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History of PastWeek The New* Happenings of Seven Days Paragraphed ■ ■ INTERMOUNTAIN. Yakima valley, Washington, hop growers, representing about 2000 acres, are watching anxiously the action of congress on the prohibition amend ment to the appropriation bill. Na tional prohibition at this time, they say, would spell ruin for them. Salt Lake was chosen as the 1919 meeting place of the western division of the Physical Education association, which closed a^wo days’ session at San Francisco. Many towns and cities In eastern Washington have promised to "shut up shop” during the harvest, that their people may get out Into the fields, if such a plan proves necessary. Six women have been put to wTork on the Northern Pacific section west of Hoqulam, Wash., and assigned to cutting grass and keeping the right of way dean. The rolling stock branch of the railroad is expecting to add women to its department. Considerable concern is being mani fested by the state farm markets bur eau as well as by shippers- all over the state with regard to the possibility that Idaho will again have to meet a car shortage when crops are ready to move. The selective draft men of a mini mum height of five feet and a mini mum weight of 110 pounds, if other wise physically fit, may enter the army hereafter according to a special regu lation of the war department, received at Camp Lewis, Wash. The minimum hitherto has been five feet, three Inches, and 120 pounds. W. A. Drake of Fort Collins, wealthy sheepgrower, and C. A. Ballreich, law yer, of Pueblo, Colo., have been named as candidates for the Republican nomi nation for governor at the September primaries by the Republican state - ssembly. DOMESTIC. Judge A. C. Hoppman of the Madi son, W'is., municipal court, held that Robert M. LaFoliette, United States senator from Wisconsin, had no place of abode in this state. The decision was given in the $100,000 libel suit brought against the Madison Democrat by Senator La Follette. James M. Robinson, banker and elevator owner of Potter, Kan,, lius been bound over to the federal court at Leavenworth, Kan., on a charge of hoarding 000 pounds of flour. Maj. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., has been slightly wounded and taken to a hospital in Paris according to a cable message received by his father, Col. Theodore Roosevelt, from his daugh ter-in-law, Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, ■ A new race of supermen in the United States and a decadent under nourished .deteriorating race of ln eriors in the lands of the central powers. That is what Dr. Harvey Wiley, head of the bureau of food, sanitation and health, and associate editor of Good Housekeeping, sees as the chief biological physiological re sult of the war. Upward of $38,000,000 was lost last year though theft of freight in transit in the United States, it is announced. Every al>le-bodied man in California; regardless of age or wealth, must work during the war. An order to this effect has been issued by the state council of defense. A lien of $1000 has been filed, at Syracuse, N. Y„ by Internal revenue agents against the property of C. Loomis Allen, the electric expert nnd former member of the government rail ways board, for failure to pay his income tax. •" Three men were killed and damage estimated nt several hundred thousand dollars .was done by an explosion at the nitrate plant of the Aetna Explo sives company, near Islipeming, Mich. En route to Italy to re-enlist, a party of 300 Italian soldiers who escaped from being pressed into the service of Austria by surrendering to the Rus sians have arrived at San Francisco from the orient under the care of the United States war department. The uews that American troops had victoriously advanced in the western front prompted an almost unparalleled oulburst of enthusiasm on the floor of the stock exchange on July 18. BroKers yelled and cheered find bought stocks. Prices soared. Lieut. Quentin Roosevelt, reported missing after an aerial engagement over the German lines, probably land ed unhurt and is now a prisoner in the hands of the Germans, according to a cable message received on July 18 by his father, Colonel Theodore Roose velt. The American steamer Westover, an army supply ship manned by navy men, was torpedoed and sunk in the war zone July 11 while bound to Eu rope, tlie navy department nas been advised by Vice Admiral Sims. Ten officers and men of the crew of ninety two are missing. Announcement by the navy depart ment Friday night that the armored cruiser Sun Diego had been sunk off the Long Island coast, Indicated that German submarines may again be operating in American waters. All on board were saved. William K-aulen, 30», yearg old, a miner, was tarred by a mob of more than 300 at Staunton, 111., after his wife had complained to the “vigilance committee” that Kaulen had desecrat ed a service flag, liung in honor of tier son by a former marriage. Seventeen persons were killed and thirty others injured, many seriously, when a Detroit-bound limited passen ger car and a westbound freight cnr colirded head-on one mile west of Chel sea, Mich. Mobilization plans for physicians of the country, whereby every member of the medical profession will be assigned to military or civilian duty, are in preparation. WASHINGTON. The department of agriculture has asked farmers to sow 47,500,000 acres In winter wheat this fall. This would yield approximately 667,000,000 bushels —the greatest winter crop In history. Professional baseball was held a