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.. THE MOSQUITO THEORY
How it Was Tested and Proved at Havana. 'The Clear Demonstration That the Stegomyia and It Alone Transmits the Yellow Fever. Convincing Proof of This Made by United States Experts and Army Officers. 'Iime.-Democr t. july 29. We give below the details of the famous investigation made in Havana in I1NN) ahd 1901 by the American Military t ommission, composed of Major W. Reed. M. D., and Drs. J. Carroll. A. Agramonte and 1. W. Lazear. which established the mos quito theory of the origin of yellow fever beyond all question and paved the way to the emancipation of Havana from a disease which had prevailed there for a century and a hall. atx ccount of which has already been given in the States. In these experiments Major Reed. with other oleers sno privates of the United States army, risked their lives in the demonstration. Assistant Surgeon Lazear lost his life in the attempt. Major Reed succumbed three years ago to an attack of appendicitis in the city of Washington. Major Walter Reed was born in Gloucester county, Va., in 1851. He was the son of the Rev. Lemuel Sut ton Reed. $e received a fair primary education and then went to the Uni versity of Virginia to study medicine, graduating in 1868, when only seven teen years of age. He secured a second degree at Bellevue Medical College in New York and then served in the Brooklyn and Blackwell's Island. Ihospital. Before he was twenty-cue he was a district physician in New York, and at twenty-two was one of the Eve inspectors of the Board of Health of Brooklyn. He went Into the United States army as assistpat surgeop with the rank of first lieatemant in 1875, and during the next eighteen years served in Arlsona, Nebraska, Dakota and in the Southerm and Eastern States. He was always an indefabgable student ama q pioneer. In 18S9 he wUSs to Baltimore, working in she laborsato ries of Johns Hopklns University. IJan 181hwas made surgeon with the reak of major and was detailed in Washington as ecrator of the Army Medilal Museum and profession of bleeriology as the Army Medical School. He won high pre se for his writings. and became an expert in avestigating ihe causes of epidemic diigess. at military posts and in me~id n~ taryýinspectiorns. During *~Spspidh-Amerissn war he was uuhutseldas tihue sd of the board to Malay ae eausateon and spread of typhalt in the camps of the volunteer troOps, asd the report of the com *edesuie,S mainummsal work, is now In estrss of publieation by the gov uieanmt and is espected to serve as a basis fr ftoure study of the epi dentalogy of typhos fever. s grIssat work in Caba, in demoe stesting that yelw lever is grias uadli by the moegutlt is thus betlsly deseribsd in a memoir published last year by the Walter Reed Memorial Aaisselida av Washington. 1p YrUgr Or TUArW 1avaV. Iia4i .dS, , Major Reed was seml ye lls pop -prefMasa of a board to 864- fhe tIideates di asms of the * e @ .. .aspsisay ysea.w Sp w Aselasts wick him mr SBAmba g S eor s James VO15si, inase. W. Ls.ser snd A. Apgant At this time the Amern. taailitin. in Cubs bed for a s*huk .mhedea o dials. 4g ! and i mortalty of the . wms by geseral sanitary :-a e'. huihhs a of thu M :t, srl s en senseir Mrh a I er. srise a . mta ly had greatly 0 baf etsaha rdler twer-lis appened hadte saleeey mubuedes by these e m la n s s, wsemsiso sn large a uselemame feneigoers, the Rswanad in Q -smados, sear se IAr s nib e o-ps, sa mat y tu at be Amleses Usen umss* hflans. the arse ! aouess alem. pheek the *e56% bas t ' WO, puty4e u advanced the theory that a mosquito conveyed the unknown cause of yel low fever, hut did not succeed in demonstrating the truth of his theory. Dr. H. R. Carter of the Marine Hospital Service had written a paper showing that although the lwriod of ;ncuhation was only five days. yet a house to which a patient was carried did not become infected for from fifteen to twenty (lays. CAUSE OF YELLOW FEVER. To Reed's mind this indicated that the unknown infective agent has to undergo a period of incubation of from ten to fifteen days and probably in the body of the biting insect. Up to this time the' most generally accepted theory as to the causation of yellow fever wn that of Sanarelli, who claimed that the bacillus icete roids discovered by him was the specific agent of the disease. Major Reed, in association with Dr. Carroll, had, however, already demonstrated that this bacillus was one widely dis seminated in the United States. and bore no such relation to yellow fever. In June, July and August, 1900, the commission gave their entire atten tion to the bacteriological study of the blood of yellow fever patients and the post mortem examination of the organs of those dying of the disease. In twenty-four cases where the blood was repeatedly examined, as well as in eleven carefully studied autopsies, bacillus iceteroids were not dis covered, nor was there any indication of the presence in the blood of a specile cause of the disease. Application was made to Gen. Leonard Wood, the military Gov ernor of Cuba, for permission to con duct experiments. on nonimmune per sons, and a liberal sum of money requested for the purpose of reward ing volunteers who would submit themselves to experiments. It was indeed fortunate that the military Governor of Cuba was a man who, by his breadth of mind and special scientific training, could readily appreciate the arguments of Major Reed as to the value of the proposed work. `Money and full authority to pro ceed were promptly granted, and to the everlasting glory of the American soldier volunteers from the army offered themselves for experiment in plenty and with the utmost