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DEMOCRACY AND RECONVERSION
DEFEATED IN THE U. S. SENATE 8 . By BRUCE SMITH, Butte In these momentuous and tumultu ous early weeks of 1946, when each day's recordings, by newspaper and radio, is topped by news of controver sies between management and labor, by strikes and the threat of more strikes, involving thousands and hun dreds of thousands, the most impor tant of all strikes, in its effect on contemporary history and its impact on the world's future, is given almost no attention. We refer to the strike of the minor ity against the majority taking place in the United States senate. This strike is being staged by six men who, in effect and in fact, say that the will of the majority shall not prevail.. These six men say that the Civil War was fought in vain. They say that the recent wars with Germany and Japan to establish democracy for the entire world were just two more bloody and greater human shambles which establishes nothing at all - so far as the United States senate is con ce \ j ' . .. . ,, . , And the majority in that supposed ly august and upper legislative body has admitted that it is helpless-con quered. They admit that Senator Bilbo and his small band of reactionaries are in control of the highest legislative body in a nation which proclaims to the world its championship of de mocracy. That is the spectacle of democracy defeated presented by the members of the United States senate, who are paid by the taxpayers of the entire country to serve the entire country. This country, the United States of America, is impotent to establish and record the will of the majority because a majority of senators, in cloakrooms, on junkets, and on campaign tours, declare that they are powerless to legislate so long as six senators say they shall not. That is the picture presented to the whole world—democracy in reverse as practiced in the United States senate, ' needed. No "cooling-off" periods are needed. The press and radio have recorded the facts and they are not denied. The six senators boast of their pow er to enforce their will on the entire country because of a hoary rule called "cloture," a majority of the senators shamelessly admit their Impotence. Is is any wonder that peoples in liberated (not enemy) countries say to our G.I.'s—"Why don't you go on home?" We recall that taxpayers of an earl ier day in this country threw the tea overboard in Boston harbor because they were taxpayers without represen tation. We should forget about Iran, Greece, Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Palestine, and all the others, and do some house cleaning here at home, beginning with the United States senate. Who are we to preach to the under privileged in the four corners of the world, about democracy, about the four freedoms, about equality, about majority rule? When we have none of these in the CMPERAÎIYE PRINTERS FOR Montana Co-operatives Labor Organizations and the Farmers Union CHECK YOUR NEEDS And Place Your Orders Early for ■ff Letterheads — Envelopes Invoices — Statements Checks — Receipts Wheat Storage Tickets Grain Checks Order Blanks Tank Wagon Books Salesbooks Circular Letters Annual Statements Notices of Meetings Posters — Dance Tickets Filing Cards and Etc. WE ARE EQUIPPED TO FILL ALL YOUR PRINTING NEEDS We Employ Union Workers and Use Union Made Paper Co-operatively yours EDUCATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE PUBLISHING CO. Box 838 Helena, Montana ^ wwM W wrm»wr»rw»«gP gggPgggggggHHHHHg)»aHHggBgKHHg«gaggg United States of America because six senators say they are going to rule, and they are making good their boast. Is that what our Fighting Men are coming home to? Is that why the workers in facto ries, in mines, mills, and in the for ests should not ask for and receive better returns for their labor? The people of the United States do not need congressional probers, nor the Federal Bureau of Investiga tion, to tell them who is holding up reconversion to a peacetime economy commensurate with the sacrifices of the people of the whole nation. And a majority in the United States senate has now capitulated —- dog ged it. (Continued from Pn K e one) ig estimated at 200 ,000,000 bushels, The jncome troub]e ig that „ farmerg „ their wheat holdings now> apd then under later pressure from the government should 8ell their new Suggestion Made— 1946 crop before January 1, it would concentrate the income from two crops jn Qne r That would run the farrae rs' income taxes up into the surtax brackets. Ag a resu it j SO me would have virtual ly to g j Ve away (h e re turn on a con siderab i e part 0 f the two crops. But by choosing just when to take repay ment in cash on the Ioan of wh eat. the f armerg could take it at such a ti me as assure that they would pay taxes on income from only one C rop of wheat in one year, p 0 r illustration, the farmers in the 2 0 per cent income bracket would be paying a tax of 30 cents on every bush el of wheati those in the 30 per cent j nC ome tax bracket would be paying 45 cents on every bushel, and those j n the 40 per cent bracket would be paying an income tax of 60 cents a bushei. The farraers also have been educat e d in the Northwest, Thatcher said, to hold back a year's crop, served both as an ever-normal gran It has ary against a crop aa a hedge against fears of inflation. in an effort to crack loose the dammed-up supply of wheat on farms and at the same time "give the farm er the same parity of treatment that congress has accorded