Newspaper Page Text
From Rev. Stanley's "Sketch of the Topography, Resources, and History of Montana Territory." we select the fol lowing description of our territory: Montana Territory embraces the vast region of country between the45th and 49th parallels of north latitude and the 104th and 110th (legs, of longitude west from Greenwich, making it about 575 miles from east to west and 27G miles from north to south. It contains about 145,000 square miles, or nearly 93,0û0,0d0 acres, an area three times the size of New Kngland, and large enough for an empire. It is bounded on the north by British America, on the east by Dakota, on the south by Wyoming, and on the west and southwest by Idaho territory. The Indian name for this region is Tay-a-be-shock-up. the English of which is "Country of the Mountains," and no prettier or more suggestive title could have been found in all the voca bulary of names. The western portion, especially, is literally a country of mountains—long, steep, rugged, and high mountains,interspersed with lovely valleys, coursed by rugged rivers, and possessing those attractions which have won for it a significant title—"TheGem of the Mountains." The main range of the Rocky Mount ains, the "back-bone" of the American continent, extends through the western portion of the territory in a northwest erly direction, following a very tortuous course, as if finding it a difficult or deli cate ta>k to separate the interlapping tributaries of the two great oceans oi the world (Atlantic and Pacific), each extending up to the greatest altitude to draw from the snowy reservoirs on those lofty heights the sparkling treas ures with which to replenish Nature's wants in the regions below. Along the main range are here and there jagged mountains and snowy peaks of consid erable height, but it is flanked on either side by spurs of clusters for 100 mile or more on either side, some of which are higher and more romantic in their appearance than the "main divide, Frequently their proud summits reach such a height that Nature wraps them in her snowy mantle and bathes their white crests with silvery clouds, as if to adorn them for their celestial abode. The Coeur d' Alene and Bitter Root ranges running parallel with the main range form the boundary line between Idaho and Montana on the southwest, with the Bitter Root, Jocko, and Deer Lodge valleys nestling between. Near the center of the territory on the eastern slope, are the Big Belt, Little Belt, Snowy, Ilighwood and Judith ranges, around which the Missouri river sweeps on its northward and eastward tour after its passage through the "gate of the mountains" and its mighty tum ble over the Great Falls. North of the Missouri river, bordering upon her Majesty's dominions, are the Bear-paw and the Little Rocky Mountains; south ward from the Little Belt and north of the Yellowstone river are the Crazy Mountains; south and west of these are the Snowy, the Gallatin and Madi son ranges; still south of these in Wyo ming is the great cluster of shining peaks from which start forth the head waters of the Colorado, the Columbia, and the Missouri rivers; and from the lofty summit of which the red man imagines he can see over into the happy hunting-ground. In the south eastern part of the territory are the Bear-tooth, the Pryor, the Wolf, and the Powder river ranges, with other smaller clusters. These mountain chains have much to do in shaping the course of rivers, and giving direction to the air currents, protecting some lo calities, exposing others, thus affecting the climate more than would at first be expected. In some places they are darkened with pine forests, at others the timber is found only in patches and in the deep canyons, and generally the are intersected with veins or leads ol gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal and other rich metals. Between the hig mountains are "basins" consisting ol foot-hills, bench lands, and valley which are drained by rippling stream lets and creeks that flow into and make up the large water-courses. These ba sins are connected by low gaps or passe with approaches of easy grade for wa gons, or even railroads. The belt mountains extending through the west ern portion of the territory, parallel with the main range, is about one hundred and seventy miles wide. It is the most populous and thus far the most productive portion on account of rich quartz and placer mines found here, the rich agricultural land, abundant and beautiful streams for irrigation, excel lent timber, besides a considerable amount of good hay and pasture land Fast of this belt of mountains the country is more open, abounding in vast stretches of rolling prairie and table lands, with streams less plentiful and now and then a