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The Fulton County news. [volume] (McConnellsburg, Pa.) 1899-current, November 09, 1899, Image 6

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AGRICULTURAL
" Caeitmbara For rirklea.
Tattled cnnnmbers are sold by count,
atad 1'ie small ones are generally pre-fen-red.
Henoe clone picking and fre
lnt pioking, bo as to prevent any
from growing too largo, in nocessary
acare large crops. Sometimes,
bovever, a stray cucumber will hide
wader the leaves until it has almost
ripened its seeds. It is astonishing
Biow thia lessens the yield of the vine.
1'ct it is not to be wondered at, for the
perfection of seed in almost nil plants
exhausts their vitality very rapidly.
Thecuoumber vines should be hnudlod
carefully so as not to loosen the roots
which some of thnm send into the soil
from the joints. These are great helps
to the vine. If the vine is turned up
to see what is under it some of those
ids rootlets will be destroyed.
Ciaae of 811-eaki In Hotter.
, An authority says that- streaks in
m Iratter are generally caused by uneven
Malting. In tho farm dairy the bent
-way is to sprinkle line salt over the
bntter while still in the chnru, then
revolve it n few times very slowly to
noorport3 the salt with the butter.
The inoistiue in the butter will din-
olve the s.iltina few luinnton and it
esn then be masnod and the surplus
Iwiue vressed out. This finishes the
job. Don't hold it over until the tioxt
3ay and then work it. In erenmory
practice the salt must bo evenly din
Iribntad aud then the butter worked
noegh to make it uniform. White
lamps in the butter eome from abuso
of the cream; it is not ripeuod uni
formly. A portion gets too sour nnd
partially decomposes. Tho rouiody is
plain avoid the cause.
A Handy Gate Latch.
A serviceable latch is shown in tho
accompanying illustration. When
She gate is swung to, tho end of tho
J atoll strikes the beveled portion of
the post, o, and is raised a couplo of
inches by means of the iron rods, bb.
The post is beveled on both sides, so
that the gate can swing from either
-way. Aa the latch reaobes the slot,
si, it drops into it and the gate is
BOUBtTJ 8WIV31NO OATH LATCH.
ocnre.l. The bevel as desoribed con
stats merely of a perpondicnlar slot
in the center o tho post. On each
aide of the slot the wood is cut away,
. forming the bevel. Tho iron rods,
lib, are inclined only enough to cause
the latch to fall back in plaoe, having
leeu lifted when it strnok the bevel.
I have slammed thin swinging gate in
every imaginable way, but tho latoh
angbt every time. Charles L. Hill,
ia New England Homestead.
rropitr Feeding ol Ensilage.
Much of the antagonism -against the
feeding of ensilage comes from the
way in wbioh it is handled. Espec
ially is thin true in the feeding of milch
cows.- The ensilage in tho Lauds of
careless men may beoome the souroe
of bad flavor and bad odor in the milk.
Tli is food, when uncovered and left ex
posed to the warmth of tho cow stable
ia sonny days in wintor, soon spoils.
A little shoved into a corner begins to
rot and give out bad odor, which gots
into the milk at every milking time.
Observation has proved that much of
the bad effect on milk of bnd ensilage
came in this way, and that it had
sever passed through the oows at all.
Ia feeding eBilage only enough should
lie taken from the silo at each feed to
atisfy the cows and to be entiroly
eaten up. If the weather is freoziug
a little loft over would do no particu
lar harm, but it is not desirable to
liave the ensilage freeze. Even good
oasilage should be fed after each milk
ing and uot.before, for it has a slight
swell that is not a gain to the milk if
at pets into it.
The eulire surface of the ensilage in
the silo ahould be removed eaoU day,
o that none will get too old for use.
It ia also well to air the stabte thor
oughly at least ones a day, aud be sure
that at milking time the air is as pure
a it can be in the stable. It in always
letter to have a silo outside of the
liarn rather than in it, so far as the
milking times aro concerned, but very
frequently thero are good reasons for
making the silo a part of the barn.
In srooh eases extra precautions must
)e taken in the handling and feeding
nt the ensilage if tho milk is to bo kept
untainted. Farm, Fiold and Fireside..
Irrigating n field ol Celery,
From lay experience with irrigation
a my farm I have learned how to
iiconoiuiza in tho use of water by
Mink-hing or shading the snrfaoe of
the ground. I am now irrigating a
afield of celery planted ia rows with
alternate paoes between them of
twelve and eighteen inches apart.
"Xhe wide space is mulched with
coarse mauure, and the plants are
large enough to shade the narrow
.spaces. Irrigating this field onoe a
week keeps tho ground sufficiently
anoiat, while another, with the surfaoe
exposed to evaporation, needs irrigat
ing every day. In a word, the lessons
loarned ara: Fill the Soil with humus
to enable it to retain all the moisture
possible, give frequent cultivation
alnriug the early part of the summer,
then, when practicable, mnluh the
nurfaoe sot shaded by the plants.
