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"REFORM OF THE BALLOT.
HISTORY OF BALLOT CASTING FROM EARLY TIMES. The Austs.lan System, Whloh. with Va lses Modlifeiatlons Has Been Adopted In severai States of the Amerian Vnion. Other Systms Ballots were cast very early in thehie tory of man, the word ballot being de rived from a Greek word meaning "to throw." The ballot box is as old as the ballot. The Athenians voted in their assemblies and in their courts, at first by casting pebbles into the boxes. Ad terwards they used white and black beans, the white meaning "yes," the black "no." The same process is used to this day in electing members to socie 'ties, and the term "black balled" was doubtless used among the Athenians as at the present day. At Athens the as semblies which were held in public places were separated from the people only by ropes, and when the members went up to the ballot box to vote all could see how they voted. O QChsdaisist Exit Geard Ra.. / '|,, . ' . .I AUSTRA.LAN BALLOT-FLOOR DIAGRAM. The ballot has long been In use in Eng lish corporate bodies, and the American colonies inherited it from the mother country.. But free voting by the people more nearly as it is in America was only proposed by O'Connell in 1880. The new plan did not at first make much headway, for O'Connell's only received twenty-one votes in the house of commons. His proposition afterwards received support from Grote, Cobden, Mtcaulay, and at length Brougham and other prominent Englishmen. Finally, under the leader ship of Gladstone, it was adopted in 1872, with regulations to secure secrecy. This took the ballot out of the hands of corporate bodies, like the English bor ough, and distributed it to a greater ex tent among the people. For many years the best method of casting votes has been a subject for study with reference to rendering fraud im possible, and the ballot box has under gone many modifications. Still the vote is cast substantially always on the same general plan. The vote is printed on a piece of paper and cast into a box. ONE FORM OF MARKING PLACES. In some states the voter drops the bal lot into the box himself, while in others he hands it to an Inspector, who drops it in for him. It remains in the box until the polls are closed, when the inspectors begin to count the votes. By this means complete secrecy is obtained; but efforte have often been made by party managers to discover how certain persons have voted by resorting to tickets of a peculiar color or marked tickets, but the law in most states forbids the use of any except plain white paper. The ballot-in its secret form-has been in use for years in France, Switzer land. Italy and Greece. The systems in these countries differ. In some the voter is given a ticket with the names of all the candidates upon it, from which he strikes all except those for whom he wishes to vote, and then deposits it in a box; in others he makes a mark oppo site the names of those candidates who are his choice. In Germany they vote by a written or printed ticket delivered openuly to the officer of the polls, who reads off and records the vote immedi ately in a voice that all may hear. In Russia they don't spend any time in venting new ballot boxes. The people are not expected to indicate their pref erence for officials-the czar takes care of all that. A ANOTUER FORM OF MA0tRKINo PLAOE, New countries, whose people take system from old ones where it has been long in use, are very apt at making im provements. They are untrammeled by usages, and take the system divested of any appendages by which it is clogged among those from whom they took it. The Australian system, which in some form has been adopted in several of the United States, Ip about as follows: Asthevoter enters tie voting room through the rail aclerk hands him a bal lot with the names of all the candidates on it. This he passes to the marking stalls, and marks the names of the can tudates he wishes to vote for, according to the plain directions before him. Then he goes and deposits his ballot, and all is done. No, heelers or bummers or be witching but resolute maidens are al lowed to jolter around in the voting room. The public, however, arenot pre vented from watching the proceedings, provided they keep on 'the outside of a il 4vidin them rom the ballot, but they must not touon. The law requires that the rail shall not