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DEFENSE COUNCIL PURPOSE IS WAR PREPARATION AND CO-ORDINATIONS OF STATE'S RESOURCES. Will Work in Connection and Under the Direction of the National Council of Defense; Is Result of the St. Louis Conference Called by the Government. The Montana council of defense has been created by Governor Stew art. The state council will work in corporation and under the direction of the national council of defense, of which the secretary of war is the chairman. Those nc.med to serve on the council are as follows: B. C. White, Buffalo; Norman B. Holter, Helena; Charles J. Kelly, Butte; Charles D. Greenfi hi, Hel Mrs. Tyler B. Thompson, Who Has Been Named by Governor Stewart on the State Council of Defense. ena; J. E. Edwards, Forsyth; Will A. Campbell, Helena; Mrs. Tyler Thompson, Missoula; Edward C. El liott, Helena. Governor Stewart is ex-officio chairman. Its Purpose. The council is created for the pur pose of war preparation in the co-or dination of the resources and ener gies of the state and nation. The na tional council is ready to co-operate and advise the state council and the latter is to be made up of represen tatives of the various resources of the state. To Advance Farm Products. The council will likely consider the means necessary to advance the farming projects of Montana; how more acreage may be planted, trans portation of seed and how production may be stimulated. The council was appointed after a report of the conference at St. Louis with Secretary of Agriculture Hous ton had been made to Governor Stewart by President Hamilton of the Bozeman Agricultural college and Commissioner Greenfield of the department of agriculture and pub licity. LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY'S BANNER YEAR WAS 1916 The year just past was the banner year of the livestock industry, ac cording to the report of D. W. Ray mond, secretary of the state livestock board, made at the Miles City meet ing of stockmen. Over 30,000 head more cattle were shipped to eastern markets than in any previous year. Tax records accounted for 1,042,006 head of cattle in the state, and 8,200 new brands were recorded during the year. . Mr. Raymond is of the opin ion that livestock losses during the past winter have been exaggerated, and estimated the loss at seven per cent, which is four per cent in ex cess of normal. The loss was heavi est in Dawson county and among cat tle shipped into the state last fall. INSURANCE COMPANIES DISCUSS WAR RATES Life insurance companies of Amer ica are confronted with the necessity of adopting means of protecting themselves from possible heavy war losses, without impeding the enlist ment of men who wish to serve their country in the present war with Ger many. The various companies, all of whom are vitally interested in finding a solution to the problem, are co-operating and through the nation al association of insurance companies have addressed queries to the many firms throughout the country, in cluding the Montana insurance men, asking for suggestions. A German Republic. Count von Reventlow, writing to an Amsterdam newspaper, says that unless Germany wins the German monarchy cannot endure. WHY PAY MORE THAN 60c PER ACRE FOR YOUR HAIL INSURANCE? This Company wrote a larger line of HAIL INSURANCE last year than any other Company operating In Montana. We wrote over $2,00. 000 for more than 2,000 farmers They are satisfied. WHY PAY MORE?. Write for full Information. MONTANA EQUITY MUTUAL HAIL & FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 27-28-29-80-81 Tod Block. GREAT FALLS MONTANA. Sun River Hoped to Rival Minneapolis Pioneer Town Laughed at Pretensions of Great Falls to Become Even a Village, and Saw Itself as Mighty Milling Center of a Vast Wheat Growing District. Thirty-three years' ago Sun River was one of the livest towns of north Sern Montana, and its citizens laughed at the pretensions of a vil lage which had just been planted by Senator Paris Gibson and named Great Falls. "A good range for cat tle," they said, "but who would want to live there whn they can come to 1 Sun River." The idea of buying property there was considered by the Sun River folk as a joke. They considered that i there was room for only one good town in that district, and they had no doubt that that town was going to be Sun River. - There exists today, as a relic of old Sun River, a copy of the first is sue of the Sun River Sun, printed on fine white silk, bearing the date Feb ruary 14, 1884. It is the property of Lee M. and Shirley S. Ford, having been purchased by their father, Rob ert S. Ford, for $100 at an auction sale years ago, and its columns re flect the life of the town in that day, its business and social activities and its hopes for the future. The editor, *4As David B. Hall, and the business manager Will Hanks. Mr. Hanks was subsequently converted to the belief that Great Falls had