GREAT FALLS TRIBUNE. I
The Development of tne House. S4
IWritten fir the TriTu;e:
The history of the habitations of man is c
co-extensive with the history of the race. y
Some would have us go back to arboreal s,
man who lived in the branches of the trees v
in the same manner as several species of c
monkeys do today, but we do not consider }
it essential to go beyond that interesting 1
stage of development where the terminal a
appendage was lost.
It is difficult to trace the development
of the house in its first stages. We find e
primitive man somei 10,000 years ago dwel- v
ling in caves in the earth and living on an s
equal basis with the burrowing animals.
After ages of this life some great intellect 1
of that day conie'ved the idea of leaning
together two flattened bowlders and using
them for shelter. This was one great step
in the deve!opment. Some time after the
cave pleriod the development of tihe houn e I
divides into three or four branches accord
ing to climate aid natural surroundiung. I
The Aryan living on the woody slopes of
the Himalaya probably first sought shelter r
under the broad branched trees or boiundl
the branches together and constructed a
covering of twigs and leaves. Soon r
branches and stakes were stuck in the t
ground, leaned or bound together :u:d 1
covered in the same way, thus forming t!he l
first rude huts. It must have been a long c
time before these people with their rude in- s
ple:nents of stone were able to build anrth''g a
corresponding to what we call a log cabin. I1
This was the second great step in the de- I:
velopment. This change revolutionized r
the house building of the Aryans. The t
log house became a fixed characteristic of a
the race and the intinences of the wooden.` a
house on architecture can be clearly traced t
up to the present time. The Greek temple c
with its pillars and porticos is clearly modl- t
ecl on the old Aryan house, and the artis- I
tic modern dwelling house still retains o
many of the characteristics of the first r
wooden structure. s
The people who lived en the plains and
in warm desert countries probably first
used only a cocering of skins to protect
themselves in the chilly nights, then built tl
some kind of a hut covered with skins and is
grass, and from this hut was afterwards dle- y
veloped the tent of the people of the 3,
plains. This round hut from which was a
developed the tent, seems to have been at tt
some time or other of almost universal oc- st
currence. Covered with leaves and twigs ci
it was the first wooden habitation of the la
Aryans. We recognize it in the tents of the ce
desert Arab and in the wigwam of the tc
North American Indian, in the grass hut w
of the Sandwich Islander and in the snow tL
built habitation of the Esquimaux. 01
In cold countries where there was yet no le
timber we find remains and some examples tL
of a peculiar, usually square, house built ni
of earth and loose rocks. This is probab
ly not an original development but a house
built on the model of the square wooden l
house, only of different materials. Exam
pies of these houses are found in the ex
treme north of Europe and in Greenland.
In China we find still another species of re
the house. This is built of bamboo and
light wood. Although quite complex, and
presenting many modifications, the Chi- pi
nese house and temple are undoubtedly sý
modeled on the old wooden house of the
Aryans. All habitations of man therefora,
can be reduced to the two primitive forms, t
the round hut and the square wooden
house. And of these it is probable that
-the round hut was the earliest abode and si
the square house was a later invention of f
the Aryans and became a fixed characteris
tic of that race.
The development of the house is inter- it
esting as an index of civilization; By a nm
careful study of their houses we should be o,
able to give to every nation, ancient or
modern, almost its exact rank in civiliza
tion. You can tell by the buildings and gi
pyramids of the Egyptians that their civil
ization was governed by a dark mysticism. m
You can tell by the classic architecture of
the Greeks, their high culture, their sense O
of artistic beauty, their worship of many hi
gods and their natiQnal characteristics ini ol
general. Roman architecture shows cos- et
mopolitanism shows strength, shows Greek
influence and gives a not unfair picture
of the Roman. it
In our later European civilization the na- 0(
tional characteristics of houses era less be
marked. The great inter-communication ki
of nations causes each to be influenced,
even in this particular, by every other and
produces universality. Yet some thiigs
there are which show the peculiarities of
each people. One nation loves bright col
ore so they-have brightly painted houises.
Another people have carved and ornament
ed cornices and peaked artistic rookf at e
build low, sunny cottages, others.-state
mansions. And so we might by ul re
study trace each nation in its hoe.t J n
America alone has no house ottt owV. e1
We are in that respect thoroughly cosmo- hi
politan. One needs but take a siile glance to
at the vast conglomeration of housesof aIy B
.mixture of all kinds of people; to see that m
they are cities built in a few years,and to get
of our own cities, to see that they contain a
an idea of the culture of the people. And fe
so it is everywhere'in this land. On our lo
western prairies the several stages of the B
house are passed through with surprising
rapidity. On many farms the following
s changes have taken place in about twenty a
years: (1) an excavation in a hillside or a e.