to business," Thatcher proposed his novel plan of asking farraers to lend their tvheat to the government. Thatcher stated that "approximate ly $3,200,000,000 has been set aside as refundable to business by congress under the excess profits law. Business that does not make as much in this or the following year as it did In a fixed prewar period is entitled to re bates. "But, not a cent is refundable to the farmer," Thatcher said. "If the farmer has a crop failure there is no excess profits refund allowed him on his tax returns." NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS Please check the expiration date on the address slip on your paper and send in your renewals early to avoid missing an issue. DEMAND THE UNION LABEL! FIRST LOOK AT POLAND l ■ f à ù 1 h m i» Wm L sK vi * i £i| 2 The first of 399 farm horses shipped from the United States land on Polish soil. Mr. M. E. Hays (center), agricultural expert with UNRRA's Mission in Yoland turns over the first relief shipment of livestock to a representative of the Polish Ministry of Agriculture at the port of Danzig. During the German occupation a large number of the cattle and farm horses in Poland were wiped out. UNRRA is supplying livestock to en able the Poles to restore farm production so they can feed themselves. The SS Virginian (in the background) carried .399 horses, 307 cows and 11 bulls, part of the U. S. contribution to UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration). FORT PECK POWER a Poison, Montana, 1 February 9, 1946. The People's Voice, Helena, Montana. Enclosed herewith is a letter from the commissioner of the bureau of rec lamation which may be of some infor mation to your readers particularly those in the Fort Peck vicinity. Under separate cover is the fourth annual report of the Boulder Canyon project that should be of interest to all. I am particularly interested in the millage rate of this project which if I read it correctly is one mill, point .63 with a secondary rate of only one third mill per wk.-hr. (00034). This would seem to verify Jerry Locke's statement that the cost of electricity could be reduced to the diminishing point. In view of all the foregoing (if cor rectly stated) Old Rip was an early riser in comparison with "Uncle Jeffs" modern states rights free enterprisers. In conclusion I wish to say that I have recently secured copies of both the TVA and MVA bills and at no place do I find any material differ ence between them and in no place do I find any reason for anyone con cluding that any of our civil or politi cal rights are Involved. All enclosures (including the clip ping from the Phillips County News under date of January 31) are for such use of The Voice as they desire to make. Yours truly, J. O. BARNARD. February 1, 1946. Mr. J. O. Barnard, Poison, Montana. Dear Mr. Barnard; Senator Murray has referred to me your letter of January 1, 1946, and re quested that I write you directly rela tive to the sale of Fort Peck power to the Montana-Dakota Utilities com pany and the sale of power to the Southern California Edison company. Under provisions of the Fort Peck act of May 18, 1938, the bureau of o; reclamation has been charged with the responsibility of marketing Fort Peck power and the congress provided therein that in order to insure that the facilities for the generation of electric energy at the Fort Peck proj ect shall be operated for the benefit of the general public, and particular ly of the domestic and rural consum ers, the bureau shall at all times, in disposing of electric energy generated at said project, give preference and priority to public bodies and co-oper atives. In order to carry out the provisions of the Fort Peck act, to make power as widely available as possible at an early date in addition, to conserve critical materials and natural gas, ne gotiations were entered into with the Montana-Dakota Utilities company for the use of its existing transmission facilities. These negotiations result ed in a contract which became effec tive April 11, 1945. The rate sched- ! ules were approved by the Federal Power commission in accordance with provisions of the Fort Peck act, Sec tions 5 and 6 of which are quoted for your information: "Sec. 5. Schedules of rates and charges for electric energy produced at the Fort Peck project and sold to purchasers as in this act provided shall be prepared by the bureau and become effective upon confirmation and approval by the Federal Power commission, such rate schedules may" be modified from time to time by the bureau and shall be fixed and estab lished with a view to encouraging the widest possible diversified use of elec tric energy. The said rate schedules may provide for uniform rate or rates uniform throughout prescribed trans mission areas in order to extend the benefits of an integrated transmission system and encourage the equitable distribution of the electric energy de veloped at the Fort Peck project. "Sec. 6. It is the intent of congress that rate schedules for the sale of electric energy is or may be gener ated at the Fort Peck project in ex cess of the amount required for oper ating the dam and appurtenant works at said project shall be determined with due regard to and predicated upon the fact that such electric en ergy is developed from water power created as an incident to the construc tion of the dam in the Missouri river at the Fort Peck project for the pur poses set for in Section 1 of this act. Rate schedules shall be drawn having regard to the recovery (upon the