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GREAT FAALLS TRIBUNE.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES. On opy 1 year, (in advance) ............... 13.00 One copy 6 months,.......................... 1.503 One copy 3 months ........................... 1.(i speciman copies, ............ 13 G RA ' L I Strictly in advance. The 4 ii alation of the TRIBmNE in Northern Montana Is. guaranteed to exceed that of any pa __er publish. d in the territory. _ L 1- R .. .. Add.,,o all io=InGcAtion L o th K VOL. 1. GREAT -3 L LS, MONTANA TERRITORY, SATURDAY, MAY 1t I886. NO. 51 A.C. LORING, PARIS GIBSON, II. O. CHOWEN, President. Vice-President. Sec. and Treas CATARACT MILL COMPANY, GREAT FALLS, MONT. AVING assumed constrol of the CATARACT FLOURING 1MILL at Great Falls, we propose making such im provements as may be found necessary in order to keep up the excellence of the flour of our manufac ture. We will also erect the present season a commo dious warehonse for the storage of grain, so that we shall be able to conveniently handle all the grain rais ed in Northern Montana. Cataract Mill ComDany. OUR BRANDS: ~- DIA MOND STRAIGHT, GOLD DUST, SILVER LEAF. TO WHEAT GROWERS: We will PAY you the highest market price in CASH for all the wheat you will deliver to us. We mean business. Cataract Mill Company. Protect Your Property Against Fiire! BY PURCHASING -Hafwar Ha-Gr-aafe Fire The best Hand-Grenade Fire Extinguisher ever produced. Reliable, sim pie, economical: will not freeze or burst. Resists the action of all climates will not deteriorate with age. EXTINGUISHES FIRES INSTANTLY Easily broken, can be used by any one. The liquid contained in it is abso lutely harmless to the flesh and fabric. Everything it touches becomes fire proof, for whatever it falls upon will not burn. We do not claim to extin tinguish conflagration, or usurp the place occupied by the Fire Departineit. but we emphatically hold that no incipient fire can live where the HAY WARD HiAND-GRENADES are used as directed, and thus cnl.. g:.~~i or disastrous fires are prevented. BE CAUTIOUS AND DO NOT thi: CHASE WORTHLESS AND FRAUDULENT TMITATIONS. ,%.r ( :i> full particulars and one of new pamphlets containing proofs of the w.vrl:,r ful efficieney of our Grenades in extinguishing actual fires.-No Private Residence, Hotel, Public Building or Manufactory should be without their protection. Address, Geo. D. Budington, Territory Ag't., CRIE.AT F.ALLS, MONT. ECLIPSE Livery, Feed and Sale Stales, Great Falls,iMontana Hamilton & Eaton, - Proprietor Corral and Best of Accommodations for Feed Animals. Broken and Unbroken Horses For Sale. NEW STORE! Dunlap & Arthur, --DEALERS IN G;roceries, Provisiouns HardL ware, Steel Nails, Etc. A Share of Your Patronage Solicited. Great Falls, - - - Montana PIONEER HOTEL Gi-reat T"'allE, Mont Best Table and Most IComfortable Rooms: of any Hotel in Great Falls. cb.arges Eeason~.abJle Walker & Carter, - - • ProDs L~~~ .,- . ... . . ..,. . .. .. Dexter's Ferry Across the Missouri River above Sun river IS NOW RUNNING. W. O. DEXTER, Prop. A Talk About Toad-stools. (Written for the TEIBUN-.) "There's a thingthat grows by the faintiagflower, And springs in the shade of the lady's bower; The lily shrinks; and the rose turns pale When they feel its breath in the summer gale, And the tulip curls its leaves in pride, And the blue-eyed violet turns aside. But the lily may flaunt, and the tulip stare, For what does the honest toad-stool care!" OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. Almost everyone knows what are mushrooms, and our intention now is to have a little talk about them and other fungal growths. It is ordinari ly supposed that every fungus except the common mushroom is poisonous; such however, is far from being the case, although, some kinds are so ex ceedingly poisonous that people un acquainted with the mushroom tribe in general, had better leave them all alone. While some kinds- have a poisonous effect, others are merely in toxicating; but there are fungi (and a large class they are) that kill by nei ther poison, intoxication nor stupor, of which we shall make mention, later on. Insignificant as the fungi may, and do appear to the ordinary observer, they perform, nevertheless, a vast and important work in the economy of nature. They, like every other class in the natural kingdom, are divided into groups, the various species of each group bearing such closely re lated characteristics as to prove them to be relative, while their differences are so distinct as to prove them to be distinct kinds. The common mush room and the commoner toadstool, bo long to one group, the Agarics. Comparatively few care to study the works of Nature. Still, some find time profitably spent and derive great pleasure from the study of birds, in sects and flowers; but how often will you come across a person who can find anything interesting in a toad stool. Few there are who ever have a thought for such lowly vegetation, and should they chance to see a toad stool anywhere, they give it a kick, breaking the tender plant into many fragments; at the same time mutter ing something about, "those confound ed toad-stools. I don't see what they were made for. What good are