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GREAT FALLS TRIBUNE.
8 BUILDING. t t To the Tribune: After all is made correct, the partitions may be bridged. This is often done by nailing in short horizontal pieces between the studs, a process which has its use, but is-Qva- u-ees.s for tlhapresentpurpose. The i proper way is to cut in diagonal pieces, which present considerable resistance to the sagging of the partition. The final operation will be to try the partitions on each side with a straight edge, and correct the crooked studs by sawing half through them on the cancave side, forcing them into place and driving wedges into the in cisions. The chimneys are next enclosed with funing, consisting of a cage of studs, supported by posts at the angles of the breast. These funings should be meas ured to see that they are accurately placed in the room and that they are of the pro per dimensions; such details being little regarded by the average framer. No thing now remains but the fixing of the grounds to lprepare the inside of the house for lathing and plastering. This process will be spoken of later on. In city houses now is the time to put in hot air pipes, bell wires, gas pipes, water pipes, etc.. but as buildings are not plumb ed in Montana, the subject is passed. While the oplerations are going on in side, the outside finish has been rapidly advancing, so that the whole building may be tight sO far as possible against rain by the time the interior is given up to the plasterers. The gutters are first on, and the shingling, beginning at the eaves, is carried to the top. Care should be taken that the gutter is so placed as to catch rain-water, but allow snow to slide over it. Young architects often find their detail drawings for cornices defect ive in this particular. For addittional protection against snow-water backing up under the shingles, or the overflow of the gutter dribbling through behind the cor nice, the gutter should be ploughed at top and bottom, and "facias" inserted. The shingling begins with a double course and the gauge is then marked off regular ly to the top. Ordinary shingles, sixteen inches long, should not show more than four and a half inches to the weather, un less in very steep roofs. Each must be nailed with two nails, which should be galvanized if a very permanent roof is de sired. Common nails rust out long before good shingles, well painted become un serviceable. It is easy to judge of the quality of shingles. Freedom from knots and cross grain and an approximation to uniform width, are the principal requisites. Spruce shingles, which are unfit to use in any but inferior buildings, and are distinguished by their appearance and smell, which differ completely from the aromatic odor and silky grain of the "white cedar," from which these on best roofs are made. The choice between sawed and shaved shingles depends upon circumstances. The latter allow water to run off more freely, and are to be prefer red if unpainted, while the former hold paint better, and are therefore generally used by architects. In laying, the widest shingles are se lected for the hips and valleys, where cutting is necessgry, in order to give room for two nails.. Many of the best carpen ters lay hips so that the cut shingle will not cohme to the extreme edge, and the effect is picturesque, while the derability of the roof is improved. The painting of a shingle roof is im portant. Many architects specify that each shingle shall be dipped in paint, some even requiring the paint to be hot; but this is tedious and expensive. A sim pler. and very good way is to paint each course as it is laid; and' the cheapest is to do it all at once after, the roofers are out of the way. The last process hastens the decay of the shinglss, by forming little dams of paint which hold back the rain water against the unprotected portions, but is usually adopted. To prevent fine snow in heavy storms from finding its way into the house, one or two plies of tarred felt or paper should be laid under the shingles. If the young architect is ambitious of being able to say that no roof ever leaked that was built under his superintendence, he will need to exercise both thorough ness in inspection and skill in providing for various contingencies. The worst leaks come from improper position of the gutters,. by which wet snow sliding from the roof is caught and held back. It soon freezes to the roof along the lowor edge the upper portion remaining free, and the water subsequently: ruaing down the. slope is caught as in a long;deep pocket, in which it rises rapidly until its level reaches that of the upper edge of course