non-essentail occupation under the army work or fight order Friday by Secretary Baker. The decision was given on appeal in the case of Eddie Ainsmith, the Washington American catcher, which came to the secretary with a suggestion from the local draft board that the regulations be changed to exempt ball players. Gold mining has been listed as an essential industry, the war industries board has announced, and all reason able priority on materials and supplies ‘used in the production of gold will be given by the priority committee. This action was taken on request of the treasury department. Italy got another credit of $100,000, from the United States government on July 19, and Belgium was given $9,000,000 additional. This makes Italy’s total loans from the United States $760,000,000; Belgium’s total, $145,250,000, and all the allies’ loans, $6,380,040,000. Senator Gore of Oklahoma attacked the presidential veto of $2.40 wheat Thursday In the senate. At the same time he criticized southern senators for refusing to hold out for a high wneat price, although insisting upon a high cotton price. FOREIGN. The highway mark of the German offensive in France lias been reached. The initiative is passing to the allied and American armies. General March, chief of staff, told this to memoers of the senate military committee on Sat urday. Later he announced that Amer ican troop shipments had now.exceed ed 1,200,000 men, insuring the man power to hold the initiative on the western front. Former Emperor Nicholas of Russia has been shot, ta Russian wireless message announces. The former em press und the young Alexis Romanoff, the former heir-apparent, have been sent to a place of security. Japan will not send troops to Siberia until a formal joint declaration of poli cy by Japan and the United States says a Tokio dispatch. A Budapest dispatch says the Hun garian suffrage reform bill has been accepted by a large majority. Everywhere in London the people are talking about Foch. There is no llght-hearteduess, because all know that one successful attack does not mean a decision, and that the pendu lum will swing back and forth many times before the hour of victory strikes, nut Foen s move marks the raising of the allied strength to a new level. At last we are free from the restraints of inferior numbers and un favorable positions. At the beginning of the present of fensive about 400 Americans of all kinds were held as prisoners in Ger many, according to a report just re ceived in Paris from the American Itfed Cross in Switzerland. Two hun dred nnd ninety of these were officers and soldiers, eight were navy men, and about a hundred were civilians. The fruit crop in Germany, so im portant to the empire’s food problem, will not be so abundant as the record crop of 1917, according to forecasts available at Amsterdam. The produc tion of apples, apricots and peaches is expected to be below the average, but the outlook for cherries and pears is better for the Germans. British aviators on the night of July 18-19 bombed and damaged the Ben/ works at Mannheim, Germany, the rail way station at Heidelberg and bias) furnaces at two other points. The Finnish government has with drawn its bill for constitutional mon archy, and has declared the session of the landtag closed, says a dispatch from Stockholm. Herbert C. Hoover, American food controller, on July 19 arrived at a British port from America. Tlie Socialist Arbelter Zeitung of Vienna says there is not doubt that more than a million American troops have arrived in Europe. It declares that this, us a feat or organization, is amazing. The Americans and French began an offensive on a front of twenty-six miles on July 18, nnd when night came hgd advanced six miles, capturing twenty towns, a lurge number of prL soners being taken, as well as many guns^ and much ammunition. Several south German papers, com menting on the American successes In counteruttucks, demand that the Ger man high officers publish the facts concerning “the American peril,” as it Is evident that they now hold the people in ignorance of the “new danger to German military success.” General John J. Pershing has been awarded the grand cross of the Order of the Bath, and General Tasker H. Bliss, American representative at the supreme war council, has been given the grand cross of the Order of St Michael and St. George. HOW THE U. S. NAVY BUYS ITS SUPPLIES * Purchasing Department Under Admiral McGowan, Has Met All Tests Successfully—Centralization the Chief Merit of the System—Complimented for Efficiency After * Investigation by Congress. Washington.—A business concern which can increase its turnover 2,500 per cent in 12 mouths without radical changes In method'would seem to bo a pretty sound organization. Amid all the expansion of govern ment activities due to war, with far reaching changes in methods of con ducting business, reorganizations, In crease in personnel, and addition of wholly new departments, one big busi ness agency of the government has changed not at all, except In magni tude. That agency is - the bureau of supplies v and accounts of the navy, which purchases practically everything required by the navy except armor plate, guns, and shells. It f*eds and clothes the navy, buys its steft, met als, lumber, textiles, and chemical! provides transportation for the navy’s supplies, coals its ships, and pays its officers and men. During the last year this bureau has been greatly en larged by the addition of new officers, technical experts from civil life, and clerical workers, but its organization and methods