted and loyal to our gov
ernment, are honestly and sincerely
represented by the threat and intimi
dation against a free press which has
been received by (this paper)."
5. Bandwagon: "This threat might
be regarded as a ludicrous absurdity
were it not for the intense devotion
of the vast majority of our citizens
to our American ideals and our Amer
ican way of life."
Hack of space does not permit me
to list at this time Illustrations of the
same propaganda devices as used by
the labor journal in this controversy.
In an early column we will consider
various propaganda by themselves,
and labor will come in for examina
tion then. Remember now only that
we have not been spiking propaganda
only to Indulge in name-calling our
by which people persuade each other,
and our purpose will come clear as we
We are examining the ways
Prime Hat Company, Inc., 97 East
Houston St, New York, and Vincent
Gerbino, Samuel Scifo, Vito Digreg
orio and John Scifo, individually and
as officers of the corporation, have
been ordered by the federal trade com
mission to cease and desist from mis
representation in the sale and distri
bution of hats made from second-hand
In the conduct of their business,
the commission finds, the respondents
buy' old, worn and used felt hats,
which are then cleaned, steamed,
Ironed and shaped, and fitted with
new trimmings, sweat bands and
jobbers and wholesale dealers, the
findings continue, and they resell
them to retail dealers, who sell them
to the public without disclosing the
fact that the hats are manufactured
from felts previously worn, and are
not new hats.
The Herman Nelson Corporation,
Moline, Ill., manufacturer of ventilat
ing equipment, has been served by
the federal trade commission with a
complaint charging misrepresentation
In the sale and distribution of its
The hats are then sold to
logs and other printed matter, the
complaint alleges, the respondent des
ignates and refers to its equipment
as "air conditioning," and represents
that it will air-condition school build
ings and other buildings in which it
may be installed.
Fred C. Mattia, trading as Premier
Color Works and as Mattia and Bri
ganti Company, 382 Pearl St., New
York, has been ordered by the fed
eral trade commission to cease and
desist from misrepresentations in con
nection with the sale and distribution
of a line of effervescent and laxative
products designated "Ave " Maria,"
"Ave Maria Effervescent Preparation"
and "Ave Maria Laxative Preparation."
The commission finds that the re
spondent Mattia is engaged in the
manufacture and sale of the products,
and that on cartons and containers
in which they are packed, are printed
statements among which are; "...
Made in U. S. A. from a highly rec
ommended formula of Dr. Arnaldo
Piutti, director of the Pharmaceutical
Institute of 'Reggio Universita' di
Napoli' (Italy)," and "Highest awards
in the Hygienic divisions of Interna
tional Expositions."
The commission finds that the re
spondent Mattia's products are not
made from formulas recommended by
Arnaldo Piutti, and that the medals
and decorations depicted on the con
tainers and cartons are not reproduc
tions of decorations awarded the pro
ducts at expositions, and that the pro
ducts have not been awarded any
medals or other prizes at international
The federal trade commission has
issued orders in two cases requiring
New York corporations to discontinue
misleading representations in connec
tion with the fiber content of fabrics
or garments sold.
Respondents one cases
are A. Schottland, Inc., 1441 Broad
way, and Valmor Undergarment Com
pany, Inc., 149 Madison Ave., and in
the other case, Glmbel Brothers, Inc.,
Broadway and 33rd St.
A. Schottland, Inc., l manufactures
fabrics at its factories in Rocky
Mount, N. C., and Nanuet, N. Y. while
Valmor Undergarment Company, Inc.,
manufactures women's undergarments
and allied products. The Schottland
corporation was found to have sup
plied customers with tags and labels
featuring the words "Pure Dye" and
"Crepe" in prominent type and the
words "DuPont Rayon and Silk" in
smaller type, so that purchasers and
garments manufacturers were given
the impression that the products so
designated were silk, when in fact
they were composed entirely of rayon.
Findings are that Valmor Undergar
ment Cohipany, Inc., purchased cer
tain fabrics from the Schottland cor
poration and used the tags and labels
furnished by Schottland and also dis
play folders to designate its finished
undergarment and allied products as
silk, when they were not composed
of silk.
In Helena, Great Falls, Fort Peck.
Roundup. Butte, Missoula and other
centers of the state. Technocracy
study groups have been buzzing with
activity, as the interested citizens dig
for the economic facts, without which
no sane solution of our problems can
be reached.
Authorized Technocracy speakers.
Herb Clark and Cyril Large addressed
wide awake citizens in some of the
above centers, during the past year,
expounding Technocracy's stiictlv
American approach to economics.