be less than six feet from both the ballot box and the voting shelf. Within this rail are two tables, one to hold the bal lots to be given out, and a check list, on which the names of all receiving ballots are checked; the other contains a corre sponding check list, where the names of those depositing ballots are checked. The entrance and exit through the rail, and the shelf to which one goes to mark the ballots, are marked in the accompa nying outs as placed against the wall. Wherethe ward room will be used for other purposes between elections, it is best that the ballot shelves, to which the voter goes to make his little check against the name of his candidate, be ar ranged to fold, both the partitions and the shelf, at the bottom. They can also be nailed or screwed together perma nently. Common wooden horses are used as the best means of supports to the shelves and are considered more stable than any plan of folding legs and less liable to disarrangement. They can be easily slipped one within the other and stored away in a small space. The non folding shelves are easily supported by placing upright strips against the wall where the studding offers solid nailings, and screwed on the shelves. The shelves may be on brackets or suspended from stout hooks. The railad-thie shelves ahuld-be-sts it enough to support con siderable pressure. The cuts here given show the plan of how a room 20 by 24 feet may be fitted for balloting according to the new sys tem. The same general plan can be ap plied to rooms of different sizes. A RIPE OLD AGE. James Tany,. of Boton, Has PPaMed the Oentuy Mark. Probably Boston's oldest citizen at the present time is James Tunny, of No. 92 Linden Park street, who was 101 years old a few months ago, and if he lives a few months longer will be 102 years old. He has been a resident of Boston for over forty years, and a citizen of the United States for sixty years, and says lie came to this country when he was "a young man about 40 years of age." Mr. Tunny was born in Ballyshannon, Ireland, in 1787. Hisparente were peas ants; his father died young and his mo ther died before she was old enough to get any fame for longevity. His aunt, however, was very old-how old he didn't know; but he well remem bers that when she was over 100 years old she walked three miles with a lighted candle over a rough country road to at tend midnight mass in the parish chapel. Mr. Tunny left Ireland in 1881 for the United States. To quote his own lan guage, he recently said: "I was niver a scholard an' me mem'ry fails me o' the ould times, but I moind well th' day I him to Ameriky. If I had only known," he went on with quaint pathos, "that 'd live to this age, I'd ha' had l'arnin' to day. Nawthin' kin be done widout ed dication, an' I niver had no eddication." Mr. Tunny is very proud of his old age, but is modest as to his scholastic attain ments. He could read and write very well once, but he has forgotten now, he says, how to do either; but Margaret, his wife, says that down to only a few months ago he read his Bible every day. The district around Mr. Tunny's house is not at all thicklypopulated. The cen tenarian's house, an old wooden struc ture in which the couple have lived for over forty years, is not a stone's throw from a big * tract of unoccu pied and unculti vated land, on which a good __,, many trees and shrubs grow. A good sized stream runs over a dam - . - of stones under avE . n old wooden JAMES TUNN bridge near Mr. Tunny's house. His head is slightly bald on the top, but the sides are well covered with fine brown hair and his beard an4 mustache are white. His eyelashes have gone and his skin has lost some of the freshness of strong manhood. His fea tures are firm, but the desiccated look of very old age is not seen on his withered face. The limbs, however, are very much emaciated, and the position of his body indicates great feebleness. For a living Mr. Tunny followed the business of a peddler, and never did much of any other kind of work. Since the war he has done little or nothing except light household duties, as sawing wood, etc. He tried hard to join the Union forces at the outbreak of the war, but the authorities would not accept him as he was too old. His memory is fail ing him rapidly, but he has an old neigh Ior, 87 years of age, who visits him daily, cnd these two veterans talk of events that took place