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THE RONAN PIONEER
The Oldest N ewspaper on the Flathead LIndian Reservation Entered as second-class matter May 12, 1910. at the post office at Ronan, Montana, under the Adt of March 3, 1879. VOL. V. NO.2. RONAN, MISSOULA COUNTY, MONTANA, MAY 8, 1914. $2.00 Per Year HOW THE WEATHER IS FORECASTED BY UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT In a recent number of the Weekly Newsletter, issued by authority of the secretary of ag riculture, the question was asked: "Will you please tell me through the Newsletter, in simple lan guage, how the weather forecasts are made?" The answer was: "By telegraph. The weather forecaster does not look out of the window and guess. He is not weatherwise like the old salt who scents the approach of a storm without knowing how. To the signs by which the ordinary citizen decides whether to take his umbrella with him or leave it at home, he pays no attention. Give him his telegraph wires and he can make his predictions as accurately in a windowless cellar as on the top of Mew York's highest skyscraper. "The private individual sees the clouds settle on a near-by mountain or the rain sweep over a field a mile from his house and knows that the storm will be on him in a few minutes. With the aid of the telegraph the weather man sees the same storm when it is a thousand miles away, and not only this storm but every other one in the country. He knows in what direction and at what speed each is moving, and K can thus calculate with reason-' able accuracy the approximate time when it will reach any place I in its route. : "Twice a day, at 8 in the morn ing and 8 in the evening, reports are telegraphed to Washington from about 200 observers station ed in as many different localities in the United States and Canada. 1 In these reports the observers do 1 not volunteer their personal opin- 1 ions about what is going to hap pen. They confine themselves to a plain statement of the actual conditions at that particular mo ment, the pressure, or weight, of the atmosphere, the temperature, the direction and velocity of the wind, the amount of rain since the last report, and so forth. From this information the weath er map of the United States is made up, showing the conditions that prevail in every part of the country. Since there are two maps for each day it is obvious that by comparing them the fore caster can keep track of the pro gress and course of both storms and periods of clear weather. From that, the next step is to pre dict what sort of weather will prevail for a day or two in any given locality. "This map is the basis for all scientific weather forecasting. A glarc at it will show that itis divided into "high pressure areas and low pressure areas." These are technical terms used to de Sciibe the regions in which the weight or pressure of the atmos phere is great (high) or small (low). At sea level the barome ter, which is used to measure this weight, will register 30 inches under normal conditions of the at mosphere. When it registers more than this, say 30.5 or 31, the pressure is "high;" when 29.5 or less, "low." In this way the height of a column of mercury in a barometer indicates the weight of the air just as, in a thermome ter, it indicates the temperature. "Low pressures usually mean strong winds, rain, and risingj temperature; high pressures, cool, clear weather. For a reason to i be explained later, these "highs" and "lows," as they are called, travel in a general direction from w west to east. The forecaster e notes their progress on the map, 7 perceives their speed and their - route, and then predicts the time of their arrival at any specified 1 point. If they traveled, like a - ship steered by a compass, an ex 5 act course to the east, and if they moved invariably at the same speed, then weather forecasting would be a simple sum in arith metic, like calculating the time when a railroad train running 50 miles an hour will arrive at a sta tion 500 miles away. But storms are not railroad trains. They travel in an easterly direction, but they do not travel due east. Their speed is liable to change, and they are affected by the presence of other storms, by mountains, large bodies of water, and many other things which make weather prophesying the complicated sci ence that it is. The skeleton of the science, however, is the pro gress of those "highs"and "lows" eastward across the country. "This progress is caused by the shape of the earth and the well known fact that hot air rises. The tropical sun in the regions along the Equator heats great masses of air, which rise and drift toward the North and South Poles. As the earth revolves from west to east these masses are carried along with it at the same speed. But, as is well known, the Equator revolves much faster than the poles, which are practically stationary, in much the same way as the rim of a wheel revolves faster than the hub. Therefore these masses of air, revolving at the same rate as the