they anyhow?" Having thus relieved their minds, they dismiss the subject. The structure of the fungi is luarvrlo,us: their growth interesting, :;!;l t,. vast vari.:t cf t.:,rm and color, wh:" h they clxibit, is attractive to I hit ea:er '"o. V?.t ,when we come to ih mni:rsc,;,c Oc::,..la;:,:,n of these curious plants, we are more than ever surprised, and cannot refrain from exclaiming : How wonderful and beautiful is the structure of a fungus! Late in autumn, when the flowers are gone and a few withered leaves, rattle among the naked twigs of the trees, many .of these plants are in their prime; and, so again in early spring, when t'he tender buds begin to unfold, and springtime flowers be gin to bloom, the fungi flaunt their many hues above the still brown herbage. Is there an emblem of de cay? The fungus is it. When all else is dead, it arises, spectre-like from that very decay. Where ani mal or vegetable life is passing away, it luxuriates; and often times it at tacks the weak and sickly, hastening their death. It is said there are upwards of a thousands known species of toad stools. But that group, large as it is, covers only a small proportion of the fungus world. As before mentioned, there are many poisonous fungi. Some produce violent abdomenal spasms, the very severity of which is sufficient to cause the death of the victim; some cause a swelling of the body and limbs, chemically changing and des troying the blood, and others again, taken into the stomach, grow there, causing the death of the sufferer in that way. Man is not the only one liable to the attack of these insiduous plants; for, birds, animals, reptiles, fishes, insects and plants are all sub ject to fungal growths. Not only are living objects some times forced to yield subsistance, but dead or decaying matter; each in its turn yields a rich feast to the fungus. The writer has good cause to re member the effect of the common mushroom. When at school he and and another little boy collected a lot of mushrooms and ate them raw just before going to bed. After they had been in bed an hour or two, the mush rooms began to work. The .boys'had violent stomach ache and naucea, without being able to vomit. Then these sweet cherubs became frighten ed. They repeated their prayers, said all the texts they knew, and with considerable effort, they weakly sang all the hymns and pieces of hymns they could think of. Then they lay awake, talking at intervals, all the while being firmly convinced that death was approaching. They were afraid to call any of the masters; for at that school there was a strict rule against taking anything into the bed rooms at nigh. to eat. Sometime during the middle of the night they fell asleep, and awoke next morning feeling perfectly well. They felt rather frightened or awed for several days, but that feeling finally wore off and they forgot the occurance, except for the fact that it taught them never to eat raw mushrooms again. In the early part of this article it was remarked that fungi performed an important part in the economy. of nature; as, in fact, do all other things pertaining to this world of ours. But, some will say, we can see use and beauty in the herbs and flowers and trees. The herbs many of them are good for medicine, the flowers delight our senses by their sweet scent and harmonious colors;tho trees add pic turesqueness, beauty and freshness to the landscape, affording us cool and shady retreats from the hot glare of the summer sun; but of what use can a toaastool be? Its uses are various. Each fungus group has its distinctive habits; some kinds grow on the pra irie, some in the woods on old logs trees, and dead leaves; so we find them also growing and flourishing at the ex pense of organic structure. The fun gi attack weak and sickly plants, and for the matter of that, healthy ones too; slowly but surely sapping their very life. The plant dies, and in some cases its parasite dies and decays with it; but that very decay is not lost, for other kinds of fungi grow, as if by magic, from the disintegrating mass Some fungi love dead trees and dead leaves in shady, damp situations. Most people have seen a white film or fiber just beneath the bark, or else prevading every portion of old dead and decayed timber. Such substances are the spawn or mycelium, from whence arises, under favorable circum stances, the fructifying portions of the fungus. This spawn may, how ever, exist for years without maturing if the conditions of life are insuitable. What is known as "dry rot" (Merulius lacrymans) in timber, is caused by a minute fungus, which eats away, as it were, the fibres of the wood, causing it to crumble away. Even the com mon house fly is infested with a fun gus (Empusina.) The mycelium is developed within the fly and kills it, after which the hymenium or fruit bearing part arises from the dead body. Caterpillers are subject to fun gus growths. Prof. J. C. Arthur has discovered recently a new species of larval fungus (Entomophthora Phy tonomi) growing in the clover-leaf weevil (Phytonomus punctatns, Fabr.) The larvae of this insect feed at night, remaining in concealment in the day time but when attacked by this fungus they crawl as high as possible on some stem