The interested groups sponsoring
these educational features, hope to
have Fred Hockey of Seattle, Wash.,
an authorized Technocracy speaker,
tour Montana in the near future to
further present Technocracy's scien
tific, factual approach, which, from re
search laboratory to finished machine,
has been so successful in solving our
means of production.
In six years of operation ending
September 30. 1939, the production
credit $1,
347,000,000 of which $1,173,000,000 was
repaid by September 30, and the
amount of current financing on the
books af that date was $174,000,000.
The 13 banks for co-operatives, now
providing approximately one-fourth of
the credit used by farmers' co-opera
tives in the United States, loaned
about $82,900,000 in 1939 compared to
$94,900,000 in 1938. The decrease was
largely accounted for by a smaller
volume of financing by the Central
Bank of Co-operatives in Washington
which lends primarily to associations
of national or regional scope. Busi
ness of the 12 district banks for co
operatives remained at about the
same level as in 1938.
The 12 federal intermediate credit
banks, in addition to extending credit
to production credit associations and
banks for co-operatives amounting to
approximately $385,000,000, also made
loans to and discounts for privately
capitalized financing Institutions and
co-operative associations in 1939 ag
gregating $89,600,000.
The emergency crop and feed loan
offices, also operating under supervi
sion of the Farm Credit Administra
loaned farmers $15,138,000 in
1939 compared to $19,648,000 in
Secret Lynchings
On Increase,
Reports Indicate
(Federated Press)
Five lynchings in 1939 are reported
by the Inti. Labor Defense and the
Natl. Assn, for the Advancement of
Colored People,
listed by the commission on inter
racial co-operation and the Tuskegee
The latter two reports put lynch
ings for the year at an all-time low
but the other two pointed out that
unreported lynchings of negroes taken
to the woods without publicity were
Noting 20 such
on the Increase,
lynchings in the past year, the I. L. D.
gave a summary of most flagrant ex
amples of Ku Klux Klan revival.
Included in all four reports was the
case of Joe Rodgers, negro lumber
worker and church deacon of Canton,
Miss., who was shot and tortured with
hot irons after an argument with a
foreman in which he refused to ac
'creased guards.
cept a $5.50 weekly wage cut for rent
of a company shack. Also included
in all reports was Miles Brown, a
white of Panama City, Fla., convicted
of murdering his employer, and Lee
Snell, a negro taxi driver of Daytona
Beach, Fla., who accidentally ran over
and killed a white child.
The I. L. D. report also mentioned
the lynchings of Walter Lee Frazier,
an lldorado, Kans., negro alleged to
have molested white couples, and of
an unidentified Woodelift, Ga„ negro
also accused of molesting a white
woman. The N. A. A. C. P. report
cited the drowning of Walter Eggles
ton, a Natl. Maritime Union (CIO)
official in New Orleans.
C. I. C. report points out that its
figure of 3 lynchings is much less
than average and 99% less than the
peak year of 1892, when 231 lynchings
occurred. Tuskegee compares its fig
ure of 3 with 6 in 1938, 8 in 1937,
8 in 1936 and 20 in 1935. Both these
reports found 25 cases in which lynch
ings were prevented by transfer of
victims to other localities or by in
Connecticut Bars
To Strikers
are not eligible for state unemploy
ment benefits, Unemployment Com
pensation Commissioner Frank R. Od
ium ruled December 30 in a test case.
Involved were two of the 270 mem
hers of local 63, Textile Workers Un
ion (CIO), who had struck in July
1939 at the plant of Cheney Bros. Co.,
Manchester, Conn.
Odium ruled that they had disquali
fied themselves by participating in a
labor dispute in which their own in
terests were involved.
The petitioners were William Dun
can, one of four weavers ordered to
operate four looms instead of the cus
tomary two, and Henry Tedford, who
did not report for work when ho
learned of the walkout. Crux of the
disputé was the stretchout from two
looms to four.
You cannot control what you do not
MEMPHIS—(FP)—Boss Edward H,
Crump, mayor of Memphis for about
10 seconds, devoted his entire term
to an attack on the CIO. Standing
on a railroad platform before leaving
for a football game in New Orleans,
Crump canceled an Invitation to the
American Newspaper Guild (CIO) for
its 1940 convention, extended by his
predecessor, Watkins Overton, who
had held office for 12 years.
"I have always believed in fair or
ganized labor and my record so
speaks, but I am opposed to the CIO,"
Crump declared. "If the CIO could
entrench itself in Memphis, this city
would go back 10 years."