of shingles, over which it pours in a sheet to find= its way into the rooms °eloiw. Next to this defect insuffcient gi valleys is perhaps the worst. m e- a ig expensive, the roofer's interest is to save as rpuects as possibfe, and the suaper. ntendent must consider the circumstanc- we is of pitch and extent of roof surface all Iraining into the valley, and the slope of the the valley itself which should determine eai the depth which the water will probably the obtain in it. In certain cases, where the roofs are large, this may be eighteen in- af< ches or more in summer showers, and the to only security is to make the valley flash- ed ings of corresponding size. dii A very common place for a small leak dr is around the chimneys, -where rain or snow often blow between the bricks and the flaps of a "stepping flashing." The remedy is a liberal application of elastic cement between the brickwork and the metal. While the roofers are at work, the win dow frames are being rapidly set in place. The casing is often moulded or ornament- U ed. If plain, it should be 11< inches c thick, to prevent curling under the heat Q of the sun. Its inner edge, projecting half an inch beyond the face of the pul ley-style, is usually made to form one side of the channel in which the upper sash slides, but it is much better to increase the depth of the reveal by inserting a slip, some five-eights or three-quarters of an inch wide, changing the position of the parting-bead to correspond. Independ ent of the improved appearance of such a _ frame, room is thus given for mosquit: nets and blinds. The clapboards are laid close up to the outer edge of the cas ing, but when this shrinls, a vertical op. O ening is left, through which rain pene trates, and tarred felt, or still better, am strips of zinc, must be laid in behind the re casing and adjacent wood. The junction p, of the clapboards with the top of the cas ing must also be protected. Some car- N penters do this by tacking a strip of lead -c to the boards just over the casing, andl C turning it down over the edge, but it is neater and tighter to rebate the top of the casing. If this is done, and the vertical sides of the casing are grooved into the head, the sills set to a sharp pitch, one and a half inches or so, and grooved un derneath for inserting the clapboards which come below them, the superintend ent may he tolerably sure that his build ing will not show that most annoying of defects, leakage around the edges of the openings, and the clapboarding may be 1 commenced at once. Before this, how ever, the back-plastering, if any is speci fled, should have been completed, in or der that its drying may be favored by the circulation of air through the open joints of the boarding, and notice must be given to the plasterers in ample season. The mode usually considered best is to nail I fillets to the sides of the studs, and lath on these, so that in theory a double air span is formed by the outside boarding, _ the sheet of back-plastering, and the inner plaster; but in practice it is inconvenient to nail fillets in the narrow space between the ledger boards and the outer boarding of a baloon frame, or just above the drop ped girt of a braced frame, and still more so to nail laths to them, so that these spaces are usually neglected, and the wind which blows in under the clapboards and paper of even the best built house, finds an issue at such joints into the interior. B.(Coned.) ! (Continued.) She Fixed Him. *Washington C7itic: They were strol iing along K street last night. He and she. He was a faint heart, she a fair lady. "Hov lovely the moon is tonight!" she - murmured. "Glorious!" he replied. "There's a man in the moon, the story books say," she remarked. "How brilliant it is," he continued; "what a splendid setting in the circlet of the sky?" "A poem in silver," she whispered. "If it were yours,, Miss Annie, what would you do with It?" he inquired, gaz ing upward in wrapt enchantment. "I'd take the man out of it and put it right back again," she said, with romantic energy. The young man caught convulsively at a tree box. "Wbat's the matter with me?" he ex claimed. He was jealous of the man in the moon. She fixed hir. No cards : Better Divorced Than Married. A Galveston policeman named Drendull, a-ho is thirty five years of age, is suing his ninety-five-year-old wife for divorce on the ground of cruelty and neglect. The womanw:as a wido* and she maisied the youungpollcedmi tcn yehrt ago. Sinee that time his life has not been a happy one, due no douibt to the fi 1 in ages, The ;old lady( anmes, by -vtue of her prg lrngedekxperienee, to boss the household. Monument