or stalk. before daylight, and coil themselves around it staying there till they die. Prof. Arthur says in his interesting article upon the sub ject, in the Botanical Gazette for Jan uary of this year, that the larve are able to crawl about at 10 o'clock in the morning, when disturbed, but by noon they die and the rizoids fasten them to the support. Some hours af terwards the normal color (yellowish or pea-green) is changed to dull grey by the advent of the hymemium. The spores (fruit) are produced late in the afternoon. During the night they are discharged and by morning only a small. shrivelled, blackened mass is left to tell the tale. Thus, our read ers will see how quickly a fungus can kill. Fishes often fall victim to fun gi. Only the other day the writer picked up along the river, three spe cies of fish that had been killed by these plants. In two of the specimens, one a silverside, the other a "bull pout" the hymenium (fruit-bearing portion) covered the whole body like a thick brush of dull grey hair, each fibre being terminated by a little knob containing the spores. The interior of these fishes was one mass of white ish fibres, or what may be called the roots of the fungus. Our commonest cereals are not ex empt. Every one knows what is er got in grain. It is a fungus known as Cordiceps purpurea. It attacks rye most frequetly. Flour made of er gotted grain is injurious, and if taken in quantity causes gangrene. One year the greatest proportion of the rye grown along the coast of Normandy, in France, was ergotted. The poor being mostly dependea.t upon this for subsistence, were : iged to eat it. Terrible diseases enued, the sufferers died in the agonytf 4ture, the limbs of many droppe4 o0borm very decay before death camits their relief. For some time the abourge was attributed to supernatural- cases; but at latt suspicion fell uponthateA* Ita ef fects weretriedu and the result pointed to evil lay; Terrible as this ergot is, in the hands of science a very valuable medicine is produced from it. The gypsies use a mysterious pois on which they confess is procured from a fungus which many suppose may be related to the ergot. Among the many jealously guarded secrets of the gypsy race is the art of preparing the "drei" or "dri," a most deadly de structive agent, for which medical sci ence knows no antidote. Analysis de tects no noxious propertietand the most careful microscopic examination shows it to consist of an apparently harmless vegetable substance. The drei is, then, as will appear from what follows, merely a brown powder, collected from a species of fungus, forming the nearest connecting link between the animal and vegetabi king doms. The powder consists of minute sporules. These fungoid sporiiles possesses the peculiar property of being further developed, only by act ual contact with living animal matter, (as when swallowed.) they then throw out innumerable greenish yellow fibr es, twelve or eighteen inches long. When the drei is administered, usual ly in a warm drink, they attach them selves to the mucous membrane, ger minate, throw out millions of fibres, which grow with awful rapidity, first producing hectic fever, then cough, at last accompanied by incessant spit ting of blood, till death inevitably su pervenes, usually in about a fortnight or three weeks' time. In Italy there was a case of this kind in 1860. The patient was attended by physicians accustomed to deal with cases of slow poisoning. No suspicion of foul play was entertained until the day after the decease, when, an autopsy being held, revealed the cause of death The fibres, the growth of which had ceased with the cessation of the ani mal life and heat that had supported them, were already partially decom posed; had another day or two elaps ed no trace of the foul deed would have been left,. We could quote many other instances of the destructiveness of fungi; we could enumerate many more curious and interesting things concerning them, but space does not permit. The mould that gets into our bread, cheese, ink, vinegar, and a host of other things all belong to the fungi race. The fungi help to absorb de caying substances, and aid nature in converting dead matter into rcih ma terial from which new and more high ly organized structures may arise. They aid in the formanition of the rich loam, found in the woods, in which gardeners love so well to plant their favorite flowers. Many of the fungi are excellent as food; but the writer agrees with Horace who says "The meadow mushrums are in kind the best; it is ill trusting any of the rest." to which we would add,-unless you understand them. "Mushrums," saith Pliny, "grow in showers of raine; they come from the slime of trees." According to Dioscorides: "Poison ous mushrums grow where old rusty iron lieth, or cotton clouts, or near to serpents dens, or rootes of trees that bring foorthe deadly fruit;" but science reigns today, and it has taught us many things that these older au thors did not know In conclusion, in the words of Charles Mackay:- "Love Nature, and her smallest atoms Shall whisper to thy mind." FRED ANDERSON. Canadian Indians. If the stories about the Indians of the Northwest being armed by Feni ans or by Socialists get any attention in Canada it is due to misgivings about Indian disaffection. Before the settlement of that region the Indians were rich, having by means of the buffalo food and clothing in plenty, and limitless and beautiful country. Now, not having-learned to work, they barely live on the grudging dole of politically appointed agents. Educa tion to industrial persuits, which is the only deliverance from serious dan ger, will, we fear, be slow under poli tically appointed farm instructors. The evil of our Indian and half-breed problem lies in our wretched system of government patronage.