cluster of buttes or more pretentious mountains rising up to relieve the monotony. * * * The low altitude of these mountain passes and valleys doubtless has much to do in attracting hither the balmy breezes warmed by the Japanese current that sweeps the Pacific coast, and in giving to Montana the mild climate which has made it for ages so attractive to the In dian and the wild game of the moun tains, and so desirable as the home of its 100,000 inhabitants today. Of course in the high mountains the snow gets very deep and the weather intensely cold in winter, and in some valleys that are inhabited the thermometer will drop for a day or two to 20 deg., 40 deg., and once in a great while (as it has at Butte) to (50 deg., below zero; but it has average temperature, both in winter and summer, shows it to be but little colder than in Missouri. The average annual temperature of Helena is about 44 deg., and Deer Lodge 40 deg., and perhaps the lower valleys would be 47 of are fir, in are are that ing of or 4S deg. There have been as many as 250 perfectly clear days in one year, and reports show an average of over 275 fair days during a period of six years. The atmosphere is so dry and pure that one does not feel the cold as in damp regions farther east and south. Men and women have come directly from Mississippi in midwinter and did not complain of the cold any more than w here they came from in the sunny south. People living in the valleys usually are outdoors most of the win ter. improving ranches or hauling their grain to market. Now or then a bliz zard or a snowstorm sweeps over the country, causing terror to man and beast; but all are usually provided with shelter—the horses and cattle getting into the gulches and willow thickets; and after the storm, which usually lasts but a day or two, the weather is fair. The wind piles the snow in heaps, so that the grass is left exposed; the warm "Chinook" wind often follows a severe storm, melting the snow' and making glad the hearts of all. In some of the principal valleys there will not be sufficient snow for good sleighing perhaps for several years in succession, though in other valleys it will remain from one foot to three or four feet deep for a month or more at a time, which necessitates the feeding of stock while it lasts. In such places, and also where the range is getting to be eaten off, the ranchmen are reducing the size and increasing the quality of their herds and usually keep a supply of hay for emergencies. The latter portion of the summer— July and August—is usually hot and dry, though the nights, as a rule, are cool and refreshing, You can sleep comfortably under a pair of blankets and sometimes require more. The grass of the foothills or valleys dries or cures, retaining its strength in a wonderful manner and makes excellent winter pasture. About September or October we usually have a few weeks of rainy weather, which winds up with a snow storm, mantling the mountains with a robe of white that is usually retained all winter. After this there is apt to be a spell of dry, clear, calm, delightful weather—mornings and evenings cool and frosty, midday warm and some times hot in the sunshine—which con tinues until in December, possibly till Christmas, when winter comes in real earnest. The intense, dry cold weather of the regular winter months is not so un pleasant as the backward spring. We often have a warm spell in February which continues well into March. The ice goes out of the streams and the •ground thaws sufficiently for the farm ers to sow their wheat. When such is the case April is "squally," and the weather undesirable and more or less un settled till the last of May. Crops are usually put out during these two months. The early and energetic plow - men frequently has use for his over coat or gloves. Of course the season varies here as in all other sections, have seen the mercury 30 degrees below zero in November, have ridden forty miles a day on horseback when it was 20 to 40 degrees below zero all day have worked hard shoveling snow to get from the Boulder to Helena on the first day of June, and have seen bloom ing gardens and waving grain fields covered with snow the first of July. Usually June is the finest month during the year in Montana. Then the atmosphere is clear, pure and balmy, the valleys, hills, and mountain sides are clothed in the most gorgeous robes, the roses and fiowers are in full bloom, and all nature rejoices in her own love liness. There is more or less rain in the spring of the year, especially about the first of June, to give the crops a start. Then we have occasional showers dur ing the summer, followed by quite a wet spell in September. The healthfulness of the climate and The healthfulness of the