when America was still in her infancy. He married over fifty years ago, and has lived with his wife in the same house ever since. They had one child, but he died many years ago. Ever since his youth Mr. Teinny has smoked and drunk liquors, but never to excess.' He still smokes occasionally, but of late years the use of; tobacco has made him sick at the stomach. Only a short time ago he sawed the wood used foo cooking the meals in the house for a few weeks, and sometimes he is able to get about with the aid of a cane, His temper is very even, and he has enough interest in the scenes about his home to make humorous remarks, and when they are appreciated he smiles kindly. A Very God Sto.y, Florida girls are not like their Alabama sisters (by The Age Herald's estimate), for the former abhor slang. But for downright emphasis of expression and that brevity which is the soul of wit they yield the palm to no other state. Several weeks ago a number of brave young men and beautiful women from the interior came in on an excursion. A small knot of the visitors were walk ing leisurely through the park, when the following conversation was overheard between two of the visitors. It is re ported verbatim, though it is impossible to reproduce the drawling, earnest tone in which it was delivered; "Sal," asked one, displaying the folds of her new dress, and taking a sly hitch at her bustle. "Sal, how do my dress "Fingers and toes couldn't better i." "Do John seem ter notipe t?" "On't keep his eyes often it,. "Do my bustle shake about any?" "S'Wkes jeas tike jelly," replied Sal, as tbl preded on their way with an air of~mnh in4. ribble.-Jacksonvllls POWDER Absolutely Pure. This Powder never vnrles. A marvel of purity than the ordinary kinds, and cannot be sold in competition with the multitude of low test, short weightt,alun or phosphate powders. Sold only in cans. ROYAL BAKING POWDER CO., 107 Wall street, New York. NEW YORK Cash Bazaar. We are on the track of tnat mon ster serpent-Credit. Strangle the serpent or it will strangle you. Thousands of people are killed every year by the venomous snakes of In dia, but this Great American Cobra crushes in its coils tens of thousands annually. Cast off the cursed coils of the caressing Cobra Credit before they crush you. Do not hesitate or delay. We will help you cut the coils Begin to trade with us on the cash plan and you will save on each purchase something to apply on that old bebt that is crushing you and paralyzing your energies. Begin now. Every lost day is a lost dollar. Don't listen to the voice of the pro prietors of this murderous animal. Never since EVE WAS SNAKED out of the Garden of Eden has there been such a sneaking snake to snake people out of house and home. Shake the snake and come to the New York Cash Bazaar for Dry Goods, Millin ery, Boots and Shoes, etc., and save 25 per cent. PROTECT YOUR EYES oQgCTACA, o SYE GLASS Mr. H. HIRSCHBERG, The well-known Optician of 801 Olive St., St. Louis, has appointed LAPEYRE BROS., of Great Falls, .a agents for his celebrated Diamond Spectacles and Eyeglasses, and also for hisa Diamond Non-Changeable Spectacles and lEyeglasses. These Glasses are tile greatest invention ever made in Spec taclese. By a proper constrpction of the Lena a person norchasina a pair of these Non-Changeable Glasses never has to change these Glasses from the eyes,'nd every pair purchased are. gesrsatee so that if they ever leave the eyes (no lt. taer how rusted or cratchied the Lenses are), they wilt furnish th party with a new pair of Glasses free of charge. LAPEYRE IBROS. have a full assort ment and invite all who wish to satisfy themselves of the great superiority of these Glasses over any and all others now in use, to call and. examine the same at LAPEYRtE BROS., Druggists and Op ticiaus, sole agents for Great Falls. 