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THE PEOPLE'S VOICE raUf£ 1 1 o o. <\ -2 K 0 «ft ▼ V. "A —'—«f. -O' Eric£ Five Cents » OH HELENA, MONTANA, JUNE 5, 1942 Vol. Ill—No. 27 NATION LOSES LABOR OF 400,000 MEN PER YEAR f BY ACCIDENTS, SICKNESf f o Medical Authority Claims Few Plants V Less Than 1,000 Employees Maintain ß * Industrial Health Service; Since It Takes 18 Men in Factories To Keep One Soldier in Field, Health-Accident Services Needed. - Vf MUSKEGON, Mich.— (FP)—The labor of 400,000 men for etnire year could easily be added to the nation's manpower by adequate medical and safety measures in the plants, Dr. Morris Raskin, Detroit industrial health consultant, told the Muskegon convention of the Michigan CIO Council May 27. "Last year," Raskin said, "400,000,000 man-days were lost by an of accident and authorities believe reason Medical that 20% of this loss could be saved by adequate medical and safety measures. "The loss through accident and ill ness now averages 10 man-days per worker per year. You may compare this figure with only two man-hours lost by reason of strike or lockout." The doctor charged that at present plants with less than 1,000 employes that maintain industrial health serv ices are the exception. In plants with less than 600 employes it is very rare to have even a full-time nurse. "More frequently," he declared, "the watchman or elevator boy gives first aid to the injured. Occasionally ar rangements are made with a neighbor hood physician who never visits the plant and has no concept of a working environment. In Great Britain since the outbreak of the war every plant that employs more than 250 men is required to have a health service within the plant. "Union contracts should contain health clauses which provide for joint committees of union and management to establish standards of safety, speed of work, dust control etc. In areas where population has Increased be cause of war production hospital and clinical facilities should be constructed through federal aid. "It is said that it takes 18 men in the factories to keep one soldier In the field. The health of the workers is therefore a prime consideration in the country's victory program." CO-OP DIVISION MOVES TO NEW QUARTERS With the removal of the Farm Cred it Administration from Washington to Kansas City, the co-operative research and service division—the only com plete FCA unit to remain in the cap ital—has occupied quarters in the South Building of the Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and Indepen dence Avenue. Coincident with the shift of the di vision to its new offices, came word that Tom G. Stitts, chief of the divl-^ sion, has been named chief of the dairy and poultry branch of the Agri cultural Marketing Administration, succeeding Ed Gaumnitz, who had served as acting chief. The appointment is understood to be temporary, and Dr. Stitts expects to return to the FCA co-operative re search and service division. In the meantime, he is keeping in close touch with its activities. Omer W. Herrmann, head of the cotton branch of the division, has been named acting chief in Dr. Stitts' absence. »■ TRESPASSING AT THE CAPITAL By A. I. HARRIS Treasury After Tax Dodgers; House Committee Ponders It's not so advertised, but the move of the treasury in presenting sensa tional tax-dodging congressional committee last week has all the earmarks of being de signed to arouse public opinion and put the heat on the house ways and means committee. The ways and means committee, now drawing up a new tax bill, isn't showing any inclination to do any thing that will hurt anybody but the little fellow. Its hearings are all in executive session, with its members pledged to secrecy. The committee would like to con vince Mr. Public that a general sales tax is inescapable. But the reactions that are coming in aren't so good. The people are getting on to the fact that there are millions upon millions of dollars in tax-dodgers' money es caping taxation, as well as many holes by which the wealthy escape payment ot their just share of taxes, committee isn't doing anything about plugging up these holes. The committee has before it testi mony of Randolf Paul, treasury tax expert, that they could pick up the neat sum of $392,000,000 for Uncle Sam in two lumps: one by doing away with tax-exempt securities, and the other by eliminating the phoney method of "percentage depletion" used by oil, gas, and mining Industries and substituting therefor a scientific cost of depletion method. As for tax-exempt securities, state and local, It is obvious that the wealthy are going into this field in a big way for the purpose of escaping taxes. The While large estates a few illness.