possibili ties as a city, and he was prominent in the early history of the latter place in subsequent years. He is still a resident of Montana. Sun River had aspirations to be come the Minneapolis of Montana, and the editors of the Sun in their first issue did not hesitate to pro phecy that Northern Montana would become a great wheat raising section, with a vast flour milling industry t at Sun River. Saw Agricultural Empire. This is what they saw as a future for their community: I "Between the Sun River and the r Missouri, a distance of 15 miles, is - some of the finest agricultural land s in Montana. A company has been organized that purposes to bring out a ditch next summer for Sun River at a point somewhere above Fort Shaw, which will irrigate all the best of this immense tract. Another company will take out an immense e ditch from the North Fork that will e irrigate all that plain bounded on the - north and east by the Teton, and on f the south and west by the Sun and Missouri rivers. This great stretch of fertile land is destined to become the chief grain producing region of 0 Montana. e "Thousands of acres of this land V have been located this winter, and as soon as the spring opens scores of n land hunters will be there locating homes, so that in a few years we may a expect to pass through a succession s of wheat fields on our way from Sun River to the Teton or Fort Benton. r It will be the same between the Sun f River and the Missouri-wheat e fields on every side. Sun River will e then be the natural trade center of - all this agricultural wealth. Flour ing mills will then be erected capable of doing as good work as is done in any portion of the United States. And with the wheat grower and miller will come the consumer. Factories of various kinds will be built along Sun River, utilizing its tremendous waterpower. "Our retail merchants of today r will become wholesale dealers and - will supply the country stores that - will spring up in every direction. 0 Sun River will become the seat of a - new county that will rival its sisters 1 in prosperity and wealth." nasuory 01 muL nixver. Something of the history of the Sun River valley is told in article contributed to this issue of the Sun, which is worth reprinting: "The beautiful stream that flows through this valley is called by the Piegan Indians 'Natoe-osucti,' which, according to Lewis and Clerk, means 0 Sun River or Medicine River, hence c the name which explorers gave it and which our town and the valley bear today. It would be impossible to write even so brief an outline his- r tory of this town and valley without mentioning the names of two of the men who have been identified with r it from its first settlement until now. We will give a brief sketch of each: "Mr. John Largent, Sun River's r first settler, was born in Virginia, and came to Montana in 1862, and 8 entered the service of the American Fur company at Fort Benton. Leav ing that service he prospected some during the early mining excitement of this territory, and in company with John Wren, now of Choteau, started for British Columbia by way r of Edmonton on the Sasketchewan river of the north. They arrived at the latter river entirely destitute, * the Indians having stolen their U horses. They bar-mined there that season and then started back toward Benton, having given up the idea of going to British Columbia. They finally arrived at Benton after an ab sence of nearly two years of hardship and suffering which few have en dured. "In 1867 Mr. Largent came to this place and opened a general store and lodging house for the accomodation of travelers between Virginia City and the head of navigation, Fort Benton. In 1875 he sold out his store and other property here to George Steell, reserving only the homesteads on which his present dwelling stands, which was the first building erected here. In connection with John J. Healy, in 1867-8, he built the present Sun River bridge, his interest in which he sold to Mr. Steell with his store and other prop erty. Story of George Steell. "Mr. George Steell is a Canadian by birth and came to Montana in 1857, and, like Mr. Largent, entered * the service of the American Fur com pany, taking charge of their trading posts at Fort Benton and remaining there in that service until 1864, when he went into business with Matthew Carroll, forming the firm of Carroll & Steell of Fort Benton. The firm gradually worked into a heavy freighting business, and in 1871 the firm of Carroll & Steell dis solved and they joined Ed Maclay and C. A. Broadwater, forming the famous Diamond R. company, which became one of the largest transpor tation companies in the west. In 1871 Mr. Steell sold his interest in the Diamond R and went to Salt Lake, where he engaged in business until 1873, when he returned to Sun River and bought out John Largent, as before stated, and is today one of our leading merchants." It may be stated that one of these two leading citizens of Sun River in 1884, John Largent, is still living today at Ulm, where he has retired from business after a long and use ful career. Georbe Steell died some years ago at another point in north ern Montana. The first settlers in the Sun River valley came in 1867 and 1868, and in the latter year Fort Shaw was built by the Thirteenth United States infantry, being maintained for many years as a military post, after which ADVANTAGE OF ENLHSTING UN U. S. NAVY AN OPEN LETTER TO THE MONTANA YOUTH By Eugene Carroll of Butte, a Former Officer of the Navy, for Many Years a Resident of the State, and now Chairman of the Montana Branch of the Navy League. A graduate in the United States Naval Academy in 1881, upon the call to arms by the president of the United States in the present crisis, I reported to the department placing my services at their disposal. Much to my disgust the awful truth was revealed to me that I had grown too old to be of any service to Uncle Sam in the first line. Desiring to do my part in this great struggle, my activ ity has been along the line of help ing the recruiting officers of the United States navy in their endeav ors to bring the navy up to full war strength, under the present call. In traveling over the state and in our work in Butte we find a great ignorance of the navy throughout this mountainous state, and my work has been along the line of explaining, as near as I can, the life of a sailor, and my reasons for recommending for the consideration of young men who desire to go to the front at this time, an enlistment in the United States navy. The life of a sailor, particularly the life of a man-of-war's man, with its adventures, ever-changing scenes, new countries, new people; following the sea from port to port, from one ocean to another, has always ap pealed strongly to the imaginat'on of men of spirit. In the record of deeds of the men of the United States navy, from John Paul Jones to Admiral Dewey, the young American can find the highest inspiration; for our navy, both in time of war and of peace, has played a great honorable and glorious part in the history of the country. The navy has been, throughout its entire existence, a service of high ideals; its unbroken record of great and worthy achieve ment, of duty well-done, has been due to the high standard set for of ficers and men in the beginning and maintained ever since. This stan dard was never higher than t is to day; and any young American who thinks of going into the navy may feel sure that, on enlisting, he will enter a service in which he may, and should, always feel a justifiable pride and of which the uniform is a badge of honor. In the Flower of Youth. Besides the chance of serving his country in an honorable position, the navy offers as a livelihood, many ad vantages. In the first place the re quirements of the navy for enlist ments are both physically and moral ly of extremely high character. He must be an American citizen of good moral character and of perfect phy sique. A young man entering the service, unless he has the consent of his parents, must be at least 18 years old. If accepted by the recruiting of ficer and passed by the examining physician as to his physical condi tion, he is first sent to a naval train ing school, here in times of peace he remains at least six months, under ANNOUNCEMENT THE FAMOUS AUTO-PULL TRACTOR ATTACHMENT Will Advance $25.00 In Price After May 10th ORDER TODAY The only sub-agents officially appointed In Montana at date of this issue are listed below: Mr. B. E. Wlillianms.... ......Whitewater Mr. W. It. Denhart .................Windham Rt. J. Whittaker....................Missoula Bendon Auto &c Supply Co.........Syduey Charles Comnstocic................Itoundup P. WV. Bishop..........:.........Kremlin W. E. Thistiewoei *.......... ariowton I. E. Lintz ...........................Geraldine Motor Inn Garage .................. Opliim F. C. Wright......................... Twodot It. E. Hunt .......................Fort lienton (:has Scharfe ...............Cottonwood Motor Home Garage ........... Shelby J. C. F. McLean ............... .. Jordan C. A. HUNT £ CO. GREAT FALLS. MONTANA. It was used as an Indian school until less than ten years ago, when it be came headquarters for the govern ment engineers building the Sun Riv er Irrigation project. As early as 1880 flour milling on a small scale was in progress near Sun River, a mill owned by Ellis & Steell being located at the junction of the Teton road with the Benton and Helena road. In 1883 Mortimer Strong raised 6,000 bushels of wheat which was ground at this mill. More Government Needed. According to a contributor who signed himself, 'Taxpayer," one of the crying needs of Sun River in those days was a county government, as the community was over-run with outlaws who were traveling princi pally through communities where law and order were not too much in evidence. Taxpayer says: "Still another class of vagabonds impose on our citizens. I refer to the thieves and vagabonds fired out of the cities of Helena and Benton. The proper place for them would be the lock-up or the chain gang, but the city fathers deem it most expedi ent to give them the '3-7-77' racket and drive them from the city. It seems that about six out of every ten vagrants driven out of the cities named take refuge in some part of Instructions. At this training school he is taught the rudiments of mili tary rudiments ughtnTta va Nm? Lary tactics, at the same time his ed ucation in the common school branches is continued. After a six rnonths' probation at the training station he is assigned to a sea-going Eugene Carroll of Butte, Graduate of Annapolis; Former Naval Offi cer, who has a Message to the Mon tana Youth who Would Serve his Country in the Navy. ship and is placed so as to develop such ability as he has shown in any particular line of work at the train ing school. After leaving the train ing school he receives special instruc tion aboard ship in any line which he cares to follow. Besides the training stations, the navy maintains an electrical school for the instruction of electricians, both general and radio; an articifer school for shipwrights, carpenters, blacksmiths, painters, etc. A yeo men school for stenographers, type writers and bookkeepers. A com missary school for cooks, bakers and commissary stewards. Hospital training schools for men in nursing, first-aid, drugs, etc.; a coppersmith school, torpedo school and school for diving. I Farmer Sailors Sccsce l. All the schools are conducted for the benefit of onlisted men of the navy who desire to fit themselves for more responsible duty and better the Sun River country, there to im pose upon hte people, jeopardize their property and make themselves generally troublesome, and there they stay because they know there is no such institution as a cooler or jail in the whole Sun River country. I wish to say to all citizens and tax payers residing in the country I have described that the time has now come when you should stand up for your rights and demand the atten tion of the powers that be. Some may think and argue that the cost of a county government would raise the taxation too much. In answer to that question I would state that in my opinion the excess of tax would not necessarily exceed two mills, and that only for a short time owing to the increase of immigration. "In conclusion I would cordially invite are residents of Chestnut, in Meagher county, Northern Lewis and Clark and north and west Chouteau counties to express their views and sentiments regarding the county question through the columns of the Sun River Sun. And looking hope fully forward to the near future when the great county of Dearborn shall be a power in the land and classed as one of the satellites that illumningte tlge glorious empire of Montana, I subscribe syself. "TAXPAYER." pay. In most instances, the training obtained in these schools will stand the men in good stead in civil life, should they desire to remain out of the navy, after one or more enlist ments. Former sailors who owe their success to the training they received in the navy may be found in every large industry, holding en viable positions. Every recruit is provided free with an outfit of uniform clothing, bedding and other necessaries; the outfit, is complete in all respects, and is ample for the needs of the recruit during his first year of service, and if he is reasonably careful of his clothes, many of the articles need not be replaced for three or. four years. The government sells to the sailors all the clothing they require at cost prices, and the cost to the men In the navy for his clothing is ridicuously small. When a man enlists, he is furnished by the government with transportation to the training station to which he is assigned, with all meals, sleeper berths and proper ex penses furnished. When discharged at the expiration of his enlistment he is furnished with travel allowance at four cents a mile, instead of trans portation, from the place of dis charge to the place of enlistment. Conduct Must Be Good. There are many different rates of pay in the navy, and a man enlist ing in the lowest rating is advanced one step at a time with correspond ing raise in pay, as he becomes profi cient and his conduct warrants, both of which requirements are essential to a man in the navy. No matter how capable he may be in his duties he may not expect to be advanced unless his conduct entitles him to consideration. The pay of the vari ous ratings published by the depart ment is what is known as base pay. After serving four years' enlistment he is sent home and must re-enlist within four months, after the date he is honorably discharged, to re ceive bounty. lie can re-enlist within the next day, or remain out of the service for four months, but if he re enlists within four months, he re ceives a bounty for four months' pay at the rate he as paid on discharge. For each re-enlistment his base pay is increased for honorable discharge. Recommendation by his captain se cures for him a good conduct medal and for each such medal his base pay is increased. The law provides for the appoint ment of 100 enlisted men each year to the naval academy, the require ments being that the applicant must pass a competitive examination, must be under 20 years of age at time of appointment, and must have been in the navy at least one year at date of entrance to the naval academy. Ex aminations for entrance to the naval academy are conducted on board all ships and stations wherever there are GROW POTATOES SAYS P. CARNEY MOST SUCCESSFUL GROWER OF TUBERS IN STATE HAS PATRIOTIC IDEA. Big Crop of Potatoes Would Help to Solve Food Problems; Advises Use of Winter Killed Alfalfa Ground, and Suggests Planting Between May 1 and May 15. Patrick Carney of Waterloo is one of the most successful potato grow ers in the state. He has a fine ranch in the Jefferson valley, and he de votes a considerable acreage every year to potato culture. He has been doing this for years and his potatoes are the finest grown in Montana. He has taken the first prize at the state fair so frequently, that while he ex hibits his products, he declines to enter into competition with other growers. Few men in the state have Patrick Carney of Madison County, Foremost Potato Expert of State. as intimate knowledge of potato growing as does Mr. Carney, and he is of the opinion that those who know how to grow the tuber, should plant all the potatoes they can this year, from patriotic 'motives. M~r Carney has addressed the following open letter to his fellow farmers of the state: "Farmers of Montana: "We are confronted this year by an unusual condition of affairs, and it is up to us to meet the emergency. "Our country is at war and food supplies are light. The one solution of the problem is the production of more and better food on every acre of land on which crops are grown, especially potatoes. "A potato shortage is apt to result in this country any year when wea ther or soil conditions are unfavor able in our principal producing dis tricts, but we must put forth~e great er effort to grow more and better potatoes. "There are good, undeveloped dis tricts that can produce a large ton nage and by better methods of prop agation and cultivation the yield on acres now in the crop can be very greatly increased. "Also I would suggest that winter killed alfalfa ground be used for po tatoes, planting between May 1 and May 10, cultivating three or four times during growing season. The more you stir the ground the less need of irrigating. Unquestionably thorough cultivation will mean more labor to the acre but it will mean more to the bushel. "So, as Lincoln once said, 'The most valuable of all arts will be the art of deriving a comfortable subsis tence from the smallest area of soil.' "We must arouse ourselves be cause the question of food supply is the most pressing and important be fore us, and the men who raise the food to supply our people and our allies are ust as patriotic as the men who enlist." Orange is the fashionable shade for women this spring. And a whole lot of lemons will wear it. applicants. Young men have a chance to prepare for this examination, as classes are formed on all ships and stations with special instructors and the free use of necessary text books. The candidates who have the highest standing on the examination are ad mitted to the naval academy on ex actly the same terms as midshipmen who are nominated by members of congress. In the naval service a man's pay goes on just the same, sick or well, and he has the free benefit of skillful medical attention, trained nurses, medicine and well appointed hospit als. Rewards for Heroism. Any enlisted man who distinguish es himself in battle or displays extra ordinary heroism in his line, shall upon the recommendation of his commanding officer receive a gratu ity of $100 and a medal of honor. Numerous medals are issued for mer itorious service, all of which aside from the honor obtained inure to his financial benefit. Any disableed person is entitled to a pension, and enlisted men who have served 30 years may be placed on the retired list at three-fourths pay at the time of retirement. All serv ices in the navy, army or marine corps are credited for retirement. The above are a few of the reasons which appeal to me as recommending the navy as a vocation. I do not hesitate in advising any ambitious young man who wants to serve his government to enlist in the naval service. It is my intention at some future time to write further on the variety of scenes and other advan tages which a young man gets while learning a trade or educating himself for higher advances.