9w Eyes tested free of charge. No peddlers supplied. Sun River Ferry. The otdersigned is now operatene han new e o e eu' ler, te thcrt oadrdge, near Great Falls. Roundtrip tickets over Ferry and Waoeen Bridg at redn.d rates. W. E. CABOADB N. Prenp'r. ACCOMMODATION For travelers going to Baker and Kib beyfrom Great Falls. Good stabling and teed. Boeard and Lodging. Winees, Liquors and OCigars. Robt. Bates, Otter Creek, six miles above Belt. Stock Sheep for Sale, I have 4.0 ead of h e od Btdoh Sheep for sale. dddrer , W I Baker, Core, aeoue county 0nteaaa, CROUP WHIOOPING COUGH and 13rchluitis immediately cured icy Shlnhld' orei. For sale at Lapeyre Bres. JUST AR1IVED CARPETS ! An elegant assortment of Choice Carpets including Moquets, . Tapestries, Velvets, Ingrains, Brussels, Mattings. -" We carry the largest stook of Carpets in Northern M1ontana and have the largest Carpet Room in the West. the Reliable Dry Goods Store, JOE CONRAD, Proprietor, Central Ave., - Great I-alls. OREGON AND NATIVE -ALSO Wood and Coal. A large and well assorted stock of all kinds of Lumber, Lath, Shingles, Doors, Windows and Building Material constant ly on hand. G. H. Goodrich. H. NALBACH, --TH m Liading Merchant Tailor, OF THE NORTHWEST, For the next thirty days I will close out my entire stock of Spring and Summer Suitings at reduced prices.. Next door to the Postofficel Great Falls, Mont. I. IBRE. IxL JOSEPH 'L SILVERMAN ISRAEL & SILVERMAN, WHOLESALE ])ALAERS IN WINIES' LIQUORS AND OIGARS. CENTRAL AVENUE, " OREAT FALI ,1 . - "!MONTANA. Just opened to the publi one of the largest and . t oo.k bofDrugs EVER BSIOUIGST TO MONTANA. S4eo a tehut Ie of Books, Stationery and Toilet *Artclsi, Ad the celebrated Sweet Pff and othoe brands A L'A B. tE , op: Seon4 a Str bun eoed t Pi alls, ' Keiore Heuse SAND COULEE, MONT. This House, whici to centrally 1ocated in the town of Saad Culee, hlas been leased by the undersigned., I have good rooms uend first-cltss ceosmmodsations in every respeot. Transient business, eo lielted. Csll and see m when in Sand Coulee. 0. I, PYLE, Prop'r, St. Pe o's 1'ssio BOARDIN 6SCHOOL FOR BOYS & GIRLS Fall Term, 1889, will open on Sept, Ist. Boarding and T lttea, per mout, . $10 Washilg, per monlth, - $1 St. Peter'st" MissiOets se ltOed in hbeautiful and hslt~falvaley near worSl.w, Maont. isa ahxes otoesb itosied Shrogho the eta ooe its eForlo tla. 8lwts roope teep netS t4ot peitere n; Sp ito DENNY ;-R1CE'& CO. Wi Q : BOSTON, MASS. aOsh advances madeo o onSigpogn etst Prices to ,Suhlt.tie t i Fifty Ares an Geldi-gs for sale, broken or unbroken. 3ee them before pur chasing elsewheiee-, GEO. F.i FitLD, . WRITE TO: IE If yo ave ehotoeoe or sedttl1ed 4ona a lnblio land, or des reto do s o, either r.i Placer Claim, Lode Claim. Cod. Land or Other Cljim,: and wto m kooya inShttoo tto , ea.e , t elo eAta A ·r.A' :i NELSON, Px Tr' oa .ýZoIe MIA.Aactin di~alapn, B.'0H, CORY & C Great Falls, Montana. Groceries, ardwarre, Crocke Stoves and Tinware. Wecarry the largest stock of Groceries a Hardware .in Northern Montana. GROCERY IDEPARTMENT. This stock is all new goods of the best grades only. We buy everything in cea from first hands and our prices cannot be met west of the Missouri river. Hardware Department. This is the largest and most complete stock carried in this portion of thet ritory. This stock includes Mining Tools, Steel, Iron, etc., Blacksmith Supplie all kinds, Builder's and General .lardware, Heating and Cooking Stoves a.d a assortment of Tin and Granite Ware. W. B. RALEIGH. F. H. MEYER. J. W. BELI WE. B.. I G! & C' O. The Leading Dry. Goods House. At Cost ! - At Cost We will, until further notice, close out the remainder of the fol lowing articles at cost: Imported Pattern Suits, Fine Dress Trimmings of all kin Laws, Batistes, Challi Lace Flouncing of every description, Ladies' Fine Chemisettes, Parasols, Etc., Etc. 20, PER CENT OFF! For one week only, just before going east for, New Goods. We will the above percentage on all Carpets to cash buyers. W. B. RALEIGH & CO., CENTRAL AV.. GREAT FAIIS IWill offer this month A Latelm pottion af Genat Clothi Such as Scotch Cheviots ,and, Worsteds, At a great reduction in pricenranoigall the way from $6.50, $8.50, 8.$9, $16, $17, ,$22.60. LADIES AND QENTS" ORUSHER In ani endlese variety of color; Will sell 'them from 75e, $1, $1.50, $1:75, $2, .50. Notequled in town. CEN 1S' Fý4RNIMIFC:191, tc. In GENT SBHIRTS you will find thy lestt _and largest me ments, such as Silk (iase and hbevote,, r.ang in. price from 7 to $6.25 We have also: a large :co0llpuo. of! NECK . WEA, which we m Oer stock of, BQOT AN;i S ýOES is vey `large, and all ve munpe below rfglar paesi , qo mil at oders. promptly . ttendeydt to B ud e & Kenkel, CEN4TRA i . ,aV5N. loots! a sts! jeuts' etgr e pr a Te pld fr all 4 ib sone Gtsl Erompt attenti! $iv' 1 kieqetrc mand ,: pi a ri .on applieatio park ý ,Ve:1 It an$ avg l A opposite t1 "a. r Glclp; +1et, Falls, M. T.