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GREAT FALLS TIBUn NE.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES. On eeopy lyear, (in advance)..............$3.Wo Onelcopy 6 months,......................... 1..k) One copy S months.......................... 1.A1 Spaoiman copies, ........ ................ 10 Strictly in ad vance. The s c elation of the TBrIUNK in Northern Montana is guaranteed to exceed that of any pa per published in the territory. Address allcommraications to the TRIBUNE. GREAT FALLS, MONT. Patronize Home industry! The CATARACT ROLLER MILL .Is Makiin the Following Bran s: 'X X X X X X X x 1 DIAMO ND· X X X X x X X X "STRAIGHT." "Silver -:- Leaf." Protect Your Poperty Against Fire! BY PURCHASING -Hayarl Hanf-Grenua Fire The best Hand-Grenade Fire Extinguisher ever produced. Reliable, sim ple, economical: will not freeze or burst. Resists the action of all climates; will not deteriorate with age. EXTINGUISHES FIRES INSTANTLY. Easily broken, can be used by any one. The liquid contained in it is abso lutely harmless to the flesh and fabric. Everything it touches becomes fire proof, for whatever it falls.upon will not burn. We do not claim to extin tinguish conflagration, or usurp the place occupied by the Fire Department, but we emphatically hold that no incipient fire can live where the HAY WARD HAND-GRENADES are:used as directed, and thus conflagrations or disastrous fires are prevented. BE CAUTIOUS AND DO NOT PUR CHASE WORTHLESS AND FRAUDULENT IMITATIONS. Send for full particulars and one of new pamphlets containing proofs of the wonder ful efficiency of our Grenades in extinguishing actual fires.-No Private Residence, Hotel, Public Building or Manufactory should be without their protection. Address, Geo. D. Budington, Territory Ag't., CIREA.T F.ALLS, MONT. GRAND UNION HOTEL, Ft. Benton, Montana. STRICTLY FIRST CLASS HOTEL. Government Telegraph Office in Hotel. Special Rates to Families and Others by the Week or Month. FURNISHED ROOMS To Rent, With or Without Board. HUNSBERGER & CO., ECLIPSE Live , Feea aG Sale Stbles, Q-reat Falls, MontaznEL Hamilton & Eaon, - Proprietor Corral and Best of Accommodations for Feed Animals. Broken and Unbroken Horses For Sale. NEW STORE! Dunlap & Arthur, --DEALERS IN Goceries, Provisions, ' Harware, Steel Nails, Etc. A Share of Your Patronage Solicited. Groat Falls, - - - Montana PIONEER HOTEL CF-reat gEalls, Mvicrrt Best Table and Most Comfortable Rooms7 of any Hotel in Great Falls. Ch-arges FEeasonable Walker & Carter, - - - Prcps Dexter's Ferry Across the Missouri River above Sun 'river IS NOW RUNNING. W. O. DEXTER, Prop. OL, 1, GREAT FALLS MONTANA TERRITORY SATURDAY FERBUARY 20 1888 NO VOL, 1, GREAT FALLS, MONTANA TERRITORY, SATURDAY, FERBUARY 20, I886, NO.41 THE FIRST BULL'S RUN, WRITTEN FO TUE TRIBUNE. Nearly a quarter of a century has elapsed, and a new generation come into existence and grown up since the sounds of fratricidal strife was heard for the first time throughout the land. It is needless to enter here into the causes which instituted the struggle so momentous in our country's histo ry. It was forcibly presented by the President in his inaugural address. Our government could not continue to exist, half slave and half free. What= ever may have been the intention of the administration of Abraham Lin coln in regard to the slave institution they were not yet developed at the in ception of the rebellion. President Lincoln protested that no intention existed, and that no right accrued to the executive under the constitution to meddle with slavery; but the Southern leaders thought differently, and took the initiative by attacking the federal forces at Ft. Sumpter, South Carolina, thus bringing on the war. The war cry sounded all over the country, and the general uprising of the North beat responsive to the cry of the "Union forever." In the Northern and New England states and West, the feeling was intensely loyal and patriotic. The excitement was intense in Nei York city when the remains of Co Ellsworth arrived there from Alexan dria. Ellsworth was a very yount man, and a great favorite with Presi dent Lincoln, in whose law office he had studied. The Ellsworth Zouave were already famous for their effi ciency in drill, military organizatior and movements. They were stationec near Alexandria, Va., shortly afteo Mr. Lincoln assumed the presidency It was about that time rumored thai a strong party of detrminod men undc. Ben McCullock of Texas, were form ing at Alexandria for the purpose of attacking the Capitol, or by surprisE abduct the President. Certain it is that the confederates were in some force at Alexandria, and the stars and bars were floating from the most con spicuous buildings; noticably so from a hotel kept by a man nanod Jackson, at whose place the men under McCol lock assembled. Col. Ellsworth pro ceeded in person to the hotel accom panied by a soldier of his regiment named Brownell, for the purpose of hauling down the flag. Having done so, and returning down the stairway, he was shot dead by Jackson, who in turn was killed by