to Fathbr RavaHir Interpreting tle desire and good ..rll of ethe ofer the lod at~e. ra. Ra all, S .o ine a becoming aonumsent erected over .:te good Fatiger's grave, wblhich is astl i'lmarked excepyby trall .1. --E " vooden cross, the undersigned appeals to 11 whose feelings are in sympathy with he pious undertaking, and solicits from ;ach and all a small contribution in fur herance of the object. Donors and contributors toward the aforesaid monument's fund are. requeste o forward their contributions by register td letter drawn on the P. O. at Missoula, lirectly to the undersigned, whose ad hess is: REV. J. D'ASTE, S. J., STEPHESVI.L., MissuIal CO, 1~, T. W Montana papers please copy. tf w -nn mc I i - PATENTS Obtained, and all PATENT BUSINESS at home or abroad attended to for MODERATE FEES. Our offict is opposite the U. S. Patent Offioe, and we can obtain patents in less time than those remote from WASHINGTON. Sendi MODEL OR DRAW1NG. We advise as to patentability free of chrrge: and we CHARGE NO( FEE UNLESS PATENT IS ALLOWED. We refer. here, to the Postmaster, the Supt. of MLney Order Div., and to oticials of the U.S. Patent Olice. For circular, advice, terms, and references to actual clients in your own State or county, wvrite to C. A. SNOW & CO.. OppoositePatantOfice Washington. 'D .C. PHIL GIBSON, Illsum a1e and Real Estate. )orth British & MJercautile Insurancet Co. Fireman's Fund " HIartfourd Nisgara " Ceolifornia " Comimerciut " Fidelitg & Casualty " Lands bought and sold on Commission Houses and stores to rent. Forwarding and Receiving. BERT HUY, Architect. GREAT FALLS, MONT. 1 In advnnce will secure th $1. 13 WEE.. 13 The POLICE GAZETTE will be mailed, securely wrapped, to any ad dress in the United States for three months on receipt of $i. ONE DOLLAR s1. Liberal discounts allowed to post masters, agents and clubs. Sample copies mailed free Address. all orders to RICHARD K. FOX, - Fax.NIN SQUIRE, N. N . E.J. CANARY, Contractor and Budder, BDiC K1AND STONE WOR. Great Fall's, - Mont. Ed.. Mathews. Veni same as bradnd onleftisoulder Bs Sani s .r c ECLIPSE ivery, Feedl an Sale Stable, resat Falls, Montania Hamilton & Eaton, - Proprietors BUNKS CORRAL And And C0k inT 1Accommodations etii FEED Furished free to FR G T R , - __Y ' _ = =.4 "F .REIGHTERS Animals. patrons of the Eclipse. Broken and Unbroken Horses For Sale. OORSON & HULL, Great Falls, - Mont. House, Sign C Ornamental f Fine Graining and Kalsomining a Specialty. Osrriage Painting oNet1y Done to Order GREAT FALLS .MEAT MARKET C. N. DICKINSON, Proprietor. T;~"holesale anrd R etail Dealeis IN BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, SAUSAGE, ETC., ETC. YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED. PIONEER HOTEL (G-reat FE=alls, 2VMont-, PAUL GRELLMAN Prop. Having leased the above Hotel and refitted the same we solicit the patronage of the public. Best table and most comfortable rooms of any Hotel in Great Falls. Charges reasonable F Nation Winm. G. Conrad, President John W. Power, Vice-Pres Irst NationalBank, so.°w. owe,, . vr.., OF FT. BENTON. E. G. Maclay, - Cashier DIRE CTORS T. Hanser, T. C. Power, W. G. Conrad, J. W. Power, C. E. Conrad, C F. Abkison, R. 8. Ford, T. A. Cummings, E. G. Maslay. --J. GIBBONS,- PRACTICAL Harness -AND Saddle Maker, Rcpairing Neall a£La Promnilty Attended to IIUY'S BUILDING. GREAT FALLS, - MONT URSULINE CONVENT --OF THE- At Saint Peter's Mission Near Fort Shaw, M- T. Will Reopen Wedaesday Septcmber 1, 1886. This institution is situated in one of the most beautiful locations in Montana, under the direco 'tion of the Ursuline Nuns, for the purposeof af fording the young girls every advantage for ob taining a solid and useful education. Taition free. Boaad $10 per month. For fur ther yarticulars address M1YiHER SUPERIOR. Fort Shaw, IM. T, ST. PETER'S MISSION Boarding - School - for - Boys. Under the Directions of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus. Wil Reopen WeBdeslay septemaer 1, 1886. The obi$oto this intitntion is to afford means of a solid, moral, mental and physical educatioa Tuitiomn free. Board $S oper month. Por faur ther perticnlres f [ . S. . '""J Fti. S1m,. M!. T. t TAKEN UP. -fame to my anMh on Deep ke.e, a. a . e awesorel mare, anine blek mare, all bdan aadej m. semis bu ", ý ý3ý =ýi,ýýitT'1alawiý;ý1rt. Jackson's llMUSIC STORE BROADWAY, Helena, - Montana. G. W. JACKSON, Prop. Pianos & Organs Sold at Eastern Prices With Freight Added. H. H. CHANDLER, ASSAYER, Great Falls, Mont. Samples sent by mail oirexprest carefully assayed and returns promptly made. Charges reason able. Fast Freight z Great Falls and Hel-ena.. ecmnble:. ~ ko