climate and country cannot be questioned. It has proven piost beneficial to persons with weak lungs, if they were not too far gone when they came. I have known many who claimed that their lives were prolonged, and others permanently cured, by coming to Montana. Such a things malaria is unknowm. The air is pure and dry and wonderfully exhil arating. It acts as an excellent tonic to persons coming from lower altitudes east or south. The average "pilgrim" (as the new comer is invariably called), is inspired with new life, can never get enough to eat, and feels an inborn desire to run and jump and climb to the top of the highest mountain in sight, which he insists is not more than a mille dis tant, when in reality it is ten or twenty i miles awav. Distances are wonder-1 fully deceptive; a few efforts of this kind generally satisfies the most enthu siastic lover of nature. The rarity of the atmosphere is apt to occasion a difficulty in getting a full breath for a while until the lungs expand and be come adjusted to the new state of things. The streams are usually lined with willow, alder, quaking aspen, birch, balm of gilead or cottonwood, with an undergrowth of wild cherry, service berry, buffalo berry, gooseberry, wild currant, and perhaps a few other species of bushes. In the lower valleys there are various species of wild haws. The large timber consists principally of pine, fir, and tamarack, and is found mostly in the deep canyons or on the steep mountain sides, though now and then there is quite a sprinkling along the streams. In some places the river banks are quite bare. The beds of the streams are usually covered with gravel or large boulders, against which the waters dash fury, making it quite dangerous fording for the traveler when the water high. The water, when it is not muddied by the miners, is so clear, too, that one is apt to miss his guess, under estimate its depth, and get a good duck ing as a penalty for his mistake. C als as a Scrofula Is one of the most fatal scourges which afflict mankind. It is often inherited, but may be the result of improper vacci nation, mercurial poison, uncleanliness, and various other causes. Chronic Sores, Ulcers, Abscesses, Cancerous Humors, and, in some cases, Emaciation and Con sumption, result from a scrofulous condi tion of the blood. This disease can be cured by the use of Ayer's Sarsaparilla. I inherited a scrofulous condition of the blood, which caused a derangement of my whole system. After taking less than four bottles of Ayer's Sarsaparilla I am Entirely Cured and, for the past year, have not found it necessary to use any medicine whatever. I am now in better health, and stronger, than eyer before.—O. A. Willard, 218 Tremont st., Boston, Mass. I was troubled with Scrofulous Sores for five years; but, after using a few bottles of Ayer's Sarsaparilla, the sores healed, and I have now good health. — Elizabeth Warnock, 54 Appleton street. Lowell. Mass. Some months ago I was troubled with Scrofulous Sores on my leg. The limb was badly swollen and inflamed, and the sores discharged large quantities of offen sive matter. Every remedy failed until I used Ayer's Sarsaparilla. By taking three bottles of this medicine the sores have been healed, and my health is re stored. I am grateful for the good it has done me.—Mrs. Ann O'Brian, 158 Sulli van st., New York. ft Ayer's Sarsaparilla, Prepared by Dr. «T. C. Ayer & Co., Lo well, Maes. Sola by all Druggists. Trice $1 ; six bottles,$5. N. IMO, Barber and Hair Dresser, Hefferlin Bloc«, Main Street. THE MOST EXTEHT WORKMEN EMPLOYED. BATH BOOMS IN CONNECTION. Minnesota & NortMcrn R. R. C Chicago & St. Louis Short Line. Minnesota * jJorthiätesteni MINNEAPOLIS ST. PAUL > erstrar. Kenyen Dodge C. _ -field Railroad, Austin I Lyle o Connections * Mona <S> atcrloo v ^^^Indepcnd flarshaTrvW. Û town ^ ^-Montezuma Mpskaloosa/ J^^^Uedrick j / / ''-TO ubuque jCviêêpï" GriCnellW * Ol DES aoists Centre V orreston Orego*^ I *ochcU c Keithsbur V Glcawood % Kirksville rMacon C. W ^PÄMoberlA Mexico on Jc.q Sa; Jsi kahs; CITY ,ST.LOUIS The onlv line in the Northwest running Pullman's ELEGANT BUFFET SLEEPERS and com bination SLEEPING and CHAIR CARS. Popular Route to Chicago and the East. Short Line to St. Louis. Kansas City, St. Joseph, Atchison, Leavenworth, Galveston, San Frahciseo and all California points, New Orleans and Florida J. A. MacGKKGOR. J. A. HANLEY, Trav. Ft. and Pass. Agt. Traffic Manager, St. Paul, Minn. to the a a i u a^ipn «Ulli udllüluo J. F. LONG, SADDLES AND HARNESS Manufactured to Order. Repairing Neatlv and Promptly Done at Reasonable Prices. A full Stock of , Bridles. Ciiaperajos, Bits and SPURS always on hand. The Celebrated Single and Double Rig Visalia Saddle a Specialty. LIVINGSTON. MONT. CINNABAR