Brownell. The youth of Ellsworth; the high rank he held; the fame of his regiment, as well as the friendship of the President, created wide-spread regret at his un timely death. Corp. Brownell was at once promoted to a captaincy in the regular army by the President, and Alexandria became occupied by Union troops. It was clearly more in keep ing with the duty of Col. Ellsworth, if he desired the flag removed, to have sent a file of soldiers with a non-com missioned officer to perform the duty which cost him his life. There was much contention and eagerness to capture some trophy to send home during the first days of the war, but this, like many other useless displays, soon dropped out of existence. Following on the death of Col. Ellsworth, occurred the attack on the Sixth Massachusetts volunteer3 while on their way to Washington. It at once became evident that peace was no longer attainable, and the call for 75, 000 men was promptly responded to. Somehow or other the administration did not at first .rnceive the magni tude of therebel/on. There was, how ever, one man in Washington who thoroughly understood the strength of the confederacy. He had recently came to Washington from the state of Louisiana, where he had been presi dent of a Military college, to offer his services to the government; and sin gular to relate he could not get the rank of Colonel of volunteers at the time. The individual referred to is one whose military genius has given him a portion of history's pages, and world wide renown; the hero of that great march from Atlanta to the sea, and known as Gen. Sherman. That great leader considered 500,000 men more approximate to the force requir ad to quell the rebellion than the number called for. Very little atten tion was given an opinion founded on personal and practical knowledge. Contrast the positions of Fremont mnd Sherman at the inception and the 'lose of the war. The former sur ounded by a body guard of Hunga rians and unapproachable to officers ·f lesser rank but superior intileet han his own. I have seen it stated iomewhere that Gen. Grant went to t. Louis to see .Gen. Fremont, and ould not get near him. There is no 0 undervalue the services of any man, he inclination is rather the other way, but the reference here cited goes to show the reason why the Union cause lost where it might have been tri s umphant, and why so many disasters e occurred in the first years of the war, e when men like Sherman were flopped I over. During the month of June and July e troops continued pouring into Wash e ington. Much difficulty presented it self by way of procuring arms and e equipments. The treasury and arsen al were empty. The small band of o regular troops were scattered in re mote places and no where available, f so it was with what was left of our navy. Owing to a chain of peculiar a circumstances, it must be conceded that President Lincoln had a hercu t lean task to accomplish. But he set a about it with a singular earnestness, o firmness, energy and zeal. The troops arriving in Washington were quarter e ed all over the city; in the White House, navy yard and suburbs. It is amusing to recall instances and oc currences of that period. About the poisoned wells, and the variety of r traps and snares laid up in the imag ination as likely to destroy the de fenders of the Union. I remember getting into the city of Baltimore shortly after the time the plot was laid to assassinnate Lincoln, which, however, happily failed. Among the soldiers on the train was one who kept the crowd in uproarious merri ment. For grimace mimicry, narra tive and song he had no rival. An old gentleman going to Washington, kept moving among the soldiers, giving words of ;encouragement and cheer. Our Actor, as the boys called Dan O'Leary, sang a song of his own com position in the most inimitible man ner, winding up as follows: "Perhaps one of these days a fine General I'll he, An' wont I drill the devil into Com pany G." Co. "G." was the one to which he belonged. The old gentleman. spoken of was elated, and had given Dan a basket, (a bottle of superior brandy). "You're in luck, Dan," exclaimed the boys. "Bad luck, ye mane," retorted Dan. "No," exclaimed his next neighbor, pointing to the bottle. "I'll give it to ye," turning it over to him as he spoke. The boys made a rush to the water pail and cup, and soon demolished the ardent. By that time Dan came nn. . "Much obliged to ye, Dan," all ex claimed. "Ye didn't drink it, did ye?" said Dan, with a countenance and leer that outdid Micky Free. "Certainly." "'My God !" he exclaimed. "I thought it was poisoned, or ye'd niver got it." The old Harper's Ferry musket, three buchshot and ball, warranted not to hit a haystack at one hundred yards, and the horse pistol; one chamber; more dangerous to the one using it, than to those used against, comprised the chief weapons of at tack and defense. Load and fire: aim low, to hit about the knee. One man wounded is bet ter than killed, because it takes two men to carry him to the hospital, and so takes two combatants away. In structions of this kind were quite gen eral. Most of the militia regiments were well drilled, but the additions of raw and inexperienced recruits; some of them handling a musket for the first time, was a groat disadvantage on some occasions. In the old times there were nine movements required to load the old smooth bore: 1. Handle cartridge. 