have fully met all tests of war and have required practically no change, says the New York Times. After thorough investigation, con gress recently declared this great busi ness office of the navy to be notable for efficiency, as well as one of the biggest business enterprises In the United States. There are two reasons, for the effi ciency—an excellent business system and an excellent business man, Ad miral McGowan, who first became identified with the navy’s purchasing affairs four years ago, after demon strating his ability as purchasing offi cer for the American fleet when it went around the world. it# timer mem. The chief point of merit In the navy’s purchasing system is centrali sation. All its supply activities are administered from Washington, no matter how widely the American fleet may be scattered over the world. Ships are provisioned in the West In dies, sailors are provided with warm winter clothing for destroyer service in the submarine zone around the Brit ish Isles, coal is dispatched to ships in the Philippines, nitrates are brought from Chile, plothing Is manufactured in New York and Norfolk, stores are carried at Innumerable points ready for delivery to ships at instant notice. Yet all activities center in Washington, and navy supply business is not only kept under the eyes of a few execu tives, but is expedited by a fine work ing spirit. Next to centralization and this fine working spirit,- probably the most im portant element In the system is pub licity in dealing with the supply of the navy’s innumerable needs. Under pressure of war other departments have found It expedient to set aside the normal peace-time methods of pur chasing under competitive bids, but the navy has adhered to the method of open bidding, with full publicity, on the principle that the public, contrib uting war funds by taxation, has a right to know exactly and in the full est detail how Its money is being ex pended. Another principle the navy adheres to is that war demands should be met by* the peace-time system of purchas ing. Great as war demands are, they call simply for an increase In volume of business—not a change In the fun damental method of conducting busi ness. If the method has been proper ly worked out in peace, it will meet the exigencies of war. Directed by McGowan. If every Institution is the length and shadow of one man, as Emerson said, then the bureau of supplies and accounts today reflects the personality of Admiral Mcfiowan. When the bu reau transacted its affairs with 28 peo ple, he knew them all, and they work ed under his eye every day, helped by the optimism and energy which he ra diates. After a year of war, with his organization approaching 1,000 people, he still knows them all and sees them frequently, and maintains the original spirit of organization by making un limited demands upon each individual for work, according to his or her capac ity, with unstinted commendation for all good work, whether the Job be great or small. When the strength of the navy was about 64,000 officers and enlisted men the bureau of supplies and accounts did all Its purchasing and transporta tion through naval officers of the pay master’s corps. When war came, and activities increased by several hun dred per cent monthly, the organiza tion was strengthened by taking on about a dozen civilian experts from business life wen who gladly resigned good positions and large salaries with private business concerns to don Uncle Sam’s uniform and work day and night for the comparatively slender salaries of naval officers. Other purchasing departments of the government met their early war problems by enlisting advisory com mittees of business experts, who in vestigated given problems outside, compiled facts, made arrangements, and offered suggestions. The navy, on the contrary, took its civilian ex perts in bodily, put them into uniform. and made them part of the organiza tion. The navy needed steel for war, thou sands upon thousands of tons of it, for construction and other purposes. It got a steel expert, S. R. Fuller, who resigned from a big Chicago railway supply concern and went to work In the bureau of supplies and accounts supervising the purchase of structural steel forgings and castings for ships and shipyards. Gathers In Experts. The navy needed cotton—millions of yards of canvas, duck, drill, sheetings, and uniform cloth. It got W. E. Hoop er, a cotton mill executive, who imme diately severed all connections In his industry, sold his cotton mill Interests, ‘nvested the money in Liberty bonds, and came Into the bureau. The navy needed transportation on sea and land. All the problems of chartering ships for a world-wide dis tribution of supplies, coal, and pro visions going out to the fleet, and ni trate and shellac coming back In na val vessels were placed In charge of Bevjamin T. Young, an expert on ship chartering and ««ean transport, who severed his connection with a big New York shipping concern for the period of the war. Transportation on land was taken over by O. M. Ellsworth, ! who left a remunerative position with | a big railway system to enter Uncle : sam s service. | The navy needed chemicals, and Donald Riley came from a large chem ical concern to take charge of this de partment. It needed Industrial ac counting, and a great accounting ma chinery concern made arrangements whereby C. S. Ashdown took that ac tivity in hand, giving all his time to the development of accounting sys tems ns the bureau’s transactions mul tiplied again and again. A department to deal with foodstuffs was provided under F. A. Tillman; another dealing with lumber under C. M. Morford, and another dealing with leather and al lied materials under J. W. McIntosh. The general standard of ability set by the navy for its civilian experts is that each man must be worth several times what the navy pays him in sal ary, and that he must come into the organization for the period of the war absolutely. “Outside talent with in side control” is the principle followed, and this has worked so well that the navy has never been obliged to seek advisory service outside its own or MAKES NEW KIND OF MEAT I-1 On the top floor of 641 Washington street, New York city, is one "of the most interesting kitchens in the world, presided over by a Chinese woman doctor. She recently spent six months in a trip to China to study and ana lyze the soy bean. Dr. Yamei Kin, for that is her name, says that the protein contained in the soy bean is equal to that of meat and Is of great vaftie to persons who cannot safely eat meat It is a replacer of meat—a sort of vegetable cheese. It forms no acid. It Is an alkaline form of protein. Com bined with hash or any form of meat leavings it /onus u wonderful food for diabetics, as the curd contains no starch. When you eat ‘‘chop suey,” “chow mein” and other dishes in Chi nese restaurants, the salty black sauce served with the food Is made from soy beans. It Is by no me'ans simply a condiment. It is as nutri tious as a meat gravy. Excellent cheese can also be made from them. Doctor Kin says that she can make roquefort cheese that smells and looks like the real thing. She says further that as the public becomes edu cated to the obliging “soy" it will take its place at the head of the proces sion of American products. In all the world there Is not a more misunder stood vegetable than the soy b«il»» soys Doctor Kin. ganlzatlon. Growth has been entirely from within out. Can See Bids Opened. In Sanda court, the bureau’s tem porary structure In the central court of the state, war and navy building, a room Is provided which can be entered by anyone without pass, question, or formality. There Is an open door, en tered from the street, giving access to a room called “The Public’s Room,” and there any person Interested In of fering a bid on navy supplies or wish ing to see that bids are opened fairly can go and watch all transactions. Employees engaged in opening the thousands of bids received daily work in open view of any person who wants to enter this room. As fast as bids are opened the amounts of each Item are posted In books and placed upon counters, where anyone may examine them, learning all the facts about the prices bid by competitors. Admiral McGowan’s views on pub licity for government purchases are very pronounced. “In handling other people’s money things must not only be right,” he says, “but they must look right.” And the best way of having them look right In his belief, is to let the public super vise operations to the utmost extent. Only in war has the navy found It necessary to keep any Information about Its purchases confidential, and even in war secrecy Is necessary for but a very small fraction of the pur chasing, where knowledge of details might afford assistance to the enemy. Centralized purchasing with a well planned organization has made It pos sible for the navy to Increase Its turn over many thousand per cent, not mere ly without congestion or other diffi culties, but with actual Increase in incomes and efficiency. As purchases have grown larger and more numerous they have been handled with greater speed and at lower cost. Quality Safeguarded. And with growth and magnitude there has been every care to safeguard the quality of supplies purchased for the navy. When we entered the war confusion existed In commodity mar kets, and there was apparent short age of wool and other supplies. It was believed for a time that navy specifi cations would have to be revised, with a lowering of quality. But the bureau of supplies and accounts took a deter mined stand on that point. Very often, In view of assumed conditions. It look ed like a stiff-necked stand against reasonableness. Despite a wide-spread belief among textile men that navy uniforms would have to be made partly of shoddy, if the enormous require ments were to be promptly met, the bureau refused to consider any lower ing of its standards for uniform cloth, and, through the department of agri culture, secured actual figures regard ing the available wool stock In this cou-* .ry at that time. This survey not only proved that there was ample wool in the country for military purposes, but checked a wildly rising market. The same stand has been taken m food for our sailors, coal for battle ships, and practically every article re quired by the navy. "The best that Is humanly possible," says Admiral McGowan, “is none too good for the men at the front, wheth er they be In the army or navy. I hold myself personally accountable tq every father, and every mother, find every wife, and every sweetheart, Chat the men i have any supervision and care over are as well clothed and as well fed as It Is possible for them to be. I acknowledge that as a personal responsibility resting on me. I freely acknowledge It; excuses are not re ceivable, and alibis are not accepted. What we want for the navy is the best!” . ""‘a SEEKS SERVICE FOR REVENGE Harold Bowen Saw “Red" When He Heard Brother Had Been Wound ed In France. Sioux Falls, S. D.—When Harold Bowen of Hartford, S. D., was advised that his brother, William Bowen, had been wounded while on the firing line in France with other American troops, he Immediately commenced to see “red,” and hastened to Sioux Falls in an effort to be assigned to early serv ice in France so he could avenge the wounding of his brother. Harold Bowen was a selective draft man, and stood well down the list. He appealed to the local exemption board in Sioux Falls and begged to be accept ed Into the service at once, out of his turn, In order that he could get to France with the least possible delay so he could kill a few Germans. His plea was accepted by the mem bers of the exemption board, and young Bowen departed to undergo training at Camp Lewis, Wash., pre liminary to being sent to the battle line In France. | MOTHER TAKES LIFE • $ WHEN SON JOINS NAVY £ •& _ • • 4 ■0 Memphis, Tenn.—When Mrs. • • Sarah Brewer, forty-five, mother • of Harry Brewer, eighteen, ^ heard that Harry had enlisted £ <x in the navy she exclaimed: • • “Now I have nothing to live ^ • for,” and then swallowed a fa- -d • tal dose of -carbolic acid. * <i • Football Team Enlists. St. Louis.—Thirteen Illinois miners, and all British subjects, enlisted In a body at the local British-Canadlan Recruiting Mission headquarters. They comprise the membership of the Brit* Ish-Amerlcan Football club of Spring field, III. 0' MORE HORSES NOW ON FARMS Increase In Number of Animals Not. withstanding Large Use of Motor Vehicles. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Substitutions for the horse have so fur failed to diminish his number on farms, where he is mostly bred. The railroad did not verify the common prophecy of the horse’s gloomy future nearly a century ago, and many years elapsed before the heyday of the bi cycle arrived with Its expected menace to the horse. That machine of pleas ure and toil diverted attention from the first real antagonist of the horse, the electric street railway, and this was a formidable one. Street-car serv ice could not have been developed by horses to the extent that It has been carried by electricity, yet there was an enormous displacement of horses when they no longer pulled street cars. It Is roughly estimated that 2,000,000 horses would be required to move the street cars now in city service, and that farmers would need to keep a stock of perhaps 3,000,000 horses to produce this supply. Yet, horses kept on increasing. Apparently the most effective foe of the horse has appeared in the last ten years in the motor vehicle, although its importance in this respect is pop ularly exaggerated. According to sta tistics collected by the United States department of agriculture, the total state registrations of motor cars were 48,000 in 1906, about 500,000 in 1910, over 1,000,000 in 1912, over 2,400,000 in 1915, and 3,512,996 in 1916. Automobiles do not merely displace horses but ninny ore used by men in occupations dependent-on either horses or automobiles for personal movement, such as real estate agents, builders, and some merchants and manufactu rers, and there is also the large public automobile passenger service in cities and, again, the lnrge number of auto mobiles owned by farmers in place of driving horses. With motor trucks and commercial vehicles the case is different. Here is clearly a complete substitution of fuel power for horse power. It is the opin ion that every motor truck on the av erage displaces three horses. The state records often merge the registration of motor trucks and commercial ve hicles with that of automobiles, but, to the extent that the separation Is mnde, It is known that 118,682 of the former were registered in 1916. Prob ably the displacement of horses by mo tor trucks and commercial vehicles i ———■■ . American-Bred Percheron Mare, the Type That Is Always in Demand. represents a stock on farms of a few million horses, and jto Jjigse .must be added the stock eliminated by the au tomobile. Last of all, the farm tractor has ap peared, with conjectural possibilities,' but as yet with no perceptible dis placement of horses. Unusual and large demands for horses for war purposes have been made since the autumn of 1914. Dur ing the ten years preceding, from 19, 000 to 40,000 horses were exported an nually, while the Imports were from 5,000 to 33,000, so that the net exports were no appreciable draft on domes tic production. In the first year of the war 289,340 horses were exported, in the second 357,553, and in the third 278,674 horses, and within less than a year the needs of the army of this country have called for a large number of horses. Notwithstanding the various forces that have been working against in crease of horses at their breeding places, or rather, in common expecta tion, to reduce their numbers at a strong rate, the fact is that horses on farms increased at the average yearly rate of 183,000 since 1900 and more than that since 1910, or 216,000 per year. Per capita of the population, farm horses tended to Increase from 0.19 of 1 horse In 1850 to 0.24 in 1890 and 1900, after which the decline has been to 0.20*4 In 1918, or still above 1850. At the same time, however, by means of machinery the farm horse has constantly gained as a producer. Strange though it may seem, the av erage price of a horse at the farm, all ages and conditions included, is less than It was four years ago, and even eight years ago. Since 1897 horse prices at the farm for January 1 had risen from $31.51 to $111.46 by 1911, the highest average in the de partment of agriculture's record of 58 years, but a decline followed to $101.60 Id 1916 and then a gain to $104.28 In 1918, apparently caused by the war.