X hardly thiuk we appreciate the
waive of over crops, which wheu
plowed tinder fill the soil with humus.
Wheu the early garden crops, such as
jiMii, oorn and potatoes, have been re
moved, if late crop doea not follow
Ibis year, some catch orop should be
aiaed to cover the ground. Where it
-will survive the winter, sow crimson
lover and it will save a part of your
fertiliser bill the nest year. On rioh
garden soil, when the weather ia fav
orable, it makes a good growth.
AJriaaaoa clover, cow peas, or rye,
li'Sr
when plowed nuder fill the soil with
the humus that helps to retain tho
moisture. Do not leave the gronnd
wivuuut Beeaing to some orop when a
crop has been removed. Nature's
plan is to keen lh
and unless you cover it with some
uneiui crop sue will cover it with
woods. Tho difference in soils is
shown in times of il rnufli fliA mn sin
some parts 'of my garden has been so
uueu wun uumns by plowing nniler
heavy crops and heavy dressings of
Stable manure that it rnniimni an
much mointnro that tho plants do not
Stop growing during nu ordinary
drouth, while on other parts where
tho soil is deficient in humus they
cease xo grow. vick's Magazine.
Uaerul on the Fnrm.
I saw some time ago a request for a
combination wagon ladder, stock rack,
etc. I send you a sketch of mine, or
part of it, rather. Anyone handy with
tools can make it, and it need not
cost over two dollars for bolts and
iron. I made mine, and wonld not
part with it for several times its cost.
Make it any length desired; mine is
10 feet long enough for two horses,
aud to haul 15 head of 200-pound
hogs. Tho sills O, Fig. 1, are 2 by
8, rod elra, aud the nprights A andB,
Fig. 2, should bo heavy at the bottom
and tapar to 2 by 2 at "the top. They
fasten in tho rollers with bolts. They
aro tho ouly bolts that have to be re
moved in changing from one to the
other. Tho balance of it I made out
of liuu. It is light; one mau can
handle it easily. Have the bottom
bonrdn to fit snugly, but do not nail
thorn.
By using tho main body C, Fig. 1,
with two extra bolsters F, Fig. 2, you
have a good log rigging. For the stock
rack, taper tho posts. Use linn
boards. Havo your blacksmith make
eight square sockets, 1 by 2 inches,
to bolt on sides of sills O. Use one-quarter-inch
bolts for these. I used
old buggy tires. Make end-gates like
(ho sido, D, Fig. 2. Use rods also.
Make two light gates for partitions;
it makes throe pens. Hogs cannot
crowd then. Hooks and staples will
do for two middle gates. E, Fig, 3,
in one side for wagon ladders. Have
tho arms notched just enough to sot
square on the sill after the round ends
are in the two-inch hole on opposite
side. You can also have- extra side
boards, tight, for hauling wood, corn,
eto. One man can unfold this com
bination. Store it in a small plaoe.
You can surely find a dry place for it.
This is my own invention, not
patented, aud if yon use it once you
will liko it. Ohio Farmer.
Agrlcultnre lu the rnbllo Schools.
Those who have taken time to thor
oughly investigate the matter of teach
ing agriculture ia our common schools
seldom arrive at any conclusion but
that it must bo done aud the sooner
the better. It is not an experiment
by any means, an many suppose, for
othor couutries have long since
adopted it aud it has proved to he
very satisfactory, Iu this country,
too, few realize the faot that an edu
cation pays on the farm as well as
anywhere else, but there are too many
yot who avo wedded to the old plan
of teaching reading, writing and arith
metic, and look upon higher education
oh being unnecessary for tho farmer,
and suoh a thing as teaching agricul
ture as being a waste of tirao, an un
wise innovation or a ridiculous im
possibility. If tho farmers of this country only
realized how successfully agriculture
is now taught in France they might
be induced to give tho matter more
consideration. It is carried on there
very systematically, Tho following
clipping from the Australian Agricul
turist nuder tho caption, "How Ag
riculture is taught iu France," gives a
good idea of the system and of the ex
cellent results:
"The perfect system of agricultural
education in France has had uuch to
do with the wonderful improvement
in French farming. Tho federal grants
for this purpose are now about 200,
000 pounds. The sooiul -and political
position of the farmer in France has
been advanced also, and the general
publio appreciate the importance of
ugrioulture. Agricultural teaching is
now giveu in Frauoe in seven differ
ent stages or degrees. 1. There is
the superior instruction of the national
agricultural college. 2. The national
schools of agriculture. 8. The prac
tical schools of agriculture. 4. Ap
prenticeship schools where boys aud
girls are taught all the mysteries of
general farm work, fruit growing,
dairying, silk culture, agriculture and
fish culture. Then there are (5) mixed
schools, with professors of agriculture
aud agrioultnial chemistry, and (6)
instruction in tho fields, for all of
these schools have lands attached just
as though the sohools iu the country
in Australia had leotures on the agri
cultural sciences illustrated by work
in the fiold. 7. Franoe has carried to
great perfection her experiment sta
tions. The. laborer has the farm
school, the small farmer the practical
sohool, those in a better sphere of life
the national schools, while others who
desire to devote their attention to
agronomic science hare the agronomio
institute which is truly a polyteohnio
of soienoes physical, oheinioal and na
tural, liy this means those engaged
on the soil are kept abreast with the
best and latest praotioein agriculture,
aud are enabled to see and learn suoh
things as tend to the improvement of
their condition and industry."