AND ME TRANSPORTATION lod Forwarding Company ! f. H. HOPPE & CO., Proprietors. Freights advanced and all goods promptly for warded for Merchants and Shippers where the same are consigned in care of the above company. Reasonable Rates charged. H. J. HOPPE, Manager, C INNABAR, - - MO NTANA JOHN O. SAX, NEWS AND FRUIT DEALER, AND CONFECTIONER. The latest eastern Dailies, illustrated Journ als and Magazines always on hand. MAIN STREET. I will Am THOMPSON BEOS. have no time to write advertisements, but bave a more com plete stock and can give our customers better value for their money than ever. Anything in GOODS, GROCERIES, BOOTS AND SHOES, OlottLing, Hats and Caps, FURNISHING GOODS, &C. give von the O we are prepared to show you in variety, and very lowest prices, and will never be undersold. e have just received an elegant lot of men's fine hand-sewed shoes direct from the manufacturer at Rochester; also a lot of ladies fine shoes from IL II. Gray's Sons. In these we offer extra inducements. Our stock is too well known to require enumerating, and our manner of dealing, buying and meet ing competition too well known to add anything here. THOMPSON BROS., Main Street, Livingston, Mont. PLEASURE RESORT AND HOME FOR THE SICK. HUNTER'S HOT SPRINGS ! AT MENDENHALL, MONTANA, 2>2 miles from Springdale station on the Northern Pacific Railroad, where car riages will be in attendance at all trains for die transfer of guests. Mails Delivered Twice Daily at the Hotel Office. TOWN LOTS for residence and business purposes for sale. C. B. MENDENHALL, Owner and Proprietor. MERCHANTS HOTEL, C. J. OBERG, Proprietor. NEWLY -BEFITTED AND FURNISHED THROUGHOUT. Special Attention given to the Accommodation of the Traveling Public, ly Located, and Central Bates Only $2.00 Per Day. GEORGE W. METCALF, Feed and Sale Stables, CORNER MAIN AND CLARK STREETS. FINEST "TURNOUTS" IN THE CITY, Tourists and Travelers carried to or from the remotest points with safety and dispatch Horses, Mules, Harness and Wagons bought and sold. Oats and Baled Hav, Stock bçarded by the day or week. Spectal attention given to Gentlemen Drivers Terms as reasonable as any in the city. Call and see us. EE- GOUGHNOUR, Manufacturer and Dealer in Lumber, Sash, Doors, Blinds, Lath, Shingles, Pickets, Mouldings, Brackets, Building Paper, Plaster Paris, Plastering Hair, Etc., Etc. A good stock j of Minnesota Pine always on band. Special Sizes of Timber Sawed to order. I carry the most complete stock of everything in my line kept in Montana Wood by the Cord or Carload. Prices Always Reasonable. E. GOUGHNOUR, Livingston, Mont. 1SÆ WHOLESALE DEALER IN Fine Whiskies and Cigars. McBrayer, Anderson and other Firstclass Brands kept in Stock. RANCHMENS' TRADE SOLICITED. Agent for Brunswick-Balke-Collinder Company. Lhingston, M. T # , - Next door to the Albemarle. I BANK DRUG STORE I have just received an invoice of FRESH DRUGS. No Goods damaged bv fire I will be pushed on my customers. I have now a more complete line fhan ever Am located for the present at the Postoffice building, next to Livingston Bank! | Prescriptions Carefully Compounded. Hoping to see all my old customers and many new ones, I am Respectfully I J. E. MINTIE. Orschel 4b Bro.'s Special Announcement. the: popular of the whole Gallatin County, when the stock, will be that VOT£ voters have seen the ORSCHEL & ---AS CLOTHIERS and General Outfitters for Men's Wear, and Shoes, lead in this part of the Blankets, & Territory. THEIR SUITS FOR $5.00 and UPWA must be seen to be appreciated. -IN Overcoats, Furnishing Goods, I We take the lead in Low Prices and Quality. -OUR STOCK WHISKIES, WINES and CIGABg is the Best, Cheapest and Largest in the Territory. Sole Agents for Ph. B. B. Co.' Iveg Beer sole agents for s celebrated Bottled a: j Eastern Montana. ow.x. « ö v.x.i CT for K. Rothschild's Sons, saloon oc. 7, Brunswick-Balke Collendcr Co.'s Billiard and P, Tables. Also, fitters, I. ORSCHEL & BRO. BRICK BLOCK, - - - PARK STREI'I HL FPLAJSrK, I Main Street Clothier, Has just received a large stock ol Ready-Made Clothing, GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS, Cloths and Undent Ol the best quality, and for the next 30 days sjtecial inducements will be offered -MERCHANT TAILORING Our cutting and fitting department is complete and we will guarantee satisfactiou Main Street, - - - - Living es ,s «OB «T mg« cS £ - bC C N-i zy «-« O = T O a— « o © U Q 0) j I ■sfi © .z o X * i S . . *2*0 d 5 d o ffl cö fcdO o s 2 t PoOl MULKERN & MURRAY, -DEALERS IN Wines, Liquors and Cigars I AND SAMPLE ROOMS ON PARK STREET. Frank Billiard and White's Pool Parlor.' Brick Block under Enterprise office Park Street. PURE WINES, LIQUORS & ClCA^ IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC.