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THE WEEKLY TRIBUNE,
SATURDAY. MAY 21. 15. pROTECTION AAU WAvOS. The question of wages is one of the greatest moment to the laboring men of the country and they naturally favor a tariff policy under which the labor market would be stimulated, and under which labor would command the highest price. Republican organs and speakers assert that a high protective tariff increases the value of labor while they invariably associate low wages with free trade. No reliable tables of statistics are produced by them to prove either declaration, yet the cry is iterated and reiterated that low wages and free trade are inseparably connected. The cry has become the pol itical stock in trade of the uninformed republican prints in the conntry. It is well known that the priceof labor like the price of any merchantable ar ticle depends upon the demand for it. When two employers run after one work man labor brings the highest market price, but when two laboring men run after one employer the price of labor falls. Hence the price of muscle is reg ulated by the demand for it. It follows then that a tariff which increases the demand for labor is the tariff the wage earners of the country want. The mat ter then resolves itself into one plain question. Which is the better for the laboring men of the country, a high pro tective tariff or a low tariff: If only one answer could be given to the question there would not be two great political parties occupying different grounds up on it. The republican party holds that a high protective tariff keeps out foreign manufactured goods and products and therefore stimulates home manufactur ing e .~rprises and home products. This would be sound doctrine if we could consume all we could manufacture and produce. Hut we can't wear out all the woolen and cotton goods we manu facture nor can we eat all the breadstuffs we raise. We export the surplus of the latter to feed the hungry in foreign countries, but we can't export our sur plus manufactures, for the tariff which shuts out foreign manufactures shuts ours in. Our manufacturers must pay a heavy duty upon their imported raw materials which so increases the cost of production that they cannot compete in foreign markets with countries wherein imanufacturers get their raw material free. Therefore they are compelled to cut down the outputs of their factories to the home demand for them and at the came time they ,ut down the number of employes and wages. The democratic party contends that dse with free raw materials and a tariff for re revenue only labor would find abundant hib employment and cheaper rates of living. ca Free raw material would enable home manufacturers to compete with foreign producers of like articles in any market in the world. They would largely in crease their outputs and find employ ment for a larger number of men to meet their foreign trade. The re publican party takes issue with democrats upon these propositions and appeal to laboring men for their support and votes, constantly drumming in their ears the same old story about "high protection and high wages" and "low tariff and low wages." In support of their assertions they institute com- U parisons between wages and cost of liv ing in this country of high tariffs with the wages and cost of living in free-trade C England. But the recent report of Mr. (Carroll I). Wright, commissioner of la- I bor, does not support the contention of republicans. Mr. Wright's report, which he recently ! sent from his bureau to the president, -ives a pretty fair general view of the comparative wages and cost of living in Great liritain. Germany, France. andl Switzerland. The following tigures taken from his report show the average wages and cost of living in the cotton and woolen Industries in the t'nited States and Great Britain: UNITnD STATLre. Cttons Woolens wsaes or ineume .... ...... *o $56it 'oet of living ............11 14 NAt inome . ....... - OLSAT Blsl'lAIN. W ales or income... ....p$571 $ ",1o I'o t of living... m," 4$2 Net ine.,me ...... .......... - 34 It appears by these figures that the net income per family in the cotton in dustry is less in this country than in Great Britain, while it is larger in the woolen industry. In view of these fig ures. compiled by republican officials, the contention that free trade and puoe erty and high protection and plenty go together loses all force. There is noth ing in thei claim. But there ii another matter. and a very important one, too, that must be taken into consideration in reaching conclusions upon the ques tion of protection and wages, and that is density of population. The United States, including Alaska. contains 3,02,990 square miles. The United Kingdom- that is, England. Ireland, Scotland, and Wales-contains 121:10;8 square miles. The United States have a population of 64,000,000, or about 18 to the square mile. The United Kingdom has a population of :18,000,000 or over 313 to the square mile. This is a comparative ly new country with plenty of elbow room and vast agr.. ltural possibilities. Labor should be higher here and living cheaper because we have fewer people to the square mile and produce breedstuffs in abundance. But the figures of Con milssiosr Wright do not show so much difference in net incomes between fami lies of the two countries as the condi tions of the countries would seem to warrant. Let us bring this matter nearer at home and take a look at it from our doors. Montana contains an area of 146,000 square miles or 26,000 square miles more than the United Kingdom. It has a population of less than 200000 souls or a little over one to the square mile. Now suppose it be peopled as densely as the United Kingdom, that is with 313 souls to the square mile. Then suppose we build a high protection wall around it and keep in what we produce and keep out foreign goods, what would our wages be and what would it cost us to live it we could live? With 313 peo ple where we now have but little over one and hemmed in with a high protec tive tariff we would all starve to death. Say Great Britain shut out raw material and was compelled to consume her own manufactures how long could she main tain her supremacy upon the sea and maintain her position as the commercial and financial center of the world? Her statesmen cast off her tariff fetters fifty years ago and today when the highly protected United States want to borrow money she goes to free-trade England and when the men or corporations in this country want money to inaugurate vast enterprises they run to free-trade England for it. Free-trade England sells her products that our protected manufacturers cannot sell. She takes in money; we keep it out. Her laborers lay up about as much money as does ours and live quite as well. If pro tection alone gives the laborer of this country better incomes than the foreign laborer gets, figures do not show it. OuLn down-the river republican con temporary, the River Press, takes the stand and tells just how and why Mr. Hlobson of Fergus got away with the del. egate plum. It says that Fergus county is a safe republican stronghold; that it has never been honored with anything by the republican party; that Choteau helped Hobson, and that Silver Row delegates did a very naughty thing in promising to support anyone outside their own county. After this explana tion it is as clear as mud how Mr. Dick erman was defeated. F.aol a recent Washington dispatch it appears Mr. Carter has reconsidered his determination to resign and now says he will hold on to his office awhile longer. And why not? It will be time enough for Mr. Carter to resign and make a break for Sanders' shoes when it is learned that the next legislative as sembly of the state is controlled by the republicans and that Heon. Lee Mantle has been side-tracked by defeat as a candidate for the governorship. Housekeepers Should Remember The great -1,cess of the Royal Baking combination with its co-ingredients is defi Powder is due .to he extreme care exercised nitely known. Nothing is trusted to chance, by its manufactarers to make it entirely pure, and no person is employed in the preparation uniform in quality, and of the highest leaven- of the materials used, or the manufacture of ing power. All the scientific knowledge, the powder, who is not an expert in his par care, and skill attained by twenty-five years' ticular branch of the business. practical experience are contributed toward As a consequence, the Royal Baking this end, and no preparation can be made Powder is of the highest grade of excellence, with a greater accuracy, precision, and exact- always pure, wholesome, and uniform in qual ness. ity. Each box is exactly like every other, Every article used is absolutely pure. and will retain its power, and produce the Chemists are employed to test the: strength same and the highest leavening effect in any of each ingredient, so that its exact effect in climate, at any time. The Government Chemists, after having analyzed all the principal brands in the market, in their reports placed the Royal Baking Powder at the head of the list for strength, purity, and wholesomeness; and thousands of tests all over the country have further demonstrated the fact that its qualities are, in every respect, unrivaled. 4 ý 0&A1, A_ L n, BINDINO TWINS. Montana farmers may not be so large ly interested in the fate of the free bind ing twine bill as their brother farmers in the Dakotas, Minnesota, California and other large grain growing states, but every one of them who buys binding twine feels something of the burden some tax which pulls nearly a million dollars out of their pockets every year for the benefit of the twine trust. But they readily recognise an injustice to themselves and are as ready to resent it when the matter is brought to their no tice. The binding twine tax is an unjust one to farmers, and Representative Bryan, of Nebraska, sometime ago intro duced a bill in the house to place the ar ticle on the free list. Of course the bill is opposed by high tariff men every where as contrary to the spirit of pro tection. There is a possibility the bill may reach the president, but unless it receive a majority of the republican votes in the senate he will veto it. President Harrison is a high protectionist and he will keep in line with the money power of his party it every farmer in the coun try be sold out at sheriff's sale. In referring to the binding twine tax it may not be uninteresting to the gen eral reader to give a few facts concern ing it. The McKinley bill as it passed the house put a duty of 13 cents per pound on binding twine. The manufac turers appealed to the senate to raise the duty. They contended that without a tariff of 1;,' cents per pound they would be compelled to shut down their plants. They couldn't possibly run their factories without an increase of at least a half cent a pound over the rate fixed by the house, and added: "We know that nothing less will keep our mills alive." But the grangers were also on nand and after a hard fight congress cut down the duty to %7 of a cent a pound, and the mills are not only still alive but they are prospering. Let us see how they have prospered. A few days after the passage of the McKinley bill the Nation al Cordage Trust put $5,000.000 of pre ferred stock upon the market. As the members of the company had declared before the senate committee that unless the duty were raised from 1J4 cents per pound to 1-.k cents per pound they would be compelled to close down their mills, they submitted affidavits to the effect that the combine would earn enough to pay 8 per cent upon this pre ferred stock and enough more to pay handsome dividends on the 810,000,000 of common stock. They sold the stock and have since paid 8 per cent annual dividends on it, and 10 per cent on the common stock. According to high tariff authority 50. 000 tons of binding twine were manu factured in this country last year while custom-house receipts show less than half a ton was imported. And yet in the face of all these facts manufacturers my that if binding twine be put upon the free list they will be compelled to close' down their mills and thus throw a large number of men out of employment. They tell the same old, old story that has'been repeated for years, and taken up by republican prints and public' speakers to scare the people into voting for high protection and the republican ticket. It is the same old story that was told in 1878, when the duty on quinine was taken off. Up to that date quinine was dutled at $3.50 an ounce-three times its weight in silver-or 642 a pound. Troy weight. There were five firms in this country engaged in making the artiole. All of them contended that it quinine were put upon the free list it would be imported from Europe with the result that our own mills would be closed, their workmen thrown out of employ ment and the valuable industry forever lost to us. But congress repealed the tax and put quinine on the free list. This was fourteen years ago. Now what has been the result? Have our quinine mills been closed up, their own ers bankrupted, and their workmen turned adrift? Here is the answer: Quinine is now sold st less than 50 cents an ounce. We have over double the number of quinine mills running and making money, and, what is more, we are actually exporting the medicine to Europe. The history of the boot and shoe industry in the United States shows even better results. Since hides were put on the free list the industry has be come one of the leading ones in the country. Yet we must expect to hear republican papers and speakers extol protection and see laboring men vote for protection until the latter learn the logic of tariff taxes and realize the extent of the imposition practiced upon them. AM TO COUNTY COMMI5SIONEIUE. The question as to the election of county commissioners having been sub mitted to Attorney General Haskell, that gentleman gives the following opin ion: It will be the bounden duty of the county clerk, when he makes out and forwards by mail to the judges of elec tion the written notices of the holding of the general election on the first Tues day after the first Monday in November, to insert therein that an election will be held for three county commissionerse, whose term of office will expire upon the first Monday in January, 1895. If Mr. Hlaskell's opinion be sustained the voters of every county in the state will be called upon to elect three county commissioners next November. This will be good news to the people of Cas cade county, who will see in the opinion an early opportunity to replace the pres ent two incompetents upon the board with intelligent men. PA .TY AND PARTY OBLIGATION. Political parties, to be effective, must be thoroughly organised and offlloered and as thoroughly under disolplinq. Like armies they make themselves felt I by concentration of forces and united action against given objects. There is 1 quite as much difference between a well 1 organiued and disciplined politicalparty and an unorganised body of men, as far as effectiveness s concerned, as there is between an army of thoroughly disolp lined troops and a leaderless mob. With out organisation and discipline a politi. cal party is unable to gain victories and establish itself. Its member are simply political bushwhackers who appear upon the flanks or rear of the enemy and an noy it, but who never stop it in its march to victory. Again political parties are formed for the purpose of carrying out bertain prin ciples or policy in the adminlstration of the government. Men join and become members of the party because its prin ciples harmonize with those they them selves entertain. They work together for a common end. They hold what are r called primary meetings, and city, coun . ty, state and national conventions. These meetings and conventions are the ma chinery with which a politicaliparty , formulates and emphasizes itsjprinci ples and injects them in the administra I tion of the government. Without them , unity of action could not be secured in the nomination and election of candi dates for office. Political parties must be governed by its unwritten laws to be effective. Furthermore, political parties cannot long maintain their integrity as a body r unless their members be loyal in all that I the word implies. Their existence as a r party depends upon the fealty of mem c bers. Therefore disloyalty should be re f garded as a political crime. It is a crime which, in the days when men voted their sentiments, was punishable by social as well as political ostracilm. But in these f latter days when the love for money and office and power rather than the love for a political principle determines the ac tions of men, desertions are too readily condoned and offenders too quickly re ceived back into the council chambers of the party. Nothing will so quickly and g effectually destroy the morale of a party I- as the practice of giving taffy to desert r era to bring them back into the fold. e Unless a man is a party man from prin e ciple his room in a party is better than his company. We see men go to the polls and vote against candidates whose nomination they helped bring about. Such men commit political treason, the gravest of political offenses. They can not there fore he depended upon and should be relegated to the ranks of probationers until they prove their fitness for full communion with the faithful. A traitor to a party can do lese mischief outside than inside of it. He should never be tolerated in its councils. Still again we see those who claim to be strong party men voting against can didates of their party upon personal grounds. The man who thus votes does not know the A, B, C of his obligations to his party or to himself. Let us ee if this is not so. Men meet upon call of regularly constituted authorities and elect delegates to represent them in a nominating convention of their party. The majority elects and the voice of the majority is the voice of the meeting and every good party man abides by the de cision of the majority. The representa tives in a convention assembled nomi nate the candidates of their party. Again the majority rules or determines the personnel of the ticket, and again every good party man abides by the action of the convention. He is bound by every law of responsibility to stand by his agents, for the delegates who made the nominations are or were his agents. Now, if party men wourld look at the matter in this--its true light-we would see no scratching of tickets. But they don't thus see It, or, if they do, they wilfully and knowingly stultify themselves and belie their professions. For instance, a man declares he is a democrat. He joins with his party to make nominations of candidates for of fice. He is as much responsible for the nominations as any other member of his party. The candidate stands for the principles of his party. By voting for them he again declares his democracy and his love for his political principles. His candidates are elected and his poli tical principles triumph. He is satisfied because he believes that right is vistor ous. But suppose, on the other hand, he scratches the names of democrats and puts those of his political enemies in their place. What does he do? How must his action be interpreted. This way. He confesses to himself he is in sincere; that he is a traitor to his party and that he has lied to himself and to his party associates. He voted against his own political convictions and de clared those of his political enemies were right. That is what a man confesses when be shouts for the democratic party and democratic principles and then votes for opposition candidates. He confemes. he is a traitor and a liar and should be treated as such by his party associates. And that is the way the deserter was treated by the men who organized and have ever maintained the integrity and good name of the democratic party. Ladles, you can have any black kid shoe or slipper Silvered or Gold Leafed at a reonable price, work guaranteed, at Joe Conrad's. THE TRANSPORT OF AM st Is Ofte r CarrTed on the Ipt. of Steamstilps to Eep It lC Ammonia has been car.ried siderable *antitles on the uppIe of steamsu..s, but in many, ve, bottles, carboys, or tin are tow between Mdeks. In fact, they a times stowed in vacant cabns of vessels. The explosion of one f receptacle awakened attention placing of such substances neu heat. The master of thev whoe shi the explosion hIappSp sorewed the topof all those u esd thus allowed the gas tobloc Reatritions a carriage of goods were imposed under the shipping acset, 1878, mection as of provides that if any person sea tempts to send by, or, not beig ter or owner of the vessel, caria tempts to carry in any vessel, or foreign, any dangerous goods, squafortis, vitriol, naphtha, gun lucifer matchee, nitroglycerin, leum, or any other goods of a nature, without distinctlymr nsture on the outside of the containing the same, and also written notice of the nature of goods and the name and address e sender, he shall be liable to a not exceeding £100; but if the sending the goods on board is me agent and Ignorant of its contentt penalty is not to exceed ten pouosk False description makes the liable to a penalty of £500. The or owner of a ship may refuse to t board a vessel any suspicious pec and may require it to be opened to tain its contents. Clause 26 in the has always been looked upon as a take in legislation. The master c ship is empowered to throw over goods of a dangerous nature which been sent without being marked or fled of their true character, and - the master nor the owner of the shall be subject to any liability for casting into the sea, civil or crimi any court. There is no reason for denouncing carriage of ammonia by sea, butit; the greatest importance thateach compound should be accurately and that it ought not to be exrpoe heat. If e. rything that expanodd submission to heat were interdictdt shipping trade would be sadly pered. For example-yeast is for conveyance, and is usually I on deck. In hot weather the cabs r been broken and hoops burst fto posure to the sun, although no damage is done. We could name breakages, but enough has btem to bring home the necessity fhr standing what to carry aed ce to stow it.-Chemical Trade .1: How Not to Cat Inlt, P Don't have any enemies. Don't have any friends. Don't inherit money. Don't lose it. Don't sign any petitions. Don't subscribe to any lcture I of stock companies. Don't recommend anything. Don't get victimized. Don't exhibit any public spirit. Don't tell stories. Don't register at a hotel. Don't visit a friend in an township or elsewhere. Don't allow other people to ridt a Don't show any interest in mug s literature, science or education. f Don't meet long lost frenis a f tives. Don't go insane. Don't get sick. Don't accept presents. Don't do anything that might e you a vote of thanks or condemnat Don't sue anybody. Don't get sued. Don't go to law at all. Don't live to be an octogenana.l Don't die.-Detroit Tribune. Dinger In Pbylsal ('llut, It is beginning to be unlertai physical culture should Ib und" intelligently and with minderatli London girl went home from her lesson, which was a violent une. covered a strange condition ýýf h)U a little at one side of the thra'-^ tied appearance, with settledll b' neath. The physician to whll plied said there was no renu"dY little blood vessels had giie , wy the severe and unaccuswtoml i" and her naturally thin skin rtv1:i mishap more than would plrh' pen in another case. The injuries are not so fri young girls, with supple joints: v .er moved muscles and tendons, but aged women should begin very ' Many such, to rid themse.lvt t'f becoming tendency to corltl''tei' to extraordinary acrobatic fait ,:t attended with real danger to lY'"n. accustomed to violent exerri' Point of View in New York Time` The Mysterlous Power or the Tur The turquoise, although n.t Or with either remedial or proteett' erties, so far as disease was cl' was nevertheless regarded 'as a sympathetic indicator, the int'. its color being supposed to fl .t.ft: the health of the wearer. The latter, however, by virt°u stone he carrried, could, it fr n e w from any height with intlttr"' Marquis of Vilena's fool, how" somewhat nearer the truth ýiwhF versed the popular superatitilh assertion that the wearer of a t',. might fall from the top of a lit=-' and be dashed to pieces with"' Ing the stone.-Queries Magazinyi A Genial Teacher. Agassis taught natural histowr yard college as no other man hle in America before. He was " friend that ever student luwd" the most genial and kindly. acý people used to say that one hb need of an overooat in passing house" than any other in that Professor David Starr Jordan r. lar Sciene Monthly.