-Montreal Witness. Aluminum is to be the metal of the future, and in a few years it will dis place iron and steel and revolotionize the industrial arts. Such is the prophecy of a prominent machinist and engineer, who also asserts that the world contains ten times as much alummnum as iron; that it is three times stronger than Bessemer steel, will not corrode, is very docile, is a third lighter than cast-iron, and the raw materials for making it are not worth $20 a ton. The Washington correspondent of the Louisville Courier-Journal fears thatliquor andlaborare going AiEerr the orthodox prtaie .a 4goo& f troeilt in the seart u re I GEN. SHERMAN. Wzitten for the TRIBUNE. The limited space permitted in the columns of the TRIBUNE, a faint out line only, can be sketched of the life and services of the greatest sold ier of modern times. Preceding the late war, Gen. Sherman was president of the Military college at Baton Rouge, in the state of Lousiana. The attitude of the Southern leaders in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi towards the government, caused Gen. Sherman to resign his position, proceed to Washington with the view of placing his services at the disposal of the government. It has been long since conceded that the grim, determined leader is very posit ive in his opinions. When the call was made for 75,000 volunteers from the several states to suppress the re b:-lion,-Gce Sherman onsi-dered500, 000 a more approximate number, but Sherman was considered to be off. Events followed thick and fast, and congress and the country, the press and the army, came to the conclusion that Sherman was about right. He had recently come from the South, knew the pieparations going on in that section, and the temper of the people. He was besides, a graduate of West Point, and while yet a very young man had served with distinc tion 12 years in the army. In the second year of the war the opportu nity Sherman sought fell to him, and he lost no time in showing those great. qualities which subsequently distin guished him on so many hard fought battle fields. At Shiloh, he bare the terrible on slaught with tenacity, skill and the most undaunted courage and firmness. Gen. Grant in his report of the fight ing on the 6th says: "A casualty to Sherman that would have taken him from the field that day, would have been a sad one for the troops engag ed at Shiloh. And how near we came to this!" On the 6th Sherman was shot twice, once in the hand, once in shoulder, the ba'l cutting his coat and making a slight wound, and a third ball passed through his hat. The blunt of the battle fill on McClellan and Sherman the first day; the timely arrival of Gen. Buell changed the tide of battle on the second day and result ed in the defeat of the Confederates. History is too often perverted. The contradictions in reports of comman ders fully attest this. Gen. Buell is everywhere recognized as a most able and well trained soldier, and most certainly deserved better treatment than he received at the hands of our government. In all the battles of the Southwest, Sherman participated, and by the sheer force of genius and great abilities fought his way up to the greatest and most important com mands. His great march from Vicks burg to Chattanooga, thence to Atlan ta, to Savannah and northward to the Potomac, is one of the largest and most successful ever made by an army. From Atlanta to the sea is the great est military movement ever complet ed, and surprised at the time the world in its grand conception, execu tion and completion. "Cutting loose from his base of sup plies and sustaining his army in the country through which he passed fighting his way, and driving before him the ablest General of the Con federacy, is, in-itself, a feat without parallel in the annals of war. Sher man's Banners have become subject for song and story. The system of foraging adopted in Sherman's line of march has no precedent. So exten sive in its operations, and is prefect in every detail." Sherman was especially open and outspoken in giving his views, wheth er asked for or not, but having once freed his mind, verbally or by letter, as in the case of the Vicksburg cam paign in opposition to the turning movement as it was finally made, he dropped his contention there, and loyally, and cheerfully without grum bling or criticism, set vigorously about performing the duty assigned to him. It is but fair to add that Sherman al ways had decided views. He was then as now, a man of great abilities and great attainments, not only in the art of war, but in nearly everything else; inshort, to use his own words, he was "a great deal smarter