2. Tear cartridge. 3. Charge cartridge. 4 Ram cartridge. 5. Return ram rod. 6. Cast about and prime. 7. Ready. 8. Aim. 9. Fire. From this it will be seen how sim ple the movements in loading have become. It was no uncommon thing to find as many as three or four char ges in some guns caused from over excitement or useless percussion caps. Had we the breech loaders in the time of whinch we speak the carnage would have been dreadful. About the mid dle of July the troops around Wash ington were concentrating to the front, Fairfax Court House was reach ed the first day out from Washington --and what days those were over such in old Virgina--dust, dust to the eyes, dust all over. Fairfax Court House is remarkable for the Court House, or that it had a Court House and nothing else at the time. It is named after the county, and the coun ty after Lord Fairfax of ante-revolu tionary days. The troops camped for a few days at Farfax and :,ome wanton ' de struction committed inthefew houses in the place; the orders of Gen Mc 3 Dowell were most strict in that re - spect, but no attention was paid them. s The three months men had a liberty the three years men had not. Diso I bedience of orders became punishable in the course of time, and the rules r and regulations enforced. Little of interest occurred on the line of march from Ft. Washington 1 to Fairfax Court House. At Center ville a small village on the road side, same as Fairfax the troops concoentrat ed. The country to the left is some what elevated and sometimes spoken of as the heights of Centerville, near ly as elevated as Mr. Rolf's house is from the level of the town of Great Falls. On the right some timber grows-here at Centerville I saw the first and last flogging in the army. Two stragglers hovering around the encampment were brought in, report stated they were spies. They were strong, dogged looking and resolute men. All day long they packed a log up an down the hillside accompanied by a sentinel. About a few hours be fore sundown the troops were formed in a hollow square-the two men brought in and received 50 lashes each. They never flinched and were defiant to the last. After the flogging they were put outside of the lines and warned that if again caught in the vi cinity a harder punishment awaited them. About two o'clock a. m. on Sunday morning the troops were in motion and marching at a rapid rate, in direction of the battle field. There were a few places along the road where some sand bags were placed, as if contemplating a line of defense. Whatever obstacles were in the way were removed by Col. Corcoran's regt. who were in advance. The 69th New York (Irish) on Friday preceding the general engagement, Corcoran had been feeling the position of the enemy and had a brush with him incurring heavy loss. This famous regiment was camped near the battlefield on one of those streams called "runs," abounding in the vicinity such as Bulls run, Cub run, Deep run, Mine run, etc. About 6 a. m. the Union troops were moving to the field, com ing by the way of the stone bridge and part by a road made through a belt of timber by the engineer corps. I never saw a finer spectacle than the Union troops presented coming to the field marching in regimental line. On, on they came one regiment after another like so many incoming waves. The uniforms were fresh if not new, the equipments bright and clean, bay onets fixed and glistening in the sun shine. Never before having seen so many men in battle array, to my inex perienced mind this force seemed ca pable of going right on to Richmond, or any place it wanted to go to. Emerging from thecover afforded by the timber and coming on to the farm house, the bullets commenced to whiz -here every blanket, knapsack and haversack were piled, and at this point of the line it was easy enough to understand the enemy was near, the firing became more general. At the end of the fence Griffin's battery came in with a rush and was soon in position. They commenced firing at first slow, finding the range, and then pealing out flash following upon flash, report crowding on report, it was deafening for a time. As Griffin's battery came on the field the 69th New York swept in on the run and to the left of the battery and in a few moments they dissappeared in direct ion of the enemy. More to the left the ground was occupied by a battalion of marines, commanded by their own officers one of whom was a tall, white bearded man, straight as could be and the most military looking man as I thought on the field. Further on in advance was the small band of regu lars, they were very close to the ene my loading their pieces lying down, and fireing by file, keeping up a con tinuous fusilade. About 8 o'clock the artillery fire of the enemy became most