fearless ness. IRATH OF DR. LAzEBAL Before the arrangements were en tirely completed Dr. Carroll, a mem ber of the commission allowed him self to be bitten by a mosquito that twelve days previously had filled it self with the blood of a yellow fever patient. He suffered from a very severe attack, and his was the first experimensal case. Dr. Lazear also experimented on himself at the same time, but was not infected. Some days later, while in the yellow fever ward, he was bitten by a mosquito sad moted the fact carefully. He ac quired the disease In its most terrible form and died a martyr to science and s true hero. No other fatality occurred among the brave .en who in the course of the experiments willingly exposed thmselves to the infection of the dreaded disease. TME CAMP. A eaosp was especially constructed for the experifsste, about four miles fbee Havana. c'ristesed Camp Lamar an homer et the dead comrade. The Inmates of the camp were put in to aet rigid quarantine and ample tie was allowed to eliminate any possibility of the disease being breaghti h from Havana. The personnel consisted of three aurses and nine nonimmunes, all in se iilitary service, and included sWe physicians. 1l .Mm to time Spanish immi grwats, newly arrived, were brought Ia. frent the immigrant station: a per to eah ktnowa to be Immune was not siaored 0 leave comp, or if he did, ways atam t ueen 2mssesseless re-ord was kept i~lt at ivery man to be ex - #' shs e`lminattg san diseasea -. tits bred from the eggs and kept in a building s'creened by wire-netting. When an insect was wanted for an experiment it was taken into a yellow fever hospital and allowed to fill itself with the blood of a patient, afterward, at varying intervals from the time of this meal of blood, it was purposely applied to nonimmunes in camp. "In December five cases of the disease were developed as the result of such applications, in January three and in February two, making in all ten, exclusive of the cases of Drs. Carroll and Lazear. Immediately upon the appearance of the first recog nized symptoms of the disease, in any one of these experimental cases, the patient was takn from Camip Lazear to a yellow fever hospital, one mile distant. Every person in camp was rigidly protected from accidental mosquito bites. and not in a single instance did yellow fever develop in the camp except at the will of the ex perimenters. The experiments were conducted at a season when there was the least chance of naturally acquir ing the disease and the mosquitoes used were kept active by maintaining them at a summer temperature. A completely mosquito-proof building was divided into two compartments by a wire screen partition: infected insects were liberated on one side only. A brave nonimmune entered and remained long enough to allow himself to be bitten several times. He was attacked by yellow fever. while two susceptible men in the other com partment did not acquire the disease, although sleeping there thirteen nights. This demonstrates in the simplest and most certain manner that the infectiousness of the building was due only to the presence of the insects. "Every attemp was made to infect individuals by means of bedding, clothes and other articles that had been used and soiled by patients suffering with virulent yellow fever. A CONVINCING REPORT. `'Naturally yellow fever is trans mitted by the mosquito, and always and only by the mosquito. The harm lessness of fomites has been fully demonstrated by our experiments in 1900 and 1901, in which three young Americans slept for twenty consecu tive nights in a room from which mosquitoes were excluded garnished with articles soiled with discharges from fatal and other cases of yellow fever. Three and four large boxes were packed and unpacked each morn ing by these non-immunes, who suf fered no disturbance of health from these exposures. The room was twenty feet by fourteen feet, double walled, tightly sealed, heated to above 90 degrees Fahrenheit and dark. "Two other non-immunes then oc cupied the room for twenty nights, while additional articles of bedding and clothing were added. They slept in the garments and between the sheets that had covered eases of yellow fever, some of which were fatal. The result of the second attempt was nil. A third attemp was then made with two additional non-immunes. equally without success. Not the slightest indisposition followed close and in timate contact with this repulsive material in any case. Temperatures and pulse rates were recorded at regular and frequent intervals. Four of these seven. non-immunes were subsequently infected by blood injec tions and by means of infected mos quitoes. "Another kind of experiment was included in the Cuban investigations of yellow fever. A room was pre pared so as to prelude the possibility of infection by fomites (infected articles.) Every article contained in the room had been previously disin fected and was thoroughly clean. The only possible means of infection with yellow fever was by infected mosquitoes, liberated in the . room containing the human subjects of the experiment. Yellow fever promptly followed the introduction of mosqui toes into the room. WHAT anmanrLENTS PROVED. Besides the experimental cases caused by mosquito bites, four non immunes were infected by injecting blood drawn directly from the veins of yellow bver patients in the £rst two days of the disease, thus demon strating the presence of an infectious agent in the blood at this early period of the attack. Even the blood serum of a patient, passed through a bacteria-proof Alter was found to be capable of causing yellow fever in another person. "The details of the experiments are most