In New York, Executive President
Milton Kaufman of the ANG retorted
that "if Memphis is more than Boss
Crump, then the Guild will meet in
"The Guild is meeting there at the
invitation of working newspapermen
who live there," he said. "These men
are members of a CIO union which is
promoting and defending democracy
in America,
plains his attitude."
Crump was elected as a substitute
candidate for Rep. Walter Chandler
who, because of a local law, could
not run for the office while he held
his congressional seat. Upon assum
ing office and delivering his Jdast
Perhaps this fact ex
against the CIO, Crump promptly re
signed, and the city council shortly
afterward elected Chandler as mayor.
under the direction of Merlin Miller,
educational director of C. C A., and
V. S. Alanne, member of the educa
tional staff of Central Co-operative
The training school, running to Jan
uary 27, includes courses on co-opera
tive principles, public relations, busi
ness problems, organization and edu
cational methods, merchandising of
Co-op products, bookkeeping ami fi
nance. Special evening lectures are
being given by cooperative leaders
from many sections of the country.
Midland Co-operative Wholesale,
Minneapolis, will hold its annual in
stitute for Co-op managers and cm
ployes at Camp Ihduhapi on Lake In
dependence January 29 to February
24. Using instructors drawn from the
business and educational staffs of
Midland, the school will offer courses
similar to those at the C. C. A. school.
NEW YORK.— (FP)—The consum
ers co-operative movement is starting
the new year with its most intensive
program of employe training to date,
the Co-operative League announced.
Before the New Year's bells ceased
ringing, employes and prospective em
ployes from Co-ops in every state
served by the Consumers Co-operative
Assn, gathered in North Kansas City,
Mo., for a four-week training course
For the first time, the school will be
Fanners Union Co-ops in North
Dakota will hold their annual train
ing school In Jamestown, N. D., for
four weeks beginning January 29. At
Columbus, managers of 79 country
wide co-operative associations in Ohio
will meet January 1G for the annual
managers' institute of the Ohio Farm
Bureau Co-operative Assn.
A unique management training
course in New York will be offered
jointly by Rochdale Institute, Consum
er Distribution Corp., and Eastern Co
operative Wholesale. These three or
ganizations have set up a Council for
Co-operative Business Training which
managers' training school.
The school, which will run from
February 5 to May 27, will be under
the direction of Dr. Rudolph Treun
fels, who has had years of experience
as an executive and consultant on
grocery distribution.
Mississippi To
Abandon Subsidies
For Sweatshops
JACKSON, Miss.—(FP)—Mississip
pi's "Balance Agriculture with Indus
try" plan, which has attracted wide
attention throughout the country, will
be either abolished or completely re
vised by the new state administra
tion, Gov.-elect Paul B. Johnson has
The "Bawi" plan, inaugurated by
present Gov. Hugh L. White, has been
criticized inside and outside the state
because of its subsidization of private
manufacturers who pay low wages. A
number of sweatshop industries have
migrated to Mississippi.
"I am opposed to public bond issues
for the benefit of a private firm or
individual," Johnson told reporters.
He did not say whether his adminis
tration would lead any effort to cor
rect some of the labor abuses preva
lent in many of the state's Industries.
WASHINGTON. — (FP) — Reports
from a selective group of wholesale
firms throughout the country reveal
that wholesalers' sales in November
Increased more than 9% over Novem
ber, 1938, the department of com
merce has announced. Reports from
2,814 wholesale firms placed the total
amount of sales in November at $217,
124,000, as compared with $198,807,000
in November, 1938, and $230,634,000
in October, 1939.
TOLEDO.—(FP)— The Toledo In
dustrial Union Council may establish
public soup kitchens to feed the city's
37,000 unemployed, few of whom are
now receiving relief.
Insurance executives and the Na
tional Association of Insurance Agents
which launched an attack on the co
operative movement at their annual
convention in Boston, October 3, 4 and
5 have extended their attack on co
operatives to almost every section of
the country, according to the Co-op
erative League of the USA. Speak
ers attacking the co-operative move
ment accuse it of "the creation of a
new economic democracy" and declare
that it is "un-American" because it
attempts to give the producer more
for his goods and at the same time
lower the purchase price to the con
Speaking at Little Rock, Arkansas,
before the mid-year meeting of the
Arkansas Association of Insurance
Agents, Frederick W. Doreraus de
clared, "This (co-operative) plan has
as its foundation the sale of produc
ers' goods and services through mar
keting co-operation at the highest pos
sible figure and the purchase of com
modities at wholesale for distribution
through consumer co-operation. . , We
know that such a plan doesn't square
with the economic foundation upon
which the business of this country
has been built."