severe and well directed, caus ing heavy gaps in our ranks but we were advancing slowly, that was all we knew and that was an indication we were gaining ground. About 10 o'clock, or perhaps 11,judging from the the sun, there was a general rush for and cheering along our lines. About noon the troops were tired out and jaded from the great heat, and long nmarch and want of water-ten min utes in a canteen, in such a sun render ed it undrinkable-but we were glad and hoped we would capture the junc tion before night, but before night set in were disagreeably disappointed. Soon after 11 o'clock a uIll occurred in firing and some of the aide-camps said Beauregard had sent in a flag of truce asking to suspend. hostilities to give time to carefor the wounded and bury the dead, which was not agreed to. The belief existed that A en. Beaeard wias resd hard and ex pecting aid from Gen. Johnson from the valley, hence the flag of truce. There may have been no flag of truce at all for that matter, but the belief was the Union troops were the victors. This belief was short lived, however, for early in the a:ternoon clouds of dust were seen in the distance herald ing the arrival of Gen. Johnson's army from the valley. Gen. McDow ell must have known then and there that he was defeated, on the arrival of Gen. Johnson that with the force at his command it was impossible to maintain his position, therefore the order to retreat was given. It was rumored on our side that a large por tion of the troops were not engaged at any time during the day, due to wrangling about rank. This refered to Gen. Miles and Gen Richardson that the latter was in command and the former came on the field intoxica ted and insisted on his right to com mand, his commission dating a day or so older than Ricardson's. Gen. Miles here referred to was subsequent ly killed at Harper's Ferry, and Gen. Richardson at Antietam. Gov. Sprague of Rhode Island distinguish ed himself as did the troops he com manded. Col. Corcoran of the 69th New York, was taken prisoner, and the Lieut. Col. Haggerty killed and most of the company commanders; Capt. Rickets of the artillery was se verely wounded and taken prisoner; Col. Wilcox Cameron brother of the Secretary of War was' among the killed. Our losses were considerable, so was that of the enemy. There was no such total route as that depicted in the average mind of that period. Beauregard was punished severely and did not attempt to follow up the retreat of the Union army from the I field. The supposition was that Mc- 1 Dowell would entrench at Centerville heights and await re-inforcements from Washington. The stampede such as it was, is due to the cowardly action of the teamsters throwing the rations and everything else along the roadside, cutting the mules loose and 3reating panic as they went home- i ward. The abuse heaped on Dr. Russell of the London Times, "Bull Run Rus sell" as he is now named, was unwar ranted. The report he made was not intentional or designed to reflect dis credit on the Union troops. The Dr. stationed himself in the road and questioned all that came along as to' their company and regiment losses. The boys got onto the racket and gave him anything and everything, one would tell him there was only three left of his company, another only himself left, and so on. Possibly rumors reached him in a correspond ing degree from the field and from a certain Pennsylvania regiment who turned homeward the day of battle, claiming that the term of service, three months had expired, they were of course privileged to go. Much undeserved censure has been bestowed on Gen. Patterson for allow ing Gen. Johnson to elude him in the valley and reinforce Gen. Beauregard, thus ensuring the defeat of McDow elL Gen Patterson's explanation is clear and vindicatory-the man were enlisted for three months, the term had expired and they wanted to go home; under such circumstances what could he do? With such facts within our reach it is suggestive that if Gen. McDowell had defeated Gen. Beaure gard and got to Manassass Junction, could he hold it? Gen. Johnson and his army were convenient, reinforce ments were in easy reach, while Gen. McDowell had none to expect other Blenker's division, left behind at Cen terville, Under such circumstances annihilation or capture only awaited Gen. McDowell at the Junction, had he been able to get there. It is the opinion held by a great many persons that if Beauregard had vigorously followed up the retreat of the Union army from Manassas, the Confederate General could have captured the cap itol. That he did not attempt doing so is presumptive evidence at least that he did not think it practicable. Besides the fortifications around Washington, Gen McDowell's army was by no means a beaten one. The stampede as it was, originated within itself, but it is useless at this time to speculate on what might have hap pened. Ipn the outset, the three months' en listments were a fatal error. At. or about the time they became of any real service, through piscipline and drill their term of service hadexpired and they went home, having done no real service whatever. If, as suggest ad by Gen. Sherman, 5000 troops had been called out instead of 75,000, I tens of thousands of valuable lives tad hundreds of millions of treasure would have been saved totheeontry. GREAT FALLS TRIBUNE. ADVBETIBING RATFS. 