♦ N. E. A. JOINS LABOR FIGHT OF THE N.A.M. CHICAGO—(FP)—In an attempt to penetrate the education field with anti-union propaganda, the Natl. Assn, of Manufacturers has launched a series of Joint conferences with the Natl. Education Assn., which has been accused in some communities of be ing a company union for teachers. The conferences are similar to those promoted with some church groups by an N. A. M. committee. An announcement in the May issue of The Journal of the N. E. A. said: "The purpose of the conferences Is to provide a means change of opinions and for the de velopment of understandings regard ing the problems of education in the war and the after-war period." The first conference was in Colum bus, O., May 18 and the second will be in June in Denver, just before the N. E. A. convention. Ten other con ferences are planned, each to be at tended by some 50 representatives of each organization. Th Kenosha (Wls.) Labor, AFL-CIO paper, charged that the new alliance was part of the anti-union campaign being carried on by the Natl. Indus trial Information Committee, a trans mission belt fo rthe N.A.M., which is raising a $1,000,000 fund to fight la-? bor. The labor paper noted that The Journal of the N. E. A. "mentions only the N. A. M., and forgets to mention the front committee, the N.I.I.C." The N.I.I.C. statement calls for "a program of close co-operation with the N.E.A. and other organizations, and a series of direct conferences be tween educators and businessmen in response to educators' growing recog nition of the necessity to emphasize American principles as well as the facts about the American way." REFRIGERATOR SALE RULES ANNOUNCED The WPB has established rules for the disposition of the approximately 600,000 domestic mechanical refriger ators now frozen in the hands ot dis tributors and manufacturers, new order provides that after June 15, refrigerators may be sold (1) only to fill contracts or purchase orders for the armed forces, (2) upon a cer tificate of transfer issued by the WPB director of industry operations, or (3) to the Defense Supplies Corpora tion or any other RPC agency. The years ago showed about 4 per cent invested in such securities, the latest figure available — for 1941 — showed that it had arisen to 16 per cent. To day it is even greater. Here are figures showing how the wealthy oil and gas companies are using the "percentage racket, which are now in possession of the committee: The 1941 revenue act levied a com bined normal and surtax rate of 31 percent on net income of corpora tions in excess of $25,000, as well as an excess profits tax with rates up to 60 per cent. The Phillips Petroleum Co., with a net income of $23,515,835, paid a corporate income tax of only 26.8 per cent; Texas Corporation, with a net income ot $67,704,081, paid a tax ot 23.4 per cent. Skelley. with a net income of $7,679,826, paid 23 per cent, with Union Oil of California, with a $7,700,732 net Income, paid but 19 per cent. But these are all com panies that pay much higher than the great majority. Most of them fall In the class of the Houston Oil Co., which paid only 2 per cent on a net income of $1,235,400. What will the committee do about all this? It It follows its inclination, it will do nothing. Mr. Common Tax payer is easier prey. It won't act un less it is forced to act. The tax bill probably will not be reported out un til July 1, and maybe not then. Which shows that they are afraid of the cars. depletion" ♦ It Must Be the "Heat" Jesse Jones, Washington's "greatest bottleneck," certainly has come upon evil days. The other day, in order to get out of a tight spot, he had to (Continued on Pave Four) iH PROFITS Its Figures on Percentage of Profits Doesn't Jibe With Actual Percentage of Profit On a Basis of Capitalization According to Lobbyist. CHICAGO.— (PP)—Declaring that the preliminary report on war profi teering by the house naval affairs committee is unfair, the Natl. Assn, of Manufacturers May 25 reiterated its stand against a ceiling on profits. Both the N. A. M. and the U. S. Chamber of Commerce have de manded a celling on wages. The N. A. M. distributed a 65-page analysis of the committee's report at a production conference of the asso ciation and the Illinois Manufacturers Assn, here May 26. In an attempt to create the impres war contractors are not ex torting huge profits from the govern men, the N. A. M. cited the commit tee's figures on profits for war orders, which averaged from 4.9% to 8%. Actually the profit percentage for war orders is not the essential figure, as testified to the committee by James E. Barnes, veteran lobbyist for the Todd Shipyards Corp. that even If the government cut the profit on Todd's orders to 4%, the company would still make 50% prof its on its capitalization. Instead of being unduly concerned about the possibility of war million aires, the government should be think ing of the effect of war business and taxation on manufacturing companies, the report concluded, ignoring the fact that after all taxes were paid, U. S. corporations last year increased their profits by record breaking per centages. Barnes said NEW DEFENSE AREAS ARE DESIGNATED Three additional defense rental areas have been named In the Rocky Mountain states, bringing to a total of fourteen the number ot areas in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Mon tana and Wyoming which are subject to federal rent control if, within sixty days, rents are not being held at the levels of March 1, 1942. The three new areas are centered about Anaconda, Mont., Casper, Wyo., and Brigham, Utah. The eleven pre viously named defense rental areas center about Colorado Springs, Den ver, and Pueblo, in Colorado; Chey enne, in Wyoming; Albuquerque, Ros well and Silver Clty-Lordsburg, in New Mexico; Provo, Salt Lake-Ogden and Tooele-Wendover, in Utah; and Butte, in Montana. No defense ren tal areas have as yet been designated in Idaho. In announcing the new areas, Clem W. Collins, regional administrator for the Office of Price Administration, de clared: "We don't have the workers in our war effort worried by rent rises. And we won't have, as far as we can prevent it. Rent control is a war measure. It's one of the most important parts of price control, since rent takes more than 20 per cent out of the pocket of the average wage earner. "The rent control program ip grow ing just as our war production pro gram is growing. Every landlord and every tenant must co-operate, doing so, they make a great contribu tion to our war effort on the home front." By NEXT SUNDAY NAMED PUBLIC ENLISTMENT DAY June 7, 1942, marks the six months anniversary of the treacherous bomb ing of Pearl Harbor. With America's war effort now striding forth in the most convincing fashion In all parts of the world, and with production lev els reaching the peak, the Navy— which suffered most from the Japa nese attack monies conducted all over the United States will, at special cere once more answer the Nip ponese challenge. Public enlistments in all branches of the Navy will take place in town squares, at capitol build ings, and civic halls. This is a signal opportunity for men between the ages of 17 and 60. Recruiting offices in Butte, Billings, Great Falls, Helena and Missoula, will be open until 10 p.m. each night to contact those appli cants who want to show their colors and join America's fighting arm. Clergymen, educators, law-makers, factory workers, farm-hands—and in general—the great force of red blood ed American citizens will take part in these ceremonies at the exact hour corresponding to the time that the first enemy bombs were dropped on Pari Harbor; that is, 7:55 a. m. Hono lulu time, and in Montana, 12:25 p. m. Mountain War Time. The men who enlist next June 7 will be in effect the AVENGERS OP PEARL HARBOR. They will serve as a spiritual symbol of America's Indignation and hatred of aggression, themselves to victory and assuring the world of the American Navy's courage and conviction. They will be dedicating. More than (Continued on Pave Four) CO-OPS FIGHT FOR RUBBER FROM GRAIN ' SCOTTS BLUFF, Neb.— (FP) — Di rectors of the Consumers Co-operative Assn, meeting here have Joined the battle to produce synthetic rubber for America's war needs from farm prod ucts. The use of wheat and other grains for producing industrial alcohol which in turn can be used for synthetic rub ber has beén fought successfully by the big sugar interests of the east who now have a monopoly In the al cohol field. It is also opposed by the oil trust, which hopes to collar the synthetic rubber business. The C. C. A. directors voted un animously to form a subsidiary for the manufacture of alcohol from farm Government figures show products. that 80,000,000 bushels of wheat or corn would produce 200,000,000 gal lons of alcohol to make 220,000 tons of rubber or more than a fourth of what the U. S. needs. COX DEFENDS POLL TAX BUT SEES ITS END WASHINGTON—(FP)—Never one to run counter to the wishes of an audience, be It ever so humble, Rep. Eugene Cox (D,, Ga. ), often cited as the living example of the evils of the poll tax, told an audience here that he believed that the "poll tax has out lived its usefulness." Cox's views were expressed to an audience listening to an American Forum of the Air" program after the program was concluded. While the was being broadcast Cox stoutly defended the poll tax. Upon the announcement that the broadcast was over, Cox asked per mission of the chairman to make a statement. Granted the permission he informed the startled studio audience that he believes the people of the south are opposed ot the poll tax and that it soon will be repealed. The only hitch in Cox's pronounce ment was the declaration that such action would have to taken by the states and ought not be in the form ot the pending measure abolishing the poll tax as a requirement for voting in a federal election. Supporting Cox dur'ng the program was Rep. Joe Stearns (D., Ala.), a member of the Dies committee who offered to "box the jaw" of a listener who shouted, "That's a lie" when the Alabaman contended that the "colored people started this war." Starnes explained that by "colored people" he meant the Japanese. Herbert Agar, editor of the Louis Later ville Courier-Journal, and Sen, Claude Pepper (D., Fla.) opposed the poll tax during the debate. tr THE WASHINGTON SCENE By HENRY ZON Voters are the umpire this year and a lot of the representatives who have been batting foul balls all over the grandstand are due to fan out. Rep, Charles Faddis (D., Pa.) was one of the first to be retired to the showers this year as the voters in Pennsylvania primaries jerked their thumbs over their shoulders, side has not yet been retired but Faddis was one of the leading slug gers for the antl-laborites. The Chairman of a military affairs sub committee, Faddis consistently used his position to furnish fuel to those on his side who claimed that business was simon pure and labor blackguards were retarding the production of war materials. Pennsylvania voters ap parently didn't believe him. Faddis' committee made three re The first praised the Aluml ports. num Co. of America and declared that Alcoa had given "100% co-operation" to the defense program. The second report lamented the fact that "charges and innuendoes af fecting the dollar-a-year men have un fortunately become 1 an indoor sport in Washington" and found that "the services rendered by the dollar-a-year men have been extremely useful and in many cases indispensable to the conduct of the war program." The third report consisted in an attack on the Rural Electrification Administration and charged that it had wasted copper in building new power lines. Hired as counsel to the committee was H. Ralph Burton who, according to documents on file with the clerk ot the house, acted as counsel for the Natl. Union for Social Justice, the Charles Coughlin organization. Typical of Faddis' remarks was his statement on the rubber shortage in hearings before his subcommittee. The soon-to-be-ex-congressman declar ed, "We would have gotten started sooner if the Work Projects Adminis tration wasn't in our road. We have to have the WPA instead ot tin, man ganese and rubber." "Can," one of the reports of his committee asked, "the impractical, theoretical, pseudo-intellectuals who are already planning our foreign and domestic, ecoonmlc, social and polit Pnve Four) (Continued PRESIDENT ASKS FOR BIG HOUSING SUM Stresses Urgent Need for More Family Housing at Industrial Plants; Much of Funds Will Return Through Rents and Later Sales. WASHINGTON,—(FP)—More than ever before in our history we need houses to help win the war. President Roosevelt told congress May 27 In a special message asking the appropri ation of an additional $600,000,000 to house 1,600,000 workers expected to migrate to war centers. ''This war." the President said, "in volves a total national effort and in dustrial mobilization. Industry cannot effectively mobilize and plants cannot expand with sufficient rapidity unless there are enough houses to bring the worker to the job, keep him on the job, and maintain his efficiency morale." The President noted that congress has already appropriated $1,020,000, 000 for war housing but said that this figure is less than 1% of the funds made available for war purposes. "The allocation of war funds for the shelter of the men and women leav ing their homes to serve our war in dustries is a wise and established na tional policy," he added. The President cited reports from all over the country which Indicate, he said, a rising need for housing run ning far ahead of the supply and threatening seriously to reduce the ef fective use of war plants unless rem edied at once. Every effort is being made, he de clared, to conserve the present supply of housing by converting local plants and using new to war purposes (Continued on Page Pour) EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION ORDERED ENDED WASHINGTON—(FP)—Eight large corporations in New York and New Jersey were found guilty of discrimi nating against persons because of their race and ordered to cease such discrimination by the President's com mittee on fair employment practices. The findings were the second to be Issued by the committee, it previously having ordered a group of firms in the Chicago area to stop discriminat ing againest prospective employes be cause of race. Named by the committee as violat ing the President's order were the Wright Aeronautical Co., Patterson, N. J. ; Becton, Dickinson & Co., East Ruhterford, N. J. ; Fairchild Aviation Corp., Jamaica, N. Y.; Babcock & Wilcox, Bayonne, N. J.; Carl Norden, New York, N. Y., Tlteflex Metal Hose Co., Newark, N. J., Continental Can Co., East Rutherford, N. J., and Iso lantite, Belleville, N. J. Fairfield and Tlteflex were named for having refused employment to Jews, against negroes. Prior to the hearings the Wright corporation told the committee that it had advised each ot its 900 super visory employes of thier duty to avoid discrimination and announced the em ployment of a negro in its personnel department to assist in recruiting and upgrading workers. Continental Can also issued Instruc tions to its employment officers prior to the hearings directing an end to discrimination against negroes. Findings were issued on the basis of hearings held in New York on Feb ruary 16 and 17. The others discriminated STENOGRAPHERS AND TYPISTS URGENTLY NEEDED Are you a typist or stenographer who could take a Job in Washington working for Uncle Sam in one of the war agencies? If you are, your gvoernment can use your services. Or perhaps you could start imme diately to take typing and shorthand lessons in order to qualify for stenog rapher and typist Jobs now open in Washington. Go to the nearest first or second class post office and ask for Civil Service information on these jobs which pay $1,440 a year—or $120 a month. The Civil Service commission alone Is hiring 1,000 stenographers a week to work for the federal government in Washington. The supply of quali fied personnel Is running short. The demand is expected to continue to be great for at least two years. Here is a chance for girls to be vitally useful in the war effort. Here is an opportunity to experience life in the nation's capital, which also has become the capital of the world as a result of our united war efforts. In Denver, the Civil Service com mission will take your application, give you a brief examination and hire you for a Washington position all in one day if you have had the necessary shorthand and typing experience. Applications are being accepted and examinations given every Tues day night at the Customhouse offices of the commission in Denver. (Continued on Pave Fonr) 'TWO GREAT NEWSPAPER STORIES TODAY -WAR AND J Importance of Co-ops Second Only To the War Says Author, "The People's Business"; So Little Fanfare About Co-ops, Most People Don't Know About Them; Gives People a Stake in the "American Way. .. NEW YORK.—Newspaperman Joshua K. Bolles, author of last year's best seller, "Father Was an Editor," declared last June that "There are two great newspaper stories today—the war and the development of the consumer co-operatives in America.' the country had completely neglected the second story, Bolles Irked at the fact that the newspapers throughout —-43et STOCK EXCHANGE IS JUST LIMPING ALONG By SCOTT NEARING New York's Stock Exchange cele brated 150 years of business on May 18. There was a big open air meeting at Broad and Wall Streets, with bands, speeches and war bond sales. Mes sages of congratulation were read from President Roosevelt, Gov. Her bert Lehman and Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau. The next day only 376,000 shares were sold on the Exchange (100,000 less than the same day a year before and about 1/5 of the sales needed to keep the Exchange running on a prof itable basis). Stock prices as a whole declined and there were sharp losses in A. T. & T., duPont and other im portant issues. Only airplane stock were strong. This disastrous day on the Ex change followed many equally disas trous predecessors. Stocks have been slumping for months and the price of Stock Exchange seats is about 1/20 what it was in 1928. The Stock Exchange hummed with business during the Golden Twenties. Two hundred fifty-nine million shares were sold in 1922; 454,000,000 in 1926; 920,000,000 in 1928. Sales slumped in the Hungry Thirties. Today they are a tenth of the 1928 volume. What has happened? Members of the Stock Exchange deal in securities; stock certificates which entitle the holder to share in the profits (if any) of business con cerns, and bonds which are, In effect mortgages. Owners of stocks and bonds receive dividends and interest that enable them to live without work on the work done by other people. Stock Exchange members make profits by buying and selling stocks and bonds. Before the 1929 stock crash large numbers of people were putting their money into such secur ities, Stock prices were rising, and lucky buyers got rich overnight. Since the crash, securities are less Stock prices have fallen. Buyers are few and the Stock Ex change Is living on its rapidly dim inishing fat. Early in its history the Stock Ex change helped to raise new capital and was a good medium for selling government bonds. As capital became more abundant, businesses financed their own Improvements and govern ment agencies sold direct to the buy This development left the Ex change little more than a largescale Page Four) secure. er. (Continued LABOR CALLS PEGLER ENEMY OF UNITED STATES WAR EFFORT Reprinted from IN FACT Eight million Americans read the daily column written by Westbrook Pegler and syndicated by Roy How ard, notorious labor-baiter, friend of Japanese appeasement, and head of the United Press which President Roosevelt has accused of being an outright liar on several occasions. Ac cording to the CIO News story, headed "Pegler Is A Liar," documen arty evidence proves that this notori ous anti-labor columnist also falsifies the poisonous statements he makes against -labor. Now at last men and organizations who believe in Amer ican democracy are beginning to take action. We note: 1. Alabama State American Federa tion of Labor resolution: "Pegler . . . is the builder of the Sixth Column movement." 2. Labor's Non-Partisan League, Conn., accuses Pegler of weakening America's war effort, asks all Con necticut papers to drop column. 3. Colorado Building Service Em ployees Inti. Union, Local 106, starts state-wide move to demand Roy How ard paper drop Pegler. 4. National Association for Advance ment of Colored People protests anti negro column: World-Telegram re fuses to print protest. 5. Newspaper Guild protests to President Roosevelt against appear ance of Pegler column In official AEF paper, Stars and Stripes. 6. Western Mechanics' Union No. 700, Los Angeles, protests to Presl dent Roosevelt against spread of Fas cist doctrines by McCormick, Patter son and Pegler. 7. Baltimore Industrial Union Coun out on a 5,000-mile jaunt to study the American consumer co-ops in action, co-op stores and oil stations, companies, He visited co-op feed depots, medical and buri al co-ops, credit unions, co-op mills, factories and refineries. The results of his study pub lished May 27 by Harper and Brothers in a book entitled insurance "The People's Business" re veals that there are now 2, 500,000 American families en gaged in consumer co-opera tive enterprises whose business last year totaled $700,000,000. "The amazing progress of the con sumer co-operatives in this country during the last decade," Bolles de clared, "has been accompanied by so little fanfare that the great majority of Americans are unaware that it is pointing toward a new and evolution ary step In our economic and social life." Bolles tells how already one-sixth of nil the farm supplies purchased in the U. S. are handled by consumer co-operatives, get their light and power from con sumer co-operative electric associa tions. 3,100 co-op grocery stores sup ply merchandise to half a million American families while 1,500 serv ice stations supply gas and oil to another halt million. "The co-opera tive method of doing business," he said, "has proved successful in almost every kind of enterprise." Speaking of the future of co-opera tives, Bolles said, "If it isn't possible (Continued on Page Four) 700,000 farm homes What You Can Do for Victory! E VERY American is asking ''What can I do for Victory?" Some men serve in the armed forces. Other men and women work in war industries, us can buy U. S. War Savings Bonds and Stamps. Are you on the honor roll of America's defenders? If not— join millions of others who are making every pay day Bond day. Start the ball rolling for a Pay-Roll Savings Plan in your office, factory, or store. Invest in America every pay day until Victory is won. All of ★ cil, CIO, passes a resolution condemn ing Pegler and elects a committee to call on Baltimore News-Post publisher to protest continuation. Protest Pegler to Roosevelt Using the appearance of Pegler's column in the AEF paper, Stars & Stripes, as a cause for protest, the largest group of newspapermen in America, NYC membership of Amer ican Newspaper Guild (ANG is some 17,000 strong, and few of the notorious "prostitutes of the press" among them) branded Pegler an enemy of national unity. We have received a statement from the Guild from which we publish excerpts: "The Newspaper Guild of NY mem bership on May 13 urged discontinu ance ot publication of a column by Westbrook Pegler .... in Stars & Stripes. . . . "Calling the attention of President Roosevelt to a report that Pegler was among the contributors to this soldier paper, the Guild charged that this columnist had since December 7 cast doubt on the wisdom of a United Nations victory, and by his writing in domestic newspapers had served the cause of disunity. Copies of the res olutions were directed to Chief of Staff Gen. Geo. C. Philip Murray and Mr. Wm. Green. (The resolution said in part:) "As citizens, as working newspaper men, and as trade unionists concerned with the ethics of our profession, with the patriotic duty to support the war effort, and conscious of the obligation of a union of newspapermen to keep up morale, the Newspaper Guild of NY's membership lodges this protest (Continued on Page Two) Marshall, Mr.