iatsraslng, but it ameas here suf Lee to briesy esm up the principal comeaesmus of this admirable board ot nvestigaubes of which Reed was the muster mimi.' '-6 l. agen ia A* cmass tion of yellow fever exists in the blood of a patient for the first three days of his attack, after which time he ceases to be a menace to the health of others. "2. A mosquito of a single species stegomyia faciata. ingesting the blood of the patient during this in fective period is powerless to convey the disease to another person by its bite until about twelve days have elapsed. but can do so thereafter for an indefinite period, probably during the remainder of its life. "3. The disease can not be spread in any other way than by the bite of the previously infected stegomyia. Articles used or soiled by patients do not carry infection. * These conclusions pointed so clearly to tne practical method of ex terminating the disease that they were at once accepted by the sanitary authorities in Cuba and put to the test in Havana. where for nearly a century and a half. by actual record. the disease had never failed to appear annually. HAVANA FREE FROM FEVER. "In February. 1901. the chief sani tary officer in Havana. Hajor W. C. Gorgas. medical depertment of the United States army, instituted mneas ures to eradicate the disease, based entirely on the conclusions of the commission. Cases of yellow fever were required to be reported as promptly as possible: the patient was at tiat rigidly isolated, and imme diately upon the report a force of men from the sanitary department visited the house. All the rooms of the build ing and of the neighboring houses were sealed and fumigated to destroy the mosquitoes present. Window and door screens were put up and after the death or recovery of the patient his room was fumigated and every mosquito destroyed. A war of exter mination was also waged against mosquitoes in general, and an ener getic effort was made to diminish the number bred by draining standing water, screening tanks and vessels, using petroleum on water that' could not be drained, and in the most sys tematic manner destroying the breed ing places of the insect. "When the warm season returned a few cases occurred, but by September, 1901, the last case of yellow fever originated in Havana, since which time the city has been entirely ex empt from the terrible disease that had there kept strong hold for 1501 years. Cases are now admitted into Havana from Mexican ports, but are treated under screens with perfect impunity in the ordinary city hospit als. The crusade against the insects also caused a very large decrease in malarial fevers." More recent investigations into the cause and spread of yellow fever have only succeeded in verifying the work of Reed and his commission in every particular and adding very little to our knowledge of the disease. Later researches by Guiteras in FIRE, LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCI, Phenix Insurance Co., of Brookland, N. Y. Orient Insurence Co., of Hartford. Conn. Royal Exchange Assurance Co., of London. New Hausphire Insurance Co., of Manchester. Citizens Insuranee Co., of Missuri. St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Co., of St. Paul Minn. Philedelphia Underwriters of Philadelphia, Pa. Hanover Fire Insurance Co., of New York. Mutual Life Insurance Company, of New York. -ACCIDENT Metropolitian Plate Glass & Casualty Co. Two ires happened in our community only a short time ago, one at Carencro, the other at Breaux Bridge, who knows but it may be Lafayett's turn next. See your Insurance agent and have him write up your property. A stitch in time often saves nine. A policy on your life in the utual Life Insurance Co. of New York, is a nice Christmas present for your fanily. We solicit a share of your patronage, NICKERSON BROS., Agents. WOOD AND COAL YARD AND GRIST kL. 100 Cords of )ry Ash Stove Wood and 30 Cars of Pittsburg Lamp Coal on hand. Cors groand every day. DUHON & PEOC. Ords peasptly delivered. Phea.Ef 4l Havana. by the Public Hlealth and Marine Hospital Service in Vers Cruz, and lastly by the delegation from the Pasteur Institute of Paris In Rio de Janeiro, all confirm ap the most convincing manner both the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the conclusions of the American com mission. It has been well said that Reed's experiments will always re main as models in the annals of scientific research, both for the ex actnes, with which they were adapted to the points to be proved and the precautions taken that no experiment should be vitiated by failure to ex clude all possible sources of error. Appr*ciation of heed's work was instant in the scientific world. Hon orary degrees from Harvard Univer sity and the University of Michigan were conferred upon him, learned societies and distinguished men delighted to honor him and after his death Congress voted a special pen sion to his widow. PROFESSIONAL CARDS. i. H. C. SALLES, __......DENTIST Otlice on Buchanan Street, LAFAYKTTE, - - LOUISIANA. B. J. LACOUIR, Office in Mouton Sisters' B'ldg. LAFAYETTE - - I'" cROW GIRARD, ATTORNEY AT LAW NOTARY PUBLIC. Office Second Floor, Bank of Lafavette. H. P. BEELER, '.ýOWDENTIST. Office on Liaceln Avenue, LAFAYETTE. - LOUISIANA. CHAS. D. CAFFERY, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW and NOTARY PUBLIC. Office on Madison St., Lafayette, La. C. DEBAILLON, JULIAN MOUTON JEROME MOUTON, Attorneys at Law. OFFICE AT LAFAYETTE, LA. Notary in office. C. 8. baian. 0. 3. SURVEYOR. Office, Main St., near Johnston Ave. LAFAYETTE, - LA. L. 0. CLARK, L S..M. D. Office over Mouton Sisters' Store. Office Hours: !? 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