basis of the application of such rate sched ules to the capacity of the electric fa cilities of Fort Peck project) of the cost of producing and transmitting such energy, including the amortiza tion of the capital investment over a reasonable period of years. Rate sched ■ ules shall be based upon an alloca tion of costs made by the Federal Power commission. In computing the cost of electric energy developed from water power created as an incident to and a by-product of the construc tion of Port Peck project, the Federal Power commission may allocate to the costs of electric facilities such a share of the cost of facilities having joint value for the production of elec tric energy and other purposes as the power development may fairly bear as compared with such other pur poses." The contract provides that, the United States will supply electric serv ice to the Montana-Dakota Utilities company for resale to its customers The contract further provides that the company shall pass on to its custom ers, through appropriate rate reduc tions, any and all savings, as ' de termined by the company with the ap proval of the secretary of the interior, which accrue to the company by rea son of the purchase of energy under the contract. The company agreed to make such rate reduction effective through new or revised rate sched ules within 90 days after delivery of energy under the contract. As a re sult of this provision substantial rate reductions have already been made. In addition the Montana-Dakota Util ities company under provision of the contract has granted a license to the United States to transmit electric en ergy over its electric transmission system, to the extent that it has ex cess available capacity in its trans mission system. The electric energy to be transmitted by thjj United States over the transmission system of the contractor shall be limited to such energy as is necessary for the follow ing classes of customers of the Unit ed States: (a) Irrigation and drainage pumping plants operated by the United States or by water users or irrigation dis tricts operating irrigation projects constructed or financed in whole or in part by the United States. (b) Co-operative project financed in whole or in part by the Rural Elec trification administration of the Unit ed States and other non-profit organ izations which purchase electric en ergy for resale to farm and/or rural customers. (c) War plants or establishments financed in whole or in part by funds of the United States and having a normal maximum demand of 1,000 kilo watts or more. The Montana-Dakota Utilities com pany's transmission lines are now be ing used to transmit government pow er developed at Fort Peck to some irrigation and REA projects. Negoti ations are being carried on with other potential customers to whom the gov ernment my transmit energy over the company's lines. The contract further provides for the cancellation of cer tain irrigation pumping contracts and rural electric service contracts be tween the Montana-Dakota Utilities company and others whenever the United States shall have entered into contracts with them for service by the government. In summary, the contract with the Montana-Dakota Utilities company does not in any way restrict, but rather enhances, the availability of power to those enti tled to preference under the law. The extent to which the provisions of Fort Peck act can be carried out is dependent upon appropriations by the congress. As you no doubt know funds have recently been pro vided for construction of the Fort Peck-Williston and Williston-Garrison dam high-voltage transmission lines. Funds have -also been provided for initiating construction of the Glendive Miles City transmission line and re lated facilities to supply irrigation pumping and commercial loads. We will continue to seek funds for exten sion of the transmission network at the earliest possible date. The facili ties which we are now proposing to build should be completed as soon as possible after the second Fort Peck generating unit has been installed and placed in operation. This unit will be rated at 15,000 kilowatts and is sched uled for completion in December 1946. You have also inquired about the sale of Grand Coulee power to the Southern California Edison company. Grand Coulee power is marketed by the Bonneville Power administration; however, none of this energy is sold to the Southern California Edison com pany. This company, pursuant to the Boulder Canyon Adjustment act. ob tains power generated at Boulder dam under a special contract. I am en closing for your information of the "Fourth Annual Report of Oper ations Under the Boulder Canyon a copy BEFORE WORLD WAR I .8 By JAMES D. GRAHAM The death of Will Thorne, British Socialist recalls the work -which was done in Western Europe prior to World War I in an effort to prevent that war taking place. In September 1907, British Foreign Secretary Earl Gray attended the an nual maneuvers of the German army, as the guest of the late Kaiser Wil helm II. ' When this became public, Kerr Hardie, the veteran Socialist in the house of commons rose and asked the speaker by what authority had Secretary Gray attended the army maneuvers in Germany as a guest of royalty? Gray replied that he went as a private citizen. Kerr Hardie made a great speech in the house of commons against war —charged Gray with being a party by giving moral sanction to Germany starting a war in Europe. At this time it was not generally thought in Britain that England and Germany would