This is a complete and soientiflo
system, and oaunot be oarried out fully
in thia oouutry in present conditions,
but start should be made in each
district sohool whioh is, or ibould be,
the foundation and preparation for
higher education. Farmers' Guide.
L f J
rig.
JJilJ,
A II ANDY COMBINATION.
A SUNFLOWER SECRET.
MILLIONS OF POUNDS USED, BUT
FOR WHAT IS A MYSTERY.
Only fx Few Man Know and They Won't
Tell How the Crop la Urawn and
HarTeated It Itanlahea Malaria The
1'loneer Sunflower Capitalist.
A correspondent of the Chicago
Record writes as follows from Law
renoeville, III.:
A man down here is advertising for
1,000,000 pounds of sunflower seed.
He has bought three-fourths of a mil
lion pounds of sunflower seed and ex
peots to ship 6,000,000 pounds.
Practically all of this crop raised in
the world goes ont of Lawrence
County. This same mau who is now
buying the seed by the trainload got
rich by raising such things on his
rented farm, going into tho market
for strange and nnusual things, while
his neighbors stuck to wheat and corn
and hogs. His name is W. It. Crack-
el and ho is both shrewd and inquisi
tive, but while supplying the world
with what sunflower seed it needs he
has never becu able to find out what
the world does with it. This sunflower
seed industry is nottinly an art ex
hibit and a poem, but one of the
greatest mysteries as well.
A good many people here are en
gaged in it now, but it is not so prof
itable as it was to the grower. Farm
er Crackel sold his first big orop for
nine cents a pound; the next year
his neighbors put ont a good deal of
land in sunflowers, and sold the pro
duct for eight cents a pound, which
was some hundreds of dollars per acre.
Then came the deluge. Everybody in
Fetty township planted sunflowers in
etead of corn, and the farmers accom
plished their own undoing. One
township iu this county broke the
market from eight centa to two centn
by causing an overproduction in the
world's supply. Thou many went
took to coru aud wheat, and now
things have settled down to a basis
that pays well enough, but does not
make rich men.
NEEDS UTTLB CULTIVATION.
The sunflower is grown from tho
seed and a twenty-acre field soon after
it comes up looks like a patch of
ground much neglected to the weeds.
The plants are cultivated somewhat,
but in the rich soil of the island,
where Crackel started the industry
and where it still flourishes, tho sun
flower grows to unbelievable propor
tions with little care. Early in the
season the field takes on the color of
the soft, rioh green peculiar to the
leaves of the plant, and a little later
blotches of deep yellow appear all
over the green palette, an one by one
the flowers stick themsolves above the
general level like township commit
teemen at a political meeting. The
field on a level with the top of the low
'rail fence is one plane, the plants be
ing interwoven with their long, broad
leaves intermingled in what seems to
be a perfect amalgamation.
The flowers that first appear are not
much larger than a saucer and are
light yellow in color. Each day more
of them can be counted, everyone on
a tall upshoot and bending its head in
the most dignified way imaginable,
making the field look like a crowd of
tonsured courtiers saluting their king.
They bow toward the sun as a general
rule, bending to the east in the morn
ing, the south at noon aud tlie west
in the evening.
As late summer comes, no view is
richer than forty or eighty acres of
sunflowers. The color tone is yellow
then a rich, deep yellow with just
enough dark blown for harmony and
a little of dark green for contrast.
High stand the stalks and each is
bowed low with its weight of flower,
but still reaching far above the fence
and the corn in the adjoining field.
" HOW CROP IS HARVESTED,
The narrow, yellow petals wither
and fall away, or turn brown aud sere,
and then the harvesting of this most
unique crop begins. The heads are
cut off the stalks by hand and thrown
inlo a wagon. After being carefully
dried they have lost all their beauty
and are dark, angular, ugly things
that impress one moBt with their size.
Borne of the flowers are as large iu
diameter as six columns of a news
paper is wide aud the brown tonsure
in the oenter is often a foot in di
ameter after the petals have fallen and
it is dried. The seed is separated by
running the heads through an ordin
ary thrashing machine cylinder, whioh
knocks the seeds from the pockets iu
which they were imbedded. The
operation of oleaniug is rather crude
yet, there being no speoial machines
for the purpose.
The yield per acre varies greatly. A
field of flowers only as large as a des
sert plate will not have half the amount
of seed aH a field of flowers as large an
a half-bushel. Almost any kiud of
land with ulight attention will yield
GOO pounds to the acre; .and crops of
1G00 pounds to theaoreare not very un
common, although they are the result
of extra attentiou by growers who have
studied the habits aud needs of the
sunflower aud who also have very rich
land.. Just now the buyers are pay
ing from $1.25 to SI. SO per hundred
pounds or tho seed delivered at the
warehouse. The cost of raising au
aore of sunflowers is very much less
tban the ooet of an acre of wheat or
oorn and the crop in much more cer
tain. This city is the great sunflower
seed market of the world, but small
quantities, comparatively, are bought
at Bridgeport, St. Franaisville, Buin
ner, Birds and others of the smaller
towns iu this county, each Btation
sending out several carloads in a year.
The orop of 1899 is now being thrashed
and sent to market and iu this county
will aggregate about 0, 000,000 pounds
in theopiuion of those most interested.
Small quantities of sunflower seed are
seut to market occasionally from wide
ly separated points in the United
States, but in no other place is the
seed-raising made a business.
WIIEKB DOES THB SEED GO?
What does the world do with 5,000,
000 pounds of the seed of plant com
ruouly assooiated only with an esthetio
craze? Only a very few men know,
and tney wou't tell. The secrecy which
envelopes the whole matter of its use
like the hist of a stage burglar, sug
gests that it isah'adulterant. It onoe
old readily at ten oents a pound, whioh
was the equivalent of nearly $2 a gal
lon for the oil, and what oil ean be
nsed for an adulterant attnoh a price?
The same man Crank el who at atad
the whole thing here as a farmer ami
now handles nearly the whole crop as
a dealer in grain, thought of all that.
He is man who takes excellent care'
of his own business and at the same
time has a philanthropic interest in
the doings of his neighbors down here
where everybody visits everybody else.
Some other people had a casual curios
ity about the matter, but when they
discovered that Crackel had to shame
facedly admit what he did not know
and could not find out, they let it go
at that. Crackel found ont that the
oil was pressed from the seed, and
that was all.
After several years' dealing with the
Cincinnati firm, who buys the seed
finally, he took an excellent opportu
nity and made it clear that he thought
he might now be admitted into the
degree whioh enlightened about what
was dono with the sunflower soed.
The senior member of the firm ac
quiesced, and after initiatory cere
monies over au altar with, a big mir
ror behind it, he gravely told Crackel
that the seed was used to feed canary
birds, at the same time giving a sign
by slowly lowering and raising his
left eyelid. One of those days Crackel
will take in a capitalist and corner the
market on sunflower seed; then he
will loosen up only on oondition that
bo is allowed to see exactly what bo
comes of the seed in its float resting
place. In the meantime tho publio
will have to do without knowing for
what the seed really is used.
Snnflowers have always flourished
here in this oldest part of tho State,
where Jesse IC. Dubois belongs to its
modern history, aud George Kogers
Clark passod on ou his way to capture
the neighboring Fort , Vincennen and
the northwest from Qreat Britaiu.
But they were used to feed chickens
and to keep off "fovernnager" until
recent yearn. It in a fact that plenty
of sunflowers growing around a placo
will lessen the malaria there. They
take up so much moisture from the
ground that the latter is a less healthy
culture medium for the Plasmodium
raaiariiD, ana perhaps the chemistrvof
their own existence and growth is an
tiseptic to that queer-shaped germ
wmcu the Italian scieutist discovered
to be the essence of malarial poison
ing. As a consoquenceof the great change
in farming in Lawrence County bring
ing the suniloworcrop into such prom
inence, there is more money and loss
malaria along the banks of Muddy
Creek and in the valley of the histori
cal Embarrus River.
lletter Kun When You See Illin.
Every ono who has auything to do
with this class of stock should remem
ber that the bnll is a dangerous ani
mal. He may have been gentle in the
past, but that does not give the slight
est degree of security that he will re
main so in tho future. He is a
treacherous beast, is easily disturbed
and when exoited is equally ready to
attack friend or enemy. Men have
been known to go around these ani
mals as freely as they do horsos, and
women have petted handsome bulls.
but suoh acts are as dangerous as
Dandling dynamite bombs. Tho bull
should not be abused, but he should
never, evon while a calf, bo petted or
ployed with. From his earliest days
he should be taught that man is his
master. When he is being driveu
from one plaoe to another an occa
sional strike with a good whip will be
a great aid in enforoing this les
sou and impressing it firmly upon
his memory. After he is a year
and a half old he should not be turned
into a pasture, or be allowed in a
yard with other cattle. Ho ought
never to be led with a rope, but only
with a strong staff that is tafely con
nected with a ring or a "leader" ia
his nose, and the mau who Lab charge
of him should always be on his guard.
If it is ueoessary to go into a yard or
stable with him wheu he is loose, a
rawhide whip should alwavs be car
ried. The man should not turn his
book to the bull or for a singlo mo
ment relax his vigilance. Cutting off
the horns, which some recommend, is
not to be fully relied upon. It will
not make a radical chauge in the dis
position, and while it will keop tho
bull from goring it will not preveut
his trampling a man to death. The
only way to make a bull permanently
safe is to take them off near the shoul
ders. Horns or no horns, as long as j
ue live, tne bull will be a dangerous
animal to handle. Lewistou (Me.)
Journal.
Death From Yawning-.
"I suppose I have spent about one
eighth of my life supportiug tho
whole weight of my body in midair by
my teeth," said a professor on the
trapeze, "yet I have never hung in
space with the buckle between my
teeth, aud my life depending on my
ability to hold on, without wanting
to sneeze, or cough, or yawn.
"I once mentioned this fact to a
doctor, and he told me that it was the
outcome of too great a strain on my
norvous system. He reminded me
that many athletes Jaugh at nothing
as they are bending over the line
waitiug for the handkerchief to fall.
I have also asked all my brother" and
sister trapeziats, aud without excep
tion they declare they suffer in the
same way, and expect ono day that
tho longing will become so strong
that they will give way to il. I havo
come to the conclusion, after thinking
the matter over, that this probably ac
counts for the otherwise almost super
natural aooidents which are continu
ally happoniug in our profession. If
this surmise is correct, some sixty
per ceut. of trapezists die from yawn
ing." A Handicapped Geiilus.
A certain Clevelaudor has iu seme
way secured quite a reputation for
litorary work. He is supposed to do
lots of it aud is looked upon with a feel
ing akin to awe by people who are not
literary themselves.
Not long ago a sister of the genius
was asked concerning her brother's
work.
"It's funny I fail to see any of it,"
said tho questioner. "Doesn't he
ever write anything over his own
name?"
"I think you have been misin
formed concerning my brother's
talent," said the sister coldly ond
with great precision. "He uevei
writes anything for publication."
And she said it with an air that im
plied that writing for publication was
a little too common for any use,
Cleveland Plaiu Dealer
Abollah the Toll Kj-atem.
Tho continuance of the toll system
is simply the perpetuation of au oner
ous tax upon the people for tho bene
fit of tho baldest kiud of monopoly.
In various parts of the country toll
roads havo been gradually abolished,
ns their franchises have expired.
t,'e of Crnde 1'etrolenin.
A writer in a St. Fanl pnpor slates
that he recently drove over a piece of
road at Fort Worth, Texan, which wan
treated last fall with a wetting with
crude petroleum. Ha says that dur
ing five months of drouth, when all
other roads were enveloped iu dust,
this one was clear of it, and that when
heavy rain made mud of the dusty
roads this ono remained dry and pleasant.
Where the Parmer I'roflK.
We may say that it doesn't cost tho
farmer anything to market his crops,
because he doen all the hauling him
self. True, but isn't his time worth
something? Suppose that in place of
every ton of wheat or hay or potatoes
loaded on his wagou he was able, as a
rohii't of good roads, to load up two
tonn, and to markot tlie entire crop of
his farm with just half the labor ami
in just half tho time which is required
at present, whioh would bo tho caso
with good roads, wouldn't the amount
of time he oould save be worth some
thing, and wouldn't it be worth sav
ing? Automobile! nnd Gonl lionrf.
The "good roods movement," which
has boon quietly and steadily pro
gressing in tlie United States for sev
eral yoa's, is likely before long to be;
come a great natiounl issue in politics.
The movement was first started by
the wheelmen, through their national
organization, tho League of American
Wheelmen, and hundreds of thou
sands of dollars have beeu spout by
this organization in agitating the
question. To the wheelmen will soon
be addod a large number of owners of
horseloss carriages an ardent advo
cates of road improvements. Los
Angeles Times.
One County'e Experience.
Mecklenburg County, North Caro
lina, not long ago began the con
struction of a system of macadam
roads. It was customary there to
load up two bales of cotton on a
wagon to bo hauled by a inulo team.
The mules could draw this load very
well during dry weather. After a
rain, whon the roads were soft, tho
load was too much for even a pair of
tough mulos. After the county had
begun to build roads this load was
doubled several times, aud it was
fonud that the same two mules were
able to haul as much an twelve bales,
or six touf, iu place of their former
load, whioh amounted to ouly a single
ton. And more the improved roads
made it possible to haul this load iu
wet and dry weather alike, for, being
properly built of stone, they were tit
for use immediately after a heavy
rain.
Inleratate UbJet.-t-l.eHon Hond.
It is the intontionof many States be
sides Massachusetts, either by con
necting thoir detached sample roads
or by laying down loug lines to be
built as a whole, to establish State
roads upon the principal routes of
travel, which shall be object lessons
on a large scale. The Legislature of
New York has frequently had under
consideration theJubjeot of a network
of roads connecting all of the county
seats by north aud south and by east
and west lines. Tho sumo or simi Im
pious have been proposed in Pennsyl
vania, Maryland aud California.
Other States have proposed to limit
these object lessons to a singlo road
running lengthwise .of the State or
two Hues crossing' each other ut the
capital. Should these plans bo put
into execution, it will be very impor
tant that these roads iu the different
States should bo made to connect at
the State lines and thus form inter
state roads.
The Anll-ltut Agitation.
It must be plain to any ono who
gives the matter thought that wo
suffer enormous losses eaoh year an
the result of bad roads.
Earth is the poorest of all road
materials except sand, and earth roads
require more attention thou any other
kind and gonorally receive loss.
The fact that tho Davis automobile
trip from New York to Sau Francisco
was abandoned on account of bad
roads will make a text for the good
roads people.
Tho best road for tho farmer, all
things beiug considered, is a solid,
well-built stone road, so narrow as to
be only a siugle track, but having a
firm earth road on one or both side:.
Where the traffic in not very exteu
mve the purposes of good roads are
better served by narrow tracks thau
by wide ones, while many of tho ob
jectionable featuros of wide tracks aro
removed, the initial oost of construc
tion is cut down one-half or more, aud
the charges for repair reduced in pro
portion, A mile of broken stone road, fiftoeu
feet wido, costs iu tho State of Massa
chusetts about 03700 per mile, while
a mile of the some width and kiud of
road costs in the State of New Jerney
only 84700. This is due partly to tho
fact that tho topography of Massa
chusetts is somewhat rougher than
that of New Jersey.
Cartoons Drawn by lliiaalu'a Kinpreaa-
In au illustrated life story of the
Empress of Russia iu the Youug
Woman, we are told that the Czarina
speaks fivo languages, aud that riding,
painting, rowing, sketching, swim
ming and tennis are among her recrea
tions. But ono of her favorite amuse
ments' is iu drawing caricatures.
Freed from the fear of tho censor, she
indulges with her pen aud pencil in a
way whioh makes even Russian Win
ters tremble, drawing them in carica
ture, whioh would mean death or
Siberia to any other artist. She has
drawn the Czar himself a solemn,
boarded, but bald infant in long
clothes, tied in an armchair and sur
roundod by a host of grand dukes
aud graud duchesses armed with feed
ing bottles, all insisting ou feeding
him in a different way. No wonder
the Czar is screaming at tha top of his'
voice.
BRIDGE MADE - OF BAMBOO.
Yankee Inxennlty Qnlrkljr Couqnerad a
Philippine Stream.
Major B. F. Cheatham, of tho First
Tennossee "Volunteers, sends to the
Engineering News, froraMolo, Philip
pine Islands, a very interesting ac
count of a floating bridge constructed
by the American army iu the Island of
I'auay, which possesses soma unusual
featnres. He says: The lloilo Rivor
at Molo in 290 feet wide, twenty feet
ileep, and has a difference in eleva
tion nt high and low tide ot three anil
n half feet. Tho orders were to "build
a bridge snflloiently strong for in
fantry aud light artillery to cronn; to
build it quickly and cheaply." As
there wan no other material available
it was decided to use bamboo exclu
sively, and iu the entire structure
nothing olso was used not even a
nail or pieco of wire. Loug pieces of
bamboo were assembled in buudles of
Ufteoil and tightly bound with rattan.
Thcso bundles supplied tho buoyancy
for the bridge, nnd were placed ten
foot apart, parallel to the current.
Ihoy wore hold in thin position by
four stringers, which were securely
lushed to the bundles so us to form a
foundation for tho roadway, ton foot
wide. On theso stringers were placed
ninall bamboo, cut teu feet long, each
piece bcingtiod to tho stringers by the
invaluable rattan. Over those poles
were laid a rough matting woven from
split bamboo, which made an evon
surface strong enough to support a
horse.
A sufficient quantity of bamboo wan
not on hand ot tho start, and tho work
wan delayed somewhat in consequence,
but tho bridge wan completed iu four
days by ten native workmen. Tho
total cost for material and labor wan
$125. Tho banks at the place selected
wore one nnd n half feet higher than
tho water at high tide. In order to
allow cavts to cross atoll times, oprons
were mado of bamboo, ono end fast
ened to the bank and tho other al
lowed to slip along two pieces of
plnnk, placed on the bridgo for that
purpose. The bridgo was guyed so
as to allow it to rise and fall with the
tide.
Tho success of this bridge would
seem to solve a problem bore, aud our
experience shows conclusively that
with plenty of bamboo ou hand a regi
ment can cross any river here in four
hours' time.
Women nnd llimmril' Feather.
In tho use of tho long quill feathers
now so much iu demand for women's
hats, those of the eagle nro especially
desired. Those of cither wing or tail
are used, and it is not uncommon to
see a woman passing along tho street
bearing on her hat tho single tail
feather of a war eagle, . much as the
Indian warrior of old times used to
tie au' eagle's feather in his head.
However, the supply of eagles does
not at all equal the demand for these
quills and almost any long feathers
are used. Among these are the prim
aries aud toil feathers of the turkey
buzzard, a bird which, as Mr. Luoas
has pointod out, has hitherto been lit
tlo pursued to satisfy the whims of
fashiou. We may wonder how long
this demand will keep upland whether
it will result in the extermination or
marked deorease in tho numbers of
buzzards. Tho use of the feathers of
this malodorous and notorious fowl on
tho heads of women who are endeavor
ing to bo fashionably important is not
without its humorous side. Forest
aud Stream.
Where lint Law Ia Kn forced. .
One of tho churches in tho north
western sbotion of Philadelphia in
structs and entertains its Sunday even
ing congregations with an appro
priate topio, illustrated by means of a
stereopticon. It is an unwritten law
of tins particular service that female
members of tho ooagregatiou shall re
move thoir hats, but Sunday evening
ono woman absolutely refused to com
ply with the rule. Au unhor politely
requested her to follow the custom,
ond, after expostulating with her for
about twenty minutes, during which
the lights were turned up and down
once or twice, aud after tho miuistor
had also publicly asked her to un
oovor her head or move to tho rear,
she said she would leave tho churoh.
Instead of doing so, she took a seat
noar the door, where she was subse
quently discovered. Tho congrega
tion aroso in a body, and tho woman,
no longer able to endure such noto
riety went out. Philadelphia Record.
An Original J mint.
Fighting Bob Bowling, the warlike
Kansas City justice of tho peace, was
trying a case in which a party was
attomptiug to recover 810 for tho
death of a dog that tho defendant had
killed after being bitten by tho canine.
Tho caso was nearly through, tho
evideuce Lad nil goue the plaintiff's
way, aud it seemod probable ho would
get damages for the loss of his treas
ure, wheu one of tho wituesses iu
describiug the dog, stated it wan a
yellow cur. "Did you say that this
dog was yellow?" asked the judge,
takun by surprise. "Yes, sir," wan
the reply. "Well,- thin court don't
propose giving judgment for the loss
of a yellow dog, and verdict is ren
dered for dofendaut." Tho court then
adjourned. Sau Francisco Wave.
Numea For Stnrei.
If your firm name is one that can
be easily remomberod, by nil means
use it for the name of the store.
Otherwise adopt an appropriate name
one that fits your business. Select
a short and euphonious name. Do
not call your store tho "Learder" when
you know that thero is another store
better entitled to it. But whatever
name you cfcooso to use, stick to it.
If you give your store a difiereut
name thau the firm name, use always
tho giveu nameonduot the firm name.
It will confuse the publio to try aud
have them remember movo than one
name of a store. Shoe Retailer.
KiohIIkuI 1'reraution.
Dr. Humphrey and I were standing
on tho street corner, while he waa
waiting for a oar. He suggested that
it was time to be moving over to the
other corner as the car was approach
ing. I said there waa plenty of time.
"But," said Dr. Humphrey, "I ara a
little lame like the captain you have
read about, who shouted to his men
in battle, 'Advance to that hill-top,
aud then retreat; but, since I'm a
little lame, I'll begiu to retreat
no'.' " Adrauoe.
Sf4
INTERNATIONAL LESSON COvf
FOR NOVEMBER 12.
Bnhlecti ItehnllclliiK the Wall..
anlein, Jtch. Iv T-18 Hold,!'10
Matt, xxvl., 41 Comment),, it 0
Vav's Leaaon.
CONNKCTINO I.IKKS. TllB k Itlp (,, '""
mlali leave of absence, ami nu bt
innnt as Rovnrnor, with lottor ,
lug the other frovertior to niv. I,
needful ill J, together with a mi, !
cort. Ezri hhd rofus! to rlt ilf 11
cort, beonuso to do so In his cunt ifo
profession would linve netin.jk,i
heathen klnsr n distrust of hli (i,f
mlah. with equal faith, aoceptM a Jor
tlie use of moans being oue proof
and not of unhnllof. lis prohahlv,
Jerusalem after a three or four i Vi
Journey. Throe dnys after hi
went out nlono In the night to Im."
Not until he had donn thin ill vi,
known his business; thnn ho told t ,
to loading men, and nil the pcoii.
to assist Id tun work of rnbullilln; ?
7. "flanballat." An ofllenr oftii .T'',
government, holding a military !
nt H.imnrln. lis was a native .J?J
of Moab; thernfore his hatred to t j
"Toulon." A descendant of tho li, , j
of Ammonltns. "Aruhlans." Hov, "
ably by Oeshom. and la longuo
Hninnrltans against thu Jowi. ,r
Tho building of tho wall wnscotm-L
o design to fortify themsolves nni fit
volt nnd become nn Indepenli;!
"Ashdodltos." Ialmbltnuts ot A. I
of tho great cities of the I'lillNti 1
9. ,-Ve mado our prayer unto.L
Nehenilah was consolnns that hn-
lug according to Clod's will, nnd p"
th ouroe of power. "Aut a wat-i,
(incite to thn place whero thy -. .
camped, probably on the north j IS
city. Faith and works go togotlim r
lug and praying, weak when npv,
Gibraltar of slriingtli when unltf ."'
log Is not a substitute for tlioun. iirs
but tha power that Inspires zc:iU
ity, quickens tho luvuutlou, sbnrnfV
intellect. f
10. "Jadah inld." Hindrance IT
and complaints within. Jhinvk
peoplo had uo heart for the work
tho nobles were In aorrespondum--t ,
enemies. 0:17-0. Even the hlnli I
relationship with hosltlo forelKM
moultes Toblah and his sou ruurf sa
Ish women), and gave tlwuJaH
13:4, 6, 8S. "Strength of tlm ,
Drawing mnn from tho working ;l
act ns guards loft too few laborei a
great tusk. t til
11. "Our ndvorsnrlen snlil.fw
caused rumors of soma sudden .
night assault to be clroulntml, i '
cause a constant nnd dlshciirtwil r- '
12. "The Jews that dwnlt I bta
Those who dwnlt among ths S
and other enemies and found out
dnsigns. They were anxious to
0
frlunis and kinsmen return to tl,
and fnmlllus.