1 a 2. 1 2. ° I month. 5. 6. 7. 10' 15. 26. 2 months 7. . 10. 15. 0. I. 3 months f. 10. 15. 30. i . 110. I year.... 15. 15.1 2. 50. 100. 200. Business notices in reading matter, 25 cents or line. Business notices 15 cents per line for Arnt in eartion, and 10 cents per line for each subsequent Insertion of same matter. without affording him opportunity to retrieve a disaster, which was created by no fault of his. but public clamor demanded some change. No comparison can fairly be made as between Bulls Run and suc ceseive battles. In the first instance, they were all raw and inexperienced, alike officers and men, they were hur riedly driven to the front in response to the cry of "on to Richmond." It was their first fight on ground to them strange; under the circumstances everything is of a creditable nature. The article of Gen. Beauregard inthe Century on the subject, is well worthy of perusal. The Confederate General was in a position to know what no one else could by any possibility. His account of the fight in which he was himself so conspicuous a figure, is fairly and impartially given from his standpoint. LUCERNE OR ALFALFA. A correspondent in the Bozeman Chronicle, says: "Very few persons may be aware of the good qualities of Lucerne, better known by the name of Alfalfa. Did our Montana farmers better understand its use and adapt ability to feeding all kinds of stock, it would be more generally adopted as one of our best stock feeders. It is a kind of clover, yet surpassing it in all respects, being unequalled for its nutritious qualities and the quan tity of forage it affords m return for the labor necessary to propagate it. In England it is considered the only plant whose hay is preferable to the sainfoin for the fattening of cattle. Some physicians pronounce it equal to six times the amount of common hay. Whether this is really so or not the writer of this article does not de pend on hearsay only, but can truth fully assert that during the severe winter of 1878 he fed four pounds per head to full-grown stock, and that only, as feed, saved his stock, while thousands were dying on the range. The time and manner of'cultivating it do not seem to be understood, hence many pronounce it a failure. Of course it is more suitable for warmer climates, and thrives best in warm soil, sandy and gravelly land. The latter has proved to be its native ele ment, though it may be and is grown in the high latitude of Montana, and gives satisfactoi~.returns. The most profitable csops' hand been trealized'" from gravelly soil, in which it requires more water. It will not thrive in wet ground. It does not depend on sur face moisture after the third year, and should not be allowed to stand in water, as that would have a tendency to kill it out. After that time it is hard to kill it out, as its enormous roots will penetrate through the soil to the depth of twenty or more feet. This can be, and has been proven, hence it is capable of sustaining itself during seasons of severe drouth. Let it not be understood, though, that it is any the better, for the more speedy its growth, the better it is, being more tender, making better feed. The drouth makes it tough; the leaves become seared and yellow and fall upon the ground, leaving the stalks bare. The ground should be well under cultivation, for though it is susceptible of rank growth, it may be smothered out while young and tender. After the the third leaf is formed there is less danger of its being killed by frost hence it should be sown in the month of May, late, and may be best not sown later than June, as it would make sufficient headway to enable it to endure the winter. After the third year it is at its best. From ten to fif teen pounds is sufficient seed per acre if the land is thoroughly pulverized. The better stands are made from the higher quantity, as twelve to fifteen pounds of seed; the hay being finer and, covering the ground better. The returns after the third year may average from two to six tons per acre according to soil, climate, etc., as it may be cut from two to six times. As there is danger in feeding it green and wet to horses and cows, it is best to cut it in the morning and let it wilt, to use a common term- the wri ter having lost a fine heifer calf by feeding it with a little snow on top, no more than may be gathered a one hand. The animal died in less than lve minuttes after eating it. Wishing that the readers may be benefited by the experience gained, thie writer pre sents its benefift and ills pro and con, Having used it during many yeares [can safely recommend it for all that it is worth and much more than is here stated, having led ninety pounds Lo one span of horses, fresh cut, hut not wet, without injpry, the tean having eaten the wbold *within twq were W aely procued and 'were