fight each other. The result of the speech by Kerr Hardie opened up a lot of things that showed the British and Continental workers that a general war was ap proaching. The British workers or weekly payments to the club whereby when the summer holidays came they could travel in groups to Germany and other countries on the Continent. The German Socialist workers followed and prepared to travel in groups to holiday in Britain, the workers of Britain and Germany were very popular. The Co-opera tives and unions of both countries made arrangements to entertain the visitors, to show them around and give them picnics etc. Speakers were exchanged between the two countries. In 1909 great mass meetings were held In England. Scot land. Wales and Belfast, Ireland, at which prominent Germans addressed the audience. One series of meetings were addressed by Jaure of France, Otto Bauer and Rosa Luxemburg of Germany, Walter Thomas Mills and ,T. Stitt Wilson of this country along with British speaker. British speak ers went to Germany but were not allowed to speak. They could travel These tours of Socialists but when they tried to ad dress an audience they were arrested and taken to Bremen, or Hamburg and placed on a British steamer bound for England. The British Socialists were never put in Jail, while under escort of the police they were treated cour teously and told they had to go home as they were not wanted. Later some of these visitors to Germany were al lowed to speak but when they men tioned anything about war, militarism they were promptly arrested. Ken Hardie visited Germany and arrangements were made for a large meeting in Berlin in one of the large halls of that city. The meeting took ft '8 FROM FARMER TO F ARMER *1 n_ February 5th, 1946 Mr. V. Hubert Johnson Clay County Edgar, Nebraska — Dear Sir: I read in the papers, how you are trying to organize a Nation Wide Farmers Strike against strike. Name ly to help organize Capitalists to de stroy Labor Unions—the only weapon the working man has to force the favored few—to give them a sem blance of a decent standard of living. What surprises me, is that there can be gathered together so many ignor ant farmers in so small a place as it appears to be in your locality. I am a farmer and have farmed for 33 years, but thank God, he gave me a few brains to think with—so I am not blinded by the False Propaganda in the Associated Press that is written for and by the Capitalists of this country. I am enclosing a clipping from The People's Voice, that I hope you will study and after doing so, I believe you will do some thinking and change your mind a lot. Prom your name I take it you are a Scandinavian, and they are not as a rule a stupid race. When they get facts they usually fight for what is right. I want to ask you a question. Did you ever stop to think, who are the \ customers of the farmer? And what makes them able to buy your meat, j milk, butter and wheat? The G. M. and other corporation heads do not I eat as much food as a man at labor, ! and perhaps they have one child : or two. Most of them have a lap dog. If labor gets a living wage, suffi- j cient for an American Standard of Living, we hear so much about—but j millions have not food, clothing, or | decent shelter and education. We as farmers in turn would get and be able to pay for the overalls and machinery you mention you cannot get. The farmer and laborer is in the Enclosure 297. same boat—if labor cannot buy the products the farmer produces, the farmer has no income. The only way the farmer can get a decent price for j what he produces, is when labor is able to buy and pay for the things he needs. It does not matter to labor if a loaf of bread is a nickel, if he has not the nickel. Yours truly, ANNA H. PALMER, Havre, Montana. NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS Please check the expiration date on the address slip on your paper and send in your renewals early to avoid missing an issue. DEMAND THE UNION LABEL! Project Adjustment act" which may be of interest to you. Very truly yours, MICHAEL W. STRAUS, Commissioner. place, the police were in the hall and on the platform ready to arrest the speaker it any attack was made on war. Kerr Hardie made his address which was a master effort. Rosa Lux emburg translated to the audience what Hardie was saying. He talked against the horrors of war and its sufferings and how unnecessary it was. The police were very much in terested. At times Hardie's remarks brought tears to the eyes of his listen ers, even the police were seen to take their handkerchiefs and wipe their eyes. If the police had orders to ar rest Kerr Hardie that night, they for got their orders. The workers of Europe were thrown at each other as savage beasts by masters and ruling classes of Eu Regardless of all the fraternalizing by the workers of the various coun tries of Western Europe, war broke out. rope. When war was started, Jaure was promptly assassinated by a fanatical tool of the militarists of Prance, while he was trying to arrange peace before the war goj too great a start. Kerr Hardie went to his home in Scotland and went to bed for about a week and died. The grand old man of the British Miners died of a broken heart. The horrors of human beings was too much for him. DISAGREES WITH MR. UNRUH Wolf Point, Montana, February 10, 1946. The People's Voice, P. O. Box 838, Helena, Montana. Dear Editor Bruce, Before I go into the main reason for writing this letter I want to tell you how much I enjoy "The People's Voice." It