Equator, begin, as they ap proach the poles, to move much faster than the earth beneath them. There is thus a constant movement of the atmosphere from west to east, a movement which becomes more marked the nearer one gets to the poles. "This, of course, does not mean that the wind always blows from the west. The great current flows in that direction, but surface con ditions cause innumerable eddies which are the winds we feel. In to a low pressure area, for in stance, the air rushes from every direction. Thus, if the center of the disturbance is to the west of us, we will have an easterly wind as the air rushes toward this cen- s ter; when the storm has reached e and passed us on its easterly way we will have westerly winds. For this reason it is common to say p that west winds mean clear weather. "The air that flows into the low-pressure area obviously must go somewhere. Since it is com ing in from every point of the compass, the only available place is up. As it rises it cools and con tracts. In the process the moist ure it contains is condensed and we have rain. That is, we are likely to. It can not be stated too emphatically that there are many things to be considered which may make exceptions to the most fundamental rules. "In regard to temperature, everyone has noticed that rain in winter means warm weather, in summer cool weather. This arises from the fact that heat travels more easily through clear skies than through clouds and moist ure. In the daytime heat reaches the earth from the sen; at night it leaves the earth to be absorbed in the atmosphere. In summer, therefore, when the days are longer than the nights, the earth is being heated for a greater part of the 24 hours than it is being cooled. In consequence the clear er the weather and the easier it is for heat to travel, the hotter it grows. In winter the reverse is true. The cooling time is longer than the heating, and the clearer it is the colder it grows. "Thus the pressure of the at mosphere is the key to the weath er, affecting the three vital ques tions of rain, temperature and wind. Many things create an are a of low pressure and many things may influence its career when once it has been created. But there are certain general rules based on the principles al ready outlined. The weather maps tell the forecaster the con ditions of the last few days, the telegraph tell him of the condi tions at the moment, and with this information he is able to pre dict the conditions for the imme diate future from a standpoint very different to that of the ama teur observer, however experi enced, who can form an opinion only from the signs visible to his unaided eye. It may, in fact, be said that no accurate forecasts for more than a few hours in ad vance are possible unless the prophet is able to study a series of observations covering a wide range of country a few hours after they hays been taken. For its weekly forecasts, indeed, the United States weather bureau has reports not only from this coun try but from abroad and at sea as-well." ANNUAL SCHOOL FESTIVAL EVENTS The following is a schedule for the annual school festival to bE held in Ronan on May 22: 10:00 a. m.-Addresses by State Su,-r intendent Davie, Prof. J. H. Hoist, president of Montana Country Life Educational Association; Dr. W. W. Kemp, head of the depart ment of education of the University, Missoula; State Rural School Inspector C. W. Tenny. Folk dancing and singing exercises by school children. Business session of the dis trict unit of the Montana Country Life Educational Association and election of officers. 12:00 M.-Lunch. 1:00 p.m.-Spelling contest to deter mine the chompionship of the district, 2:00 p.m.-District declamatory con test. 3:00 p.m.-Awarding of prizes and certificates. 3:15 p.m. -Athletic contests. I 5:00 p.m. Girls' baseball game. 6:00 p.m.-Banquet by Commercial club in honor of teachers and trustees. 8:30 p.m. -Reception and dancing. The prizes which have been donated are given below. A. J. Brower, Ronan State Bank, a silver cup as a trophy to be held by the school winning the most points in all events. Beckwith Mercantile Co., framed picture to the school winning in the de bate held at St. Ignatius May 8, 15 points. F. J. White of the First National Bank, Ronan, a sterling silver medal to the winner of each team in the de clamatory contest, 15 points each. The school winning the senior spell ing contest will hold the spelling cup, for the next year. Senior spelling contest, 15, 10, 5 points; first prize, kodak, Scearce's store; second prize, picture of moun tains, Bigelow's studio. Junior spelling contest, 15, 10, 5 points; first prize, kodak, Scearce's store; second prize, donated by George Williams, Leon. Exhibit of school work, 10, 8, 5 points; first prize, picture. Mission State Bank; second prize, unknown. Exhibit of manual work, each team 8, 5, 3 points; boy's first prize, pig, Joe Allard, Leon; second prize, carpen ter tools, Sterling's store; girl's first prize, parasol, Sterling's store; second prize, $2.50 in goods, Frank's store, Ronan. Athletic events in most cases count 5, 3 and 1 points. 