man than Grant," could see things quicker and more clearly. Knew more of war history, law and new it, and perhaps Grant knew it also, and yet there was never any rivalry or jealousy between them. On the contrary a feeling of friendship and confidence existed: When after the capture of Forts Hen ry and Donelson, Grant found him-= self superceded by Halleck, and there by placed in a subordianate' position he talked of resigningl is command in the army. No, noi sai iSherman have-itdiepce, and events will brizag matteres und all right,. and q they did. In ike manner when Shermaa GREAT FALLS TRIBUN E. WEEKLY TRIBUINE, POZLISHRD 1E887 SATURDAY DT THE TRIBUNE PIBLISIHWI COIPAHT, [rxwoorosaTrD] ADVERTISING RATES FURNISHED ON A0 - PLICATION. Subscribers desiring their addrqes changed mustteend: their former address; this should be remembered. Address, TEaBauN PUBLr.NsSx:Cwo. made his incomparable march to the' sea, it was designed to place him. on the level of rank with Grant. Sher; man soon as he heard of it, promptly wrote to John Sherman to' stop it, at, the same time intimnated to Gen. Grant his having done so, adding that he would have no rivalry or competition come between them. Grant in reply said if such a thing happend he would. cheerfully give him Sherman the same cheerful, willing support he had al- ways received from him. There is no, phase in Sherman's career shines out so brightly as this feeling of unswerv- ing loyalty to his chief. Some of the war correspondents continue to spit a little venon at Gen. Sherman because he found it a neces sity not to impart information which possibly might reach the enemy. HIe rather told them on more than one oc casion he would prefer seeing them in_ uniform, musket in hand, doing the; duty of true and loyal citizens. From this the reader will perceive one of the characteristics of Gen. Sherman. Therelstill lives a sorehead or two. who thinks Gen. Sherman is respon sible for the burning of Columbia, S:C. They might as well, and with equal veracity, charge Gen.Butler with burn ing the wharf and ships, cotton and' coal at New Orleans, which was blaz ing before Gen. Butler arrived in the. city. The fair and manly way Sher- man received the surrender of his able antagonist, Gen. Joseph E. Johnstone is sufficient to show a generous, and noble spirit, a great mind, and a fine disposition. He stood firmly with. Gen. Grant in resisting secretary Stanton, who aimed at arresting Gen erals Lee and Johnstone, and putting. them on trial for treason, and in. so doing, give vent to the feeling of the Union army. Sherman's greatness. during the rebellion, his matchless. abilities on momentous occasions, ner vously active, quick, comprehensive,.. wary, and ever vigilant, displaying a skill in combining his forces, and moving to be in time, brimful of ex pedients, fertile in resources, inform ed in the minutest details, has given him fame and a reputation that remains unchallenged. "War is cruelty," he said. "It means. destruction. On the heads of those. who so unnecessarily plunged the country into the vortex of rebellion. rests the guilt, blame and consequenc-. es." Of the private soldier, he said: "You cannot exppect all the virtues for $13 a month." It is estimated that the number of men called under arms by President Lincoln from the inception to the close of the great con flict amounted to'2,759,049, of whom 2,656,053 were actually embodied in the Union armies. And on the Con federate side 1,100,000 during the same period, giving a total of 4,000, 000 from a population of 32,000,000, a thing unexampled in the history of the world. In case of a foreign war with our present population and no lInger any Federal or Confedlerate, but all under one banner, there is ample security for the government and laws under which we live. This .firm feeling of security, is: best exemplified, when we look back, to the end of the late war and see a quarter of a million of veteran sol-" diers pass in review before the great leader, whose name stands at the head of this article, and at once quietly and peacefully return to their homes, to pursue life in the quiet paths of honest industry. General Sherman is now on the re tired list, but his great popularity has ' not diminished. There have been: two Generals in our army, whose names are often confounded, viz: Gen. W. T Sherman and Gen. T. W. Sherman. I am not aware of any re-, lationship existing, except what is conferred by same name. In the great northwest, the late: General of the army, has a ooetd of friends, and a warm place in the hearts of a great many. On every occasin he has a kind word and helping hand f M for Montana. Well and truly haa Major Maginnis, our late delegate to Congress, styled him the magnifiwal, Sherman. J. Gov. Foraker of Ohino lately sen'.a message to the legislature calling..t-' tention to the manner in which the rich citizens avoided taxation. T-~ wiyes of these people lo' 'boayt Mrrs. Forker by refusing to it her reeoptions. An father ;pqt fille with igo coin that thehpier of a local rite values at$1,-00 wads trn ruie# w theaplugh afew dayaýgo 4 qA mer at work in i4 al S C. The colit i° id I 'quai azadbears. evei ee -of . from diterent ioitieq. C' fouidits wy ito :te