is to your credit that we have at least one paper in this state that prints the truth without being "candy-coated." It is regrettable that some people can not see the light after all these years concerning the Wheeler situa tion. I am particularly referring to the letter of in February 8th issue. I have Just recently returned to Montana, being discharged from the army in November and I was more than surprised to find the number of people here that still backed Wheeler and seemingly disregarded his war record. Speaking of a distaste, this will leave a coating on our tongues that will never be washed down. B, K.'s complete disregard for the bet-1 Working It Out— r (Condi ed from Pnjfe One) will and co-operation which exists be tween people of different religious and cultural backgrounds unless prejudice and discord are stirred up by forces making appeal to the lowest rather than the best elements in human na ture. The propaganda of prejudice is subtle, penetrating, and likely to ap proach us when we are least aware of it. The American labor movement has been a generous contributor to the re lief of the victims of war and perse cution, both in Europe and the East. Many of the trade unions have ear marked their contributions, as was natural, for the use of families of workers, and to be distributed with the co-operation of local trade union ists where possible. Fortunately, they have also specified that their funds should be distributed without regard to race, creed, or color. This is important in marking the determination of the American work ers that they will not succumb to anti Semitism and will stand with the de cent people of the whole world in pre venting inhumanities and persecutions of human beings. ? g 8 '82S2S2Z2S28SZ883S2SSS88S88SS8SZ8S2SSS28SSS3S2S8âS23i^SSSSZSSSSS3SS2SSSS3^Si3SS2SS3£»SS3SSS8888S8S8an LARGEST MUTUAL IN THE STATE ^^ntana Farmers Union m, IßäfiSSStk fil© « SP' //V (jy C?o/ir'ac/,yî / Sostf. Dependable Co-operative PETER BOKMA, Secretary WHEN YOU BUY CO-OP YOU ALSO BUILD partners Union Central (jkclianae 1 ■ INCORPORATED Wholesale Farm Supply Co-operative GENERAL OFFICE: SO. ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA THE OLD SO AND SO SAYS: :: 8 . No man is truly a radical unless he is right. Taking over the coal mines by the government in England will one day be regarded as a notable step in ad vance. It was a festering sore in the body politic of England and the peo ple acted in the only way they could —through the government. A good friend was telling the Old So and So the other day about the fight that had to be made a few years ago in his home town in Nebraska tor a municipally owned water system. Those who proposed it were de nounced as bolsheviks (thats before they began using the word commu nist), socialists, anarchists; it was against the law and order and would, almost set up a super-city government within the city. But the proposal won. It is a cinch that no congressman or senator who sympathized with Ger many, eitler before we were attacked or afterwards, will vote for making the loan to Britain. There are indecencies even in poli tics. It is an indecency to spread the propaganda the Germans used in France and other occupied countries of Europe in an effort to divide and rule. Burton K. Wheeler is doing it with a smirk on his face. Why? ferment and protection of our nation in the years of '39, '40 and '41; by his repeated "NO" to every bill that would have made us better prepared for the war that was inevitable; by his deliberately allowing his frank en velopes used to further the cause of the Steuben society and other nazi organizations; by his "Can't Happen Here" attitude which he carried up to the time of our Pearl Harbor attack; by his continued difference, even aft er war was declared with the admin istration in the time in our history when unity was so necessary for ulti mate victory and peace—by these and many other charges, it is my opinion that he should be on trial as Ameri ca's best contribution to nazfism and fascism. ' In Mr. Unruh's letter he speaks of Wheeler's aid in the drive for box cars and his fight for co-ops. Not having been back here for some time, I wouldn't know what his stand on Internal issues are but I would be in clined to think that his fight for co operatives is overstated. Surely Mr. Unruh, being the church member and American Citizen as he states in his letter to you, wouldn't consider these stands as offsetting Wheeler's undo ings. Of course, even the wrong at times, can be right. I understand that B. K. has promised to fight against the NT EA but this is just one issue that compared to all the matters in his po litical life is small Indeed. His fight against the MVA and his joining the Southern bloc in the FEPC (which ultimately killed this bill) shows that he is NOT backing the democratic legislation. If Mr. Unruh is interested in some real facts and good reading, I would suggest that he read "Under Cover" and "Black Mail." Quoting from Unruh's letter and ad ; dressing him—"I would advise you rather to go slow and better think twice." As for me, I think your paper is very well named; that you are doing an excellent job. I, too, am a member of the Farmers Union and support the Co-op movement. I, too, am a church member and an American citi zen, but I think it's about time get on the ball. For the betterment of our country in the coming election let's give Wheeler a dishonorable dis charge from the United States sen ate. we Yours for better thinking, N. J. DOUGHERTY.