100 yd. dash, boys over 12; first prize, $3.00, Max Lowenatiein, Leon; second prize, goods selected *at Beckwith's store. 100 yd. dash, girls over 12; first prize, $3.00, St, Ignatius barber shop, Buffalo cafe, E. Brossoit; second prize, souve nier spoon, Scearce's store. 50 yard dash, boys 8 to 12; to be fur nished by Arlee; second prize, to be furnished by Arlee. 50 yd. dash, girls 8 to 12; first prize, trio white leghorns. F. H. Lee, Leon; second prize, silver thimble, J. B. Bear, Ronan. 30 yd. dash, boys under 8; first prize, $1.00, James Kerns, Leon; second prize, box of candy, Owl Drug store. 30 yd. dash, girls under 8; first prize, $1.00; second prize, box of candy, Owl Drug store. Pole vault, first prize, glove, Owl Drug store; second prize, unknown. Running high jump, first prize, un known; second prize, $2.00, Mission Pool hall. Relay Race, 5 points; History of the World, Ed. Jenkins, Leon. Running broad jump-1st prize, pair athletic shoes by Beckwith Mercantile Co.; 2nd prize, $2, by Mission Meat Market and St. Ignatlus Pool Hall. Sack race-1st prize, pair Gotzian shoes by O'Connell's Cash Store; 2nd prize, unknown. Egg race-1st prize, book by Owl Drug Store; 2nd prize, stationery by Mission Drug Co, First and second prizes will be given in the potato, high hurdle, low hurdle and shot put contests, to be announced as soon as solicited. The committee will be glad to hear of donations for the events so far unprovided for. Everyone spoken to has been very liberal, which is greatly appreciated by committee. Ronan owners of automobiles turned out almost to a person last Friday and escorted the Pol son contingent into town and drove them through the princi pal streets. A. M. Sterling led the procession and the visitors were given an opportunity to see the residence and business por tion before the entertainment started. SPECIAL LETTER BY KENNETH OMNEY r Washington, May 6-The an e nouncement by Congressman Stout that he will be a candidate for renomination in the August primaries was received with pleasure by his friends in the house. Speaker Champ Clark, discuss ing Mr. Stout's announcement, said: "I am well acquainted with Congressman Tom Stout. He was born in my distritt and I have known him ever since he was a child. There are no better people or democrats in the world than the Stouts, Mr. Stout has attended to his duties closely and stands high in the house. I hope he is renominated and re elected." Rebresentative Scott Ferris of Oklahoma, chairman of the pub lie lands committee of the house, ] of which Mr. Stout is a member, was particularly pleased by Mr. Stout's announcement. Hesatd: "I have learned with much i pleasure that Tom Stout has announced for re-election. His work on the public lands commit tee, which has been dealing with practically all of the administra tion conservation measures, has been indispensable. He is one of the brightest, clearest headed 1 members of the committee. He, is one of the most effective t workers for a first-term congress- c man it has yet been my pleasure j to meet. As an example of his c industry and accomplishment t here, I call your attention to the t fact that he has reported and se- v cured the passage of at least half a dozen bills out of this t committee, some of them of vital n importance to Montana and the fi entire country." h Mr. Stout is known as a good o mixer and is regarded as a rising 'I member of the house. His pleas- c ing personality and his ability j have won him the warm friend- B ship of Speaker Clark, Majority A Leader Underwood and other house leaders, as well as of the C rank and file, and the experience E he has gained during his first p term is expected greatly to in- R crease his usefulness if he is re elected, as his friends confidently' 1 believe he will be. - a There is a prospect at this it NEW CITY COUNCIL MEETS AND PERFECTS ORGANIZATION writing that the differences be tween the United States and the Huerta government in Mexico may be adjusted through the mediation of Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Secretary of State Bryan and Secretary of Navy Daniels are both confident that there will be no further resort to force in dealing with the Mexi can dictator. This optimism, however, is not shared by many members of the house and sen ate. How the A. B. C. media tors can reconcile this country's demand for the elimination of Huerta with Huerta's demand for recognition by the Uuited States, is puzzling most of them. It is certain, however, that there will be no more bloodshed until President Wilson and Secretary Bryan have exhausted every honorable means of peace. The senate committee on in teroceanic canals has reported the bill repealing the exemption clause of the Panama canal act with an amendment providing that repeal shall not be construed as "waiving or affecting any treaty or other rights possessed by the United States." This amendment