Addressing a Rotary Club luncheon
In Rochester, New York, Ray Murphy,
former national commander of- the
American Legion and now assistant
general manager of the Association of
Cdsualty and Surety Executives, de
clared. "The co-operative movement is
revealed as a planned program for the
complete overthrow of our tried and
true system of private enterprise.
Once the American people know the
truth about the co-operative move
ment in America they can be trusted
to send it back to Europe."
The Ohio Farm Bureau News, tak
ing issue with the charge that co
operatives are "un-American" count
ered with the question, "Is Democracy
The same Mr. Murphy, who is cred
ited by many sources as being the
chief instigator in the drive against
co-operatives and author of the vicious
anti-co-operatlve pamphlet, "The Road
to Ruin" which is being privately cir
culated among insurance agents, de
clared later in an address before the
Indiana Association of Insurance
Agents that "If properly directed and
in the right bands, the co-operative
could do a service for the consuming
Bethea declared
At White Sulphur Springs, W. Vir
ginia, T. W. Bethea told the Interna
tional Association of Casualty and
Surety Underwriters and the National
Association of Casualty and Surety
Agents that he had been retained to
seek methods of dramatizing the capi
tal stock insurance system and as a
result, urged insurance agents to
stress the "security" and
service" of the private profit insur
ance companies and point out the
dangers of the co-operative movement.
He declared "the biggest and most
dramatic point and the one we have
most successfully employed (in selling
capital stock company insurance) has
been the story of the co-operative
that in order to fight the
Montana Co-operatives
Labor Organizations
and the Farmers Union
And Place Your Orders Early for
Tank Wagon Books
Circular Letters
Annual Statements
Notices of Meetings
Dance Tickets
Filing Cards
Wheat Storage
Grain Checks
Order Blanks
We Employ Union Workers and
Use Union Made Paper
Co-operatively yours
Box 838
Helena, Montana
lives, "agencies hold night meetings—
two or three agencies at a time—and
even the stenographers and office
boys, .persons not usually associated
with the soliciting of insurance, are
In Oakland, Calif., Raymond L. Ellis,
assistant vice president of the Fire
men's Fund Insurance Company made
a slashing attack on the consumer
co-operative movement before the Cal
ifornia Association of Insurance
Agents. Immediately following his
attack, the Hunters Point Co-operative
Society in San Francisco Invited him
to become a member of their co-oper
ative and participate in the grand
opening of their new co-operative
Mr Ellis, in his address to the In
surance Agents pointed out that "too
frequently we see business men buy
ing from co-operatives for a passing
advantage—possibly these business
men who have transactions with con
sumer co-operatives do not realize
that in the final analysis all business
men are consumers." Following the
convention the Profit Motive Institute
of Los Angeles announced a concerted
campaign against the consumer co-op
erative movement.
In Springfield, Mass., Harvey R.
Preston, a local Insurance executive
threatened to resign as a director of
the Springfield YMCA because the
"Y" had allowed the local consumer
Mr. Preston denounced the consumer
co-operative movement as "a commun
istic trend" and "a menace to the
economic structure of the U. S.," and
announced that he would bring Harold
P. Janisch, general manager of the
Associated Insurance Agents and
Brokers in Springfield to "expose" the
Prominent Springfield citizens im
mediately sprang to the defense of
the Co-op. Quentin Reynolds, man
ager of the Eastern States Farmers
Exchange declared that "the co-opera
tives believe in individual initiative
and private property," and declared
"Consumer Co-operation is as antag
onistic to communism as it is to fas
cism. It is incompatible with either.
It is a bulwark against both."
The Springfield Republican in an
editorial, declared "to accuse these
private voluntary co-operatives of be
ing 'fellow travelers' with 'commun
ism' and therefore as being dangerous
to the American system and way of
life is seen to be ludicrous in the
light of their long history in Great
Britain, Scandinavia, Canada, and this
"The Republican congratulates the
manager of Eastern States Farmers
Exchange, Quentin Reynolds, on his
brief, clarifying and convincing de
fense of the co-operatives against un
warranted attack."
The Springfield Co-operative re
ported that the resultant publicity
brought it the biggest business it had
ever had, strengthened the loyalty of
its present members, and brought in
new members. Co-operatives in other
sections of the country welcomed the
reams of free publicity growing out of
the private profit Insurance mens' at

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