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G(REAT FALLS TRIBUNE.
BUILDING. (Continued.) Written for the Tribune. The first studs of the partitions are us ually set and the floors bridged before the roof is begun. In the short spans usual in country houses, this construction is a matter of little difficulty. Where support is needed it is generally obtained by car rying up the partitions wjiich extend from the firm foundation of the basement, and heavy trusses and purlins are rarely necessary, the weight being equally dis tributed over all the rafters, which may be tied with 'collars" of plank where re quired, at the same time the form of such roofs is often very complex and the fram ing-plans should be carefully and clearly drawn. Every ridge, valley and hip must be marked in plain letters, and the lengths of hip, valley, common and jack rafters should be calculated and written on the drawings. Without these precautions, the architect is very likely, during the framing to find a: hip substituted for a valley, or "i"e ve'r.so, aud not infrequently either, by accident or design, the height of a picturesque roof will be materially lessened without consulting the designer, until too late, the reason why its appear ance in execution is so disappointing. The covering-in of the building gives the signal for a multitude of operations, the principal among which is the con struction of the chimneys, which should be commenced at the earliest practicable moment, in order to avoid delay in finish ing the roof. The bricks furnished for this work should be rigidly inspected, as the chimneys in frame houses are usually plastered outside as fast as built, in order to lessen the danger of sparks passing the joints of the mansonry among the funings the opportunity for using soft, half-burnt brick with-out detection is unusually fa vorable, and the young architect should look sharply to see that none of that kind are allowed to be delivered on the ground. For the purpose of aiding the meaner builders to impose bad materials upon their employers, it is common it the brick-yards to demoninate the half-burnt material freom the outside of the kilns "chimney brick," "poor brick," or "plan :brick." The name, however, does not change the quality, and any work con taining bricks whose edges can be crum bled by the fingers should be pulled down at once and rebuilt with better materials. Unless this is done, no reliance can be placed upon the masonry; the piers are liable to be broken away and bend, and chimneys may crack open at any moment -after being enclosed by funing. it is supposed that the position and t -size of all openings made in the chimneys 1 have been carefully verified long before. If not, this should be done without delay. Masons rarely think of questioning the accuracy of the carpenters work, and whenever they find an opening framed, t they suspend plumb-lines from its four I corners and commence laying bricks be tween them; and to the endless mistakes t made by inferior workmen who are em- t ployed in framingthey add others of their .own. One fertile source of errors is a -want of common understanding in regard t to the system of figuring plans. JMost architects, unless tery experienced, figure I all horizontal dimensions in wooden I buildings from the nearest surface of the studs; thus, a fire-place in the middle of 1 one side of a room 16 feet long in the I clear would generally be figured as 8 1-12 1 feet from the inside of the studs to its .centre. Nearly all framers, however, .measure to the outside face of the out- 1 side studding, although interior dimen sions are taken to the nearest face; and the worhl man will probably set his trim mer-beams, or lay out his chimney, by measuring the figured distance on a ten foot ple thrust between the studs against - the outsidt boarding, the point thus fall ing f.,ur inchs short of the place intend c.1: and the mistake, if discovered, is verv likely to be rectified by shifting the chimtnn y over bodily. antl resting it upon .t ,e triInmmir-beam:n. Itis safestinanycase - tig.ure the openings in floors two or tiorea inches wider on the fr:tning-plans hi,:a tl.e; ar- actualiv intended to be. Thiis gives a li.le lee way for contlngen cie-, and it is -'lwa-s easy to fill out au excess of rtcm :y :auiling phices to the ti::ber::, whl'e the cutting away of beams to gain nc-. ss:ry-- space should be avoid ed. In building chimneys, the w'vithsshould be four inch!es thick. an at least once in every eigh t courses in (ordinary chimneys they shoculd i:e ibonded by two Ibricks roughly unitted - itii the stretchers of the wall. Withu-t this precaution, which it is not easy to enforce, the with forms a mere tu:ngie of supeiri;osed bricks, stand ing uprigit in the rectangular shaft of the chimuwey, and heid in place only by the feeble adhesion of the mortar, so that it not unfretcuently loses its balance and bends over, stopping up the adjoining flue. Ties cf ti o- hoop iron laid in the joints are sometimes used to sustain the withs, but the other bond is better, par ticularly in tall chimneys, when a thor ough interlocking of the withs with the walls adds very greatly to the strength of the shaft. The "topping out" of the chim ney, above the roof, should be done with mortar containing equal parts of lime and cement. Unless thus made waterproof, every rain will saturate the mortar, di: solving and loosening it until the whole stack begins to lean toward the windward side, and then speedily decays. For the tame reason the four upper courses should be laid in clear cement, unless a stone or iron cap is used. -Nothing else will long stand the disintegrating action of rain, added to that of the acid vapors from the burning fuel. No overhanging projection in the shape of a base should be allowed where the chimney leaves the roof. In the inevitable settlement of the whole stack the upper portion will be caught upon the rafters, and the remain der sinking away from it, a dangerous seam will be opened just above the board ing. Even before the chimneys are started, the cross funing of the ceilings will be gin. For this planed strips are used 12 inches apart from centres. 2 inches wideo and ,? or 11i inches thick, the latter for 3-coat plastzring. It is of great import ance to get these truly level, to prevent inequalities in tihe finished ceiling. Or dinary carpenters take strips with a straight edge as they nail to the beam", hacking away a little, from one beam and filling up a deficiency in another by means of a chip, until an approximately even surface is obtained; but a much bet ter way is to notch all the beams for the the funing strips before before putting them on, gauging from the upper side in the same way as in sizing upon the parti tion boards or girts. After cross-funing, the setting of the partitions is finished, those that need it are trussed, so as to throw the weight upon firm points of sup. port, and small trusses are put over all openings in the partitions. The trussing of partitions should be studied beforehand. anl endented on the framing plans, so that doors can be man aged without cutting the braces. The dimensions and position of all the doors and partitions should now be thoroughly verified. No ddpendence whatever can be placed on the care of workmen in these respects, and the proportions of the plan are very likely to be hopelessly mangled unless a rigid watch is kept. The door openings must be framed about 5 inches wider and 2 inches higher than the finished door, to allow of proper blocking; and the distance from the an gels of the room to the openings must be verified to insure symmetry, if that is in tended; and sufficient space should be al lowed for the architraves. B. Men Who Live in Trees. Dr. Louis Wolf, who ma:de the: :'nsa tional discovery a while ago that the San kurn river afforded a more direct and more easily navigated route to Central Africa than the Congo; made another discovery in the course of the same journey which was quite as remarkable if not so important. On the banks of the Lomamia river, far toward the center of the Continent, he says he. found whole villages that were built in the trees. The natives, partly to protect themselves from the river when in flood and partly to make it more difficult for their enemies t) surpris them, built their huts on the limbs of the trees where the thick foilage almost completely hides the structures from view. The inmates possess almost the agility of monkeys. and they climb up to or descend from their little houses with astonishing ease. It is believ ed that they are the only Africans yet known who live in trees. In Borneo some of the natives are said to live in trees, and Ir. ('Chalmers, in his book on New (Guine., tolls of a number of tree houses that he visited on that island,. These lihts, which are built near the top of very high trees, are need for look-out, purpose., or a:;s a place of reigre for womleni and children in ca.e of attaek. They ari" pirfect little huts with sloping roofs and platfor:ms in front, to which extend.s tlhe lour ladder, by m:eans of which the natives ireach tlheir hut-s. Mr. (ill desribes c-w of the" holme's which wva. used a:- re( I h ,,. ,. ie sea -s it w as w ell-lnilt. hut that it rom 'k ,. -, uncom fortably in the w ihn .. - .Y c ' The Crime of a Coon. \"What :as that tall ne,· o boy put in for :" a,.ld v ,isitor haddrin-hg an ,licial at the lpenit'unti:iry. "Plugiriuim." "WVh:T ! Phdlainin" ' "That i.s i'dl,. ed stran; '. l<' such an of i fnse piniihaitle in thie stalte:" "Seems to be. That fellow is sent up for two yours." "Tell nme somethin albout his c(rime." "'Well, le went inl a public library and stale an irmfull of book-"I "Yes, bIut that does not con-titue plagar ism." "Of course it does, for is not the fellow a literary thief?" In the east the chestnut bell has been superseded by the "liar card." When a story teller reaches the enthusiastic point the listener hands him a card on which is printed: "I am somewhat of a liar my self." The Miles City Dressed Beef company is wrestling with attachments aggregating 25,O00. M c PATENTS Obtained, and all PATENT BUSINESS at home or abroad attended to for MIODERATE FEES. Our otlic. is opposite the U. S. Patent Office, and we can obtain patents in less time than those remote from WASHINGTON. Send MODEL OH D1RA.VING. We advise as to patentability free of chrrge: and we CHARGE SNO FEE UNLESS PATENT IS ALLOWED. We refer, here, to the Postmaster, the Supt. of Money Ord r Div., and to otiicial of the U. S. Patent Ofice. For circular, .advic'e, terms, and references to actual clients in your own State or county, write to C. A. SNOW & CO0.. OnoositePatentOffice Wasington. D.C. PHIL GIBSON, Ifnsutllalce and Real Estate. tOrth British f& Maercautile InsuravnOe C,,. Fi'i Tren. ' Funtd l 1Io rtfo rd .KiAga ra (C'onner ia'o" Fidelitg & Casualty Lands bought and sold on Commission n Houses and stores to rent. Forwarding r and Receiving. BERT HUIIY, Architect. GREAT FALLS, MONT. In advance will speurc t h GREAT FALL TR.IBUNE 3 mOs. 13 . w. s 13 The POLICE GAZETTE will be mailed, securely wrapped, to any ad dress in the United States for three months on receipt of s1. ONE DOLLAR SI.V Lilberal discounts allowed to poet- 1 masters, agents and clubs. Sample copies mailed free. Addrces all orders to RICHARD K. FOX, FRANKLIN SQUARE. N. Y. E . CANARY, Coitrat. r and Bi1der, BRICK AND STONE WORK. Gre t Falls, - Mont Ed. Mathews. Vent rame asbrmnd onleft hs'i-ider | Ita g ite--cMt ci 0 . Addr.---u River ECLIPSE Livery, Feed and Sale Stable, CGreat Palls, Montana. Hamilton & Eaton, - Proprietors BUNIKS I CORRAL Furnished free toFEE FREIGHTERS, Ranchmen and all othre Ani ls. patrons of the Eclipse. Broken and Unbroken Horses For Sale. CORSON & HULL, Great Falls, - Mont. House, Sign z Ornamental Fine Graining and Kalsomining a Specialty. Carriage Painting Neatly Done to Order. GREAT FALLS C. N. DICKINSON, Proprietor. 'TY"1o.lesale an-d c etail ýealers IN BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, SAUSAGE, ETC., ETC. YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED. PIONEER HOTEL G-reat Falls, 2Ioont-, PAUL GRELLMIAN Prop. Having leased the above Hotel and refitted the same we solicit the patronage of the public. Best table and most comfortable rooms of any Hotel in Great Falls. Charges reasonable . First National Bank, W~. G. Conrad, - President John W. Power, Vice-Pres OF FT. DENTON. J E. G. Mlaclay, - Cashier SDIRECTORS: S . T." lauer T. '. ,-r. W. G. .Conrad, J. W.PPower, C. E. Conrad.. : F. Atkisson, 1:. 8. Ford. T. A. Cummimnie, A. G. Maslay. --J. GIBBONS.- P'RACTICAL Harness-AND --AND- Saadae Maker. Rcpairing Neatly and Promflty Atten.d to HUM'S BUILDING. GREAT FALLS, - MONT URSULINE CONVENT --OF THE- At Sainf Peter's Mission Near Fort Shaw, M- T. Will Reopen Weilesday e tSicaer 1, 183. This institution is sitsated in one of the moit lwantiful locations in lo, nt.an.. nader the direc lion of the Ursuline Noec. for the purpose of af fording the youne girls t.ver advantage for ob taining a solid and useful t dunction. Taition free. Bouad $1ti ptr month. For fur ther yartieulars address MOfIIEl SI:PIJT Fort Shaw, 31. 'T. ST. PETER'S MISSION Boarding - School - for - Boys. Under the Directions of the Fathers of the Society of .esus. Will Reipen W ldnestday Septeeiler 1, 1885. The onject of this institution is to afford miertL of a solid. moral, mental and physical edOcation to boys. Tuition free. Boardl 5 lper month. For fur ther particulars apply to - REV. J. Dh3II AN-I.1. I.., Ft. Stire',*. M. T. TAKEN UP. iCame to m ranch on Deep creek, bay marss me sorrel nare. and one blaslk mare, all bzalned Ton both shoulders. Ow rs can hare same by proving pro aT, n sugt., .tnt. Jackson's MUSIC STORE BROADWAY, Helena, - Montana. G. W. JACKSON, Prop. Pianos & Organs Sold at Eastern Prices With Freight Added. H. iH. CHANDLER, ASSAYER, Great Falls, Mont. Samples sent by mLail or express carefully assayed and returns promptly made. Charges reason able. Fast Freight Limn --BgrWE]- Great Falls and Helena. FRANK S. H. . Prop. Ronnd tri nmade in n dayr Charg.es Resq I garLeave orders at Tamuxr offiee.. .a