1 sod house covered over with hay, (2) a few
s years later, if timber is to be had, a log a;
f cabin, (3) a small frame house, (4) a brick
r building with bay-windows:, porches and h
largr, sunny rooms. I have seen in sever
al plaees, the excavation in the hill side
well preserved, the old log cabin used as a
t store house, and th frame building occu i
d ed by the family. A few years n, ,'
- )would undoubtedly see the frame h .
still preserved for some other use, super- C
sceded as a family residence by the, rick
t b ilding. A. C
Mines in New Mexico.
p Win. L. Cotler writes to the Virginia
(Nevada) C'hron,ile, from Golden, Santa]
e Feu countsy, Ncw Mexico the following
1- glowing descripti.n of the auriferous de
posits in that district:
S The recent discavery of the Benton
r m.ne on the Ortez grant, and the gold
d place'rs on1 tie Snr Pedro ami- ,-tien Del
a Agua grants has resulted in a rush f
n minuers and prospectors from Utah, Mon
e tana and Colorado. The Benton mine
d has been paying $2000 per day, above ex
, penses, for the past 60 days, and no sign 0
of a let up. Old miners and prospectors o
1- say the. placers on the San Pedro grant a
g are the richest in the world. These grants
a. have at last all been thrown open to the
jpublic. Every train ;on the Santa Fee
d road brings prospectors and miners, and P
e they are but the advance guard of the
f army coming. The winters are so mild
n - as to admit of continuous mining through
d the year. The necessaries of life are
e cheaper in Golden than any other mining
1- town I was ever in. There is a good
mountain road to Los Cerrillos. a station
s on the Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe rail
it road, :6 hours run from Kansas City, Mis
ti Strength of the Crows.
t Billings Gazette: The recent census of 1'
t the Crow tribe show that they number L
l less than 2,700. The census taken ten .
- years ago showed that the tribe number- C
3,500. This rapid decrease is continuin,; ('
a gentleman intimately acquainted with
these Indians for the past fifteen years
states that the tribe is decreasing froin
eight to ten percent annually. In the
largest camp of the tribe, that of Plenty
cous, the deaths exceed the births three
to one. And this band is less affected
with venereal disease than any other on
the Crow reservation. If this thinning
out of these Indians continues the prob
lem of civilizing them and reducing
their reservation will solve itself in the
next fifteen years.
Jay Gould has a superstition in the
matter of elevators. He alw- '-cli:.
General Sherman says that he never -
yet has voted, and he does not expect to
There has been sent to the Delaware
peninsula two million barrels to pack
An Ohio widow accuses her son of hav
ing sold the body of her dead husband to
a medical college.
The latest proposition is that Irishmenr
should erect a monument to Columbus
for discovering America.
The Japanese have 300 miles of railroad
in operation, some of which was built by
native engineer. They also make their
A young man who was jilted by his
girl, and subsequently married her, says m
she treated him like a bottle of patent dý
medicine. He was -'shaken before taken.' m
John D. Itockafellar, of the Standard
Oil company, now claims, by virtue of
his $114,000,000, William H. Vanderbilt's m
old title "of the richest man in the Unit- (
Senor Terry, probably the! richest man
in Cuba, whopdjed recently,; leaving '30,
000,000, began his business life a peddler, -
beeame rich, married a wealthy lady and 1
kept on adding to his fortune.
Lieutenant Greely believes in the theo
ry that there is-an o~ep sea, s~one 1,500
miles in diamater; retti d. about the pole,
that never freezes, g aibdjectute being
that the pole itself is the centre of an ice
capped lahd; covvred' wth ice from 1,000'
to 4,000 feet iwnthickness.
~1j3aiin Moort,. wh diedd in Berhl
recenitiy; left by ill a reir rd, of i.$:t
every p ;orting, [se of '.,e
he wrote in his will, "I leave my money
to the brute." And ie did, nhisihg th
Iterlin Sbciety for tI.e Protlclo btf ab rI
mals by nearly $I19,i00.
t Rays of Mirth.
& Don't be too rash, young man. The
I feeling within which you believe to be
r love may only be dyspepsia.-Philadelphia
The "Le:ent of a kiss" is the name of
a new song. It will probably be follow
a el by a sequel, "The Leg-end of a Kick."