had the approval of President Wilson and in this form the repeal bill will pass the senate. The testimony of Joseph Choate, former embassador to' England, and of Henry White, secretary to the London embassy, under Choate, who were active in the negotiation of the Hay Pauncefote treaty, that it was' the understanding of all those having to do with the treaty that the American ships should be given no preference in 'the use of the Panama canal, knocked the props from under the oppon ents of repeal and insured the passage of the bill in the form desired by President Wilson. After attempting to induce John D. Rockefeller to bring a stop to the civil war in the Colo rado strike district, President Wilson ordered federal troops to restore peace between the war ring factions. Under the con stitution, the president was obliged to send troops when Governor Ammons requested the federal government to intervene, although both the strikers and the mine owners desired inter-! vention. Bloodshed and anarchy in the strike zone could have been prevented by firm and impar tial action by Governor Ammons at the outset of the trouble, ac cording to members of the con gressional investigating commit tee that went to Colorado. NEW MAYOR UNHAMPERED BY MISSOULA SOCIALISTS At a meeting of the sc calists' local in Missoula last Sunday it; was voted almost unanimously' to allow the new mayor and councilman to use their own judgment in the administration of city affairs. In other words the new officials were permitted to select the appointive officers without the dictation of the local. After this resolution was passed the mayor read a list of the names he would send in at the first meeting of the commission, 1 held on Monday last, to serve as officials for the ensuing year. They are: L. E. Harris, city clerk; F. C. Hall, city treasurer; F J. L. Wallace, city attorney; Fred r Buck, city engineer; Dr. E. C. t Anderson, city health officer; H. 1 C. Johnson, police magistrate; W. I H. Beacom, street commissioner; I Peter Loffnes, fire chief; Tom r Kemp, chief of police; John Ober ly, city herder. t Of these officials, Buck, Loffnes N and Tom Kemp are the present I incumbents. The old council met last Mon day to close up affairs and see to it that the newly elected alder man were properly initiated. Routine matters were attended to and then the old council ad journed sine die. The new councilmen are R. L. McBride from the second and W. J. Egan from the third ward, and they are now comfortably sitting on the job. The reports of the town clerk and town treasurer were received and examined and placed on file. No new nominations were sub mitted so the old officers are holding on. It was decided to improve the street near the bridge by having some gravel hauled in and a drain cut to permit the water to escape the middle of the roadway. The indebtedness of the town shows to have been reduced dur ing the past year about $150.00, and another economical year, without any accidents to care for, will find the town out of debt. This state of affairs is very encouraging and there is not a citizen of Ronan who will find any fault with the town getting out of hock. e POLSON ENTERTAINERS GIVE A GOOD SHOW IN RONAN e The Poison entertainers came I down from the lake town last Friday evening in force and gave a pretty good show at the opera house. This entertainment con sisted of some good songs, a light farce, some drills and some very good dancing. This latter portion of the entertainment was a Highland dance by Mrs. M. A. - Myhre and Miss Cresswell, who " were enchored again and agarn. The dancing of Miss Wright was also an excellent feature. A reading by Miss Adele Mair dan and Miss Ayers was appre ciated if the applause following each selection is any criterion and the music by the orchestra was also fine. It remained for the last num ber of the program to furnish the greatest amusement, in which our friend James Harbert had a star part. It was a humor ous Dutch song and Mr. Harbert and Miss Wright acquitted them. selves nobly. Upon being called back they sang a verse of local application and it was as follows: Phillip Antone, und Ole Rathbone, Dots a vine deam in Ronan, You can't blay ball, in summer or fall, Himmel! We wallop you blind. So practice up now, find out just how, Addie Sterling, und the bunch, For Poison, you fellows Will make us a dandy fine lunch, [lunch, lunch. Aside from the dancing the show was not as good as our high school put on a short time back and the audience will agree with this statement. The proceeds were divided between the enter tainers and the Catholic Sodality of Ronan. That was, another million dollar show which fell last Sunday night. The ground was again thoroughly soaked and the snow was much better than a rain. Not for the past four years at least has there been so much moisture in the ground as at the present time, and with crops in the ground fully a month in ad vance of last year, there should be a wonderful crop raised on the Flathead this year.