Changea on the Kar til's Surface.
New York Sun: The lighthouse* keep
er at Reykianes, the southwest point of
Iceland, discovered on July 21* last that
a new island had suddenly appeared
above the water, about nine miles from
the mainland. Nine weeks ago the
British Consul in Iceland visited the is
land, which he describes as a black vol
canic rock of small extent. In this
neighborhood several islands have from
time to time risen to the surface or sunk
out of sight.
Geological writings give a great many
instances of important changes on the
earth's surface that have been made
within historical times. The stupend
ous volcanic eruption of Krakatau on
Aug. 27 last year entirely changed the
physical aspect of the Sund a Straits. A
part of Krakatau was shot out of the'/
sea and dropped into the straits eight
miles northward. The greater portion
of the island, containing several thous
and million cubic yards of earth, was
hurled through the air over Zaug Is
land, and plunged into the channel sev
en miles to the northeast. These two
new pieces of land, which have been
named steers and Calmeyer Islands,
now appear above the sea where previ
ously 240 feet of water existed. Where
the volcano of Krakatau stood a sea
fathomless by a line of 1,000 feet now
General Sir J. II. Lefroy recently call
ed attention to the fact that ninety-six
more or less extensive tracts of land are
known to be rising or sinking. Geolo
gists tell us that the Atlantic coast be
tween Cape Coil and Cape Ilatteras has
been sinking for centuries, and the sub
sidence has not yet ceased on the coasts
of New York and New Jersey. The
Indians who lived on Manhatton Island
when the Dutch colonized it two centu
ries ago, said that in the time of their
great-grandfathers it was possible to
cross Hell Gate dry shod from one
bank to the other. Prof. Guyot estimated
that since the colonization of the coun
try, this part of the coast has subsided
twenty-three and one-half inches every
Science is not yet able to tell in ac
cordance with what laws these upheav
als and depressions of the earth's crust
occur. Geologists, however, have been
able to fix almost exactly the limits of
the areas both of upheaval and subsid
ence. There is now no doubt that
many of the islands of the southern
Pacific Ocean are the lofty portions of a
continent which sank until the water
covered it. Other parts of the Pacific
Ocean bed are gradually rising, and are
thrusting here and there new islands
above the sea.
While the greater part of the Ameri
can continent is slowly rising, Australia
is gradually sinking. Lieutenant-Com
mander DeLong found evidence that
Bennett Island had risen one hundred
feet within quite recent times. Thus
year by year the earth is reconstructing
its seas and continents.
One of the most startling and roman
tic features of border life occurred re
cently on the Wild Horse prairie, thirty
miles north of Los Angeles, when a
band of wild horses, under the lead of a
noble sorrel stallion, came galloping
over the plain to reconnoitre a company
of surveyors engaged in making a sur
vey of the tract. The band dashed
toward Capt. Keller and his party of
surveyors till within about 500 feet,
when the leader halted in a grandly
proud and defiant manner, w ith neck
curved, nostrils distended, erect, and
tail on dress parade, and all then ranged
themselves on each side of him like
squad of cavalry in a battle charge
After surveying the scene for a moment
the leader galloped proudly away, fol
lowed by the band in the most graceful
and dignified manner. The scene was
most romantic, and the picture of the
lordly leader, with his most obedient
subjects in their fleet and graceful
motions, was worthy of an artist'i
pencil. There was another band of
wild horses on the same prairie, under
the leadership of a dark mahogany bay
stallion, with black mane, tail and knees,
In this band there are two white horses,
while the rest are bay and sorrel mainly.
Few people are aw T are that at the base
of the Sierra Madre, only thirty miles
from this city, wild horses roam in their
native beauty and crop the rich grasses
that grow on Wild Horse prairie. Yet
such is the fact, and their sleeck ap
pearance and graceful motions are the
admiration of all beholders. -Los An
geles (Cal.) Express.
How The Presidency Is Decided.
Each state is entitled to as many elect
ors as it has senators and representatives
ia congress, and these are voted for by the
people, so that the president and vicc-pres
ident are not chosen by the people at all
it amounts to the same thing, however, as
«sch elector in either or any party is nom
inated with special reference to his party
fealty and invariably represents by his vote
those who elect him. The voter is not
confined to districts or localities, but casts
a ballot containing the names of all the
electors his state is entitled to, the candi
dates obtainingthe greatest number of votes
being elected, the same as other candidates
for office. On the first Wednesday in Dec
ember the electors who have been chosen
meet at such place in their respective
states as the legislature thereof may provide
and proceed to tote first for the president,
then for vice-president ; three certificates
of the result are made, one of them for
warded by special messenger, another
mailed to the president of the senate at
Washington, and the third filed with the
judge of the district in which the electors
cast their votes. On the second Wednes
day in February, in the presence of Con
gres» the president of the senate announces
the result of the voting by electors and offi
ciaHyprociaims the men having the highest
pujnber éf votes duly elected as president
'and.'vice-president. The inauguration
takes place on the fourth of March follow*
üaf— and this if fill.
50 Boxes Oregon Apples and Pears !
2000 LBS. OF GANDIES FOR THE HOLIDAY TRADE.
In the Comb and Strained in Fancy Glasses and I in:
Apricots, Grapes, Peaches Peeled and Unpeeled, Pitted Plums Sour and Sweet, Prunes, etc
TOBACCO and CIGARS,
A Complete Stock
A Full Line of
Staple and Fancy Groceries,
At Lowest Prices at
IT. G. lÆattHiessen.
CURRAN & LENIHAN,
FARGO BEST FLOOR !
$3.40 per Sack
In five-sack lots. Liberal discount
in greater quantity.
Fargo No. i Straight $3.00
CORNER OF MAIN AND LEWIS ST.,
LIVINGSTON, MONTANA 1
GEO. W. METCALF & CO.,
Feed and Sale Stables,
CORNER MAIN AND CLARK STREETS.
FINEST "TURNOUTS" IN THE CITY,
Tourists and Travelers carried to or from the remotest points with safety and dispatch
Horses, Mules, Harness and Wagons bought and sold.
Oats and Baled. Hav,
Stock boarded by the day or week. Spectal attention given to Gentlemen Drhers
Terms as reasonable as any in the city. Call and see us.
CLEVELAND & HENDRICKS
Have given us the exclusive right to sell
Boots & Shoes, Hats & Caps,
GLOVES AND MITTS,
And a complete line of
At lower Prices than any firm in Montana. Republicans and Democrats call
and be Convinced.
Merrill & Mclnerney.
BOSTON BOOT & SHOE STORE,
Main Street, • Livingston, M. T.
Livingston Bakery !
Main and Second Streets,
Fresh Bread, Pies and Oakes
delivered daily by wagon.
A cordial invitation invitation is extended to old friends and visitors. Come and see me
1 Arc stm Ju lhe lanil of tll0 ]j vm „. w j t u oue 0 f the largest and most complete stocks ol
Gent's Furnishing Goods Boots and
Shoes Staple and Fancy Groceries,
I11 the Territory. Their stock is JSEW,direct from the
Eastern market, and they have 110 OLD, Second-Hand
stock of Shelf Worn Goods to palm ofT on customers
at regular prices.
jjgpYou are invited to examine their mammoth stock and learn their prices to
lie convinced that they are selling a better class of goods for less money than any
other house in Gallatin county. Remember their location,
LIVINGSTON, M. T
Park Street Clothier,
Has just received a large stock ol
GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS, Cloths and Underwear
Of the best quality, and for the next 30 days special inducements will be offered.
Our cutting and fitting department is complete and we will guarantee satisfaction
Always has been and is still the leading Restaurant of the city. Ey strict attention to bus
iness and always giving the best of everything we have made it so. Thaukiul
for past favors, we ask a continuance of the same.
OYSTERS all STYLES.
FOULKS & KELLEY.
Main three*, Four doors from Postoffice.
CEPERLEY & AYRAULT,
Real Estate, Insurance.
Town Property for sale, improved or unimproved.
Agents for Eight of the Strongest and most reliable Insurance Companies.
Quartz and Placer Mines lor sale in Emgrant Gulch.
Quartz Lodes in Clark's Fork and Qu.u tz and Placer mines in Mill Creek, Hear airfl
Fine ranches for sale suitable for agricultural or grazing purposes.
it Sale !
I I Please to take notice
■ - that the undersigned
have bought and will close out, re
gardless of cost, the stock of goods
formerly owned by Smith & Hagy,
Hats & Caps, Boots & Shoes,
LADIES' AND GENT'S
Etc., Etc., Etc.
For Cash Only.
Remember that this is no catch
penny advertisement, gotten up for
the purpose of deluding the public,
by selling them one article at less
than value only to cinch them plenty
on the next, bjit is a bonafide Closing
out Sale, of the aforementioned
STOCK AT LESS THAN COST.
The goods will be sold at the old
stand of Smith & Hagy, Main street,
and at this place the public can find
for the next sixty days,
Unprecedented in the trade history
Never mind the Presidential elec
tion for you cannot vote anyway, but
spend your time rustling cash with
which to maKe for yourselves money
at this SALE EXTRAORDINARY.
G. H. Carver & Go.
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