"What are the last teeth that come?"
asked a teacher of her class in physiology.
"False teeth, mum," replied a boy who
had just wakened up on the back seat.
n Obtained, and all PATENT BUSINESS at home
or abroad attended to for MODERATE FEES.
O our oteic- is opposite the U. 5. Patent Offiee,
it and we can obtain patents in less time than those
remote; from WASHINGTON.
: Send MODEL OR DRAWING. We advice as to
patentability free of ehrrge- and we CHARGE
county, write to
( C. A. SNOW & CO.,
I, OAosltePatentOfice Wasington. D .C.
a PHIL GIBSON,
r Hartfrd "
r_ C'brn ia "
( 'mnmerciitl "
h Fidelity & Casualty "
SObtLands bought and sold on Commission
Houses and stores to rent. Forwarding
t and Receivin lgs tim than thoe
GREAT FALLS, MONT.
SIn aledvance will secure to any ad-h
GiT FALLdscounts Tallowed S to pos.
ad s and clubs. Sample
T 13 WEEKS 13
uis The POLICE GAZETTE will be
ys mailed, securely wrapped, to any ad
At dress in the United tates for three
Q.' months on receipt of
rd SI. ONE DOLLAR sI.
of Liberal discounts allowed to post
VS masters, agents and clubs. Sample
it- copies mailed frees
Address all orders to
•" E" anFr. N SQoaU..N. Y.
ad E J. CANARY,
S: BRICK AkND &'TONE WORK.
G (eat Falls, - Mont
Ed. Ma w w.
Livery, Feel ani Sale Stable,
GCreat Palls, Montana
Hamilton & Eaton, - Proprietors
IIUNKS . COI IAL
Cookin. , Accommodations
Furnished free to FEED
Ranchmen and all othxo ________ _A
patrons of the Eclipse.
Broken and Unbroken Horses For Sale.
CORSON & HULL,
Great Falls, - Mont.
House, Sign Q Ornamental
Fine Graining and Kalsomining a Specialty.
Carriage Painting Neatly Done to Order.
C. N. DICKINSON, Proprietor.
W.2"lolesale arid Eetail eDealers
IN BEEF, PORK, MUTTON,
SAUSAGE, ETC., ETC.
YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED.
Great -alls, ~P~ort-,
PAUL GRELLMAN Prop.
Having leased the above Hotel and refitted the same we solicit the patronage
of the public. Best table and most comfortable rooms of any Hotel
in Great Falls. Charges reasonable
First National Ban m. G Conrad, Presiden
First National Bank, ,JohnW. Power; _ice-Pre_
OF FT. BENTON. E. G. Maclay, - Cashier
DIRECTORS: S. T.Haner T. CPower W. G.Conrad . W.Po.r, . E. Coead,
il.ion, R. s. Ford, T. A. Commings, Ji. G(. Malay.
--J. GIBBONS,-- Jackson's
Harness -AN MUSIC STORE
Saddle Maer. BROADWAY,
Rcpairing Neatly an Promplty Attended to Helena, - Montana.
HUY'S BUILDING. G. W. JACKSON, Prop.
GREAT FALLS, - MONT
+OPianos & Orfans
At Saint Peter's Mission Near Fort Sold at Eastern Prices
Will Reop elWelesday Septcmber 1,1886. With Freight Added.
This institution is situated in one of the most
beautiful locations in Montana, under the direc
tion of the Ursuline Nune, for the purposeof af- t
folding the untg irls evere advantage for ob- H. H H
taining a solid anouseful educatio. .H. 1CHANDLER,
Titionfre. Boaad $1O permonth. For fr
M'F o ,ASSAYER,
ST. PETER'S MISSION Great Falls, Mont.
Boarding - School - for - Boys. Samples sent by mail or exprese
Under the Directions of the Fathers of the carelly assayed return
... SocietY of Jeeus. ,
il 1, 1886. prpty made. Charges reaso a
The objectof thisinstitution is toafford means
of a solid, moral, mental and physical education
ition fre. Board $10 per month. For fur
ther particulars .ýly to
BI Da+ : +: ... . J, 8. • +
_ r at and4iH .
m:1+: on1 bi+ m ... 7ý l e da ..j. ' C cha ge n.1 ..
S r -+ E93a t + T+:ý rJ/lm. IV te.m o..d+ "d
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