13. "In the lower places."
wall where It was not yet rnlsel i
height, and therofora niot Hal
enemies' nssault, "Higher pliiw-lthp
itie wans were nniiueii aud tied
woro set whence they might slio ,
or throw stoues. A devluuto4Jv
t.l.iJIU till,. .(IV-J IUII.T fH-;
their Inteudad assault and gli
id assault aud RlsZ
iret plun was kuoirif
i." In fnuiily Kroiiff
tuat tueir unarm
their famllios,
the men that guarded the wall
kinsmen nearest thorn. Thus t!
need not lie distracted by anxlot
families, (or those whom
defend were at band.
they i
14. "Be not ye afraid of them.
gun nines bad joined their
for-J
army was advancing and doubtle IUii
and an attack Impending, when Kn,ij
made this short, stlrrlug appeal, fe.
fllot followed, for the enemy h v
them In perfect order nnd euul
they lost heart and turned in
member the Lord." The best ol
ments (or patriotic courage. '
your brethren, sons, daughtt
housos." They must light for t
uad religion aud property.
15. "We returned, all o( us, to
Noble persistence lu a good nun
inomontarv withdrawal (rom thai
be ready (or the Lord's biittlo litJ pi
changed their purpose nor diimrHim
urdor for the building of ths wa! IRE
16. "Half of my servants." 7
a special band of men given on
guards, either by the king ot Per-IA
Eoople nt'Jorusalem. "Half. . .. w
nlf....held." This Is no nnu!:tZ
even in (tie presenc uay lu rules'
pie sowing thoir seed are often ic fr ,
nn armed moD, to prevent tboAilk
robbing thefia of their seed, whlc'T
not lau to no it not protected
vauts held these weapons r
id.
erj 'Stan,,
themselves, but forthe laborer
immediately quit their work and ft h
k und (i
Jhlnd
weapons on tbn llrst alarm
hind." Thn chiefs stood belli
ers stationed at different place
wall, directing and eucmirng
reody to lead on tho armed fore-'
tack was made upon the laborer-Dsud
17. "They that bullded." Most
lnyers, and the like. "They thn'.jf-
dens." Tha carriers of material! J
18. "He that sounded the true i. It,
workmen labored with a trowel iiF
and a sword la the other; and a:tVn j
a circuit they were fur removed !
other, Nehenilah, who was nlgb F"
on the spot, and by his pinus ei '
und example animated the ni',-(ini
people, kept a trumpeter by li:f"
that on any intelligence of asidhh
Ing brought to him nn alarm nika di
mediately sounded and nsslstanc jq j
to the most distant detaebraoc:,
brethren. By these vigilant p
the counsels ot the enemy wnr ' ne
and the work was carried on nun!
when He has Important publio w Q j
never (alls to raise up lustrumn
complishlng It, and In the pemo:'" t
mlah, who to great natural acui-fuct
energy added fervent piety uml f;y
votlou, He provided a loader
qualitlos fitted hlra for the demJOHr
crisis. Nehnmlah's vigilance nl thi
nvery difficulty his prudent mrfr.s.
fented every obstruction, and A
lulling rapidity this Jerusalem .'
again o city fortified. Tha worklJrrc
plated In tha brief time of flfty-rcb
(C: 15), the last ot Heptemher. (pon
must hava boon three or four nil'jrou
roaoti around the oitv. '
i ciin;
Carnival Time In Km' als
Shopping, shopping, shopr In
on without intermission, salld
Words. Those who can V'
adorn their bodies with onef
articles of new clothing, but r
preparations for a sumptuous;
lousp
Id Interesting to watch the i
dally In tho nubile markets.
avidity wlta which every artlT
is bought up. The butcheri
perhaps, for tho largest slm Ki
torn, as flesh, especially snvi
is in universal demand. IlJvj
all classes of the community
ponsable for the breaking o!
id i
and the due celebration of '
Dyed eggs aro In unlversa:
Tho exchange of eggs, act
with kissing on the Hps and
tha
yea
ling
t be
the form ot the cross, accom
gifts or exchange, Tho "koo
u,it
"paska" have also to be hou-
koolltch ts a sweet kind oi
bread, circular In form, In w
aro raielns. It Is ornamc
car.dlfd sugr.r, and usual!)'
Easter salutation on It:
a
I hii
vozkress" ("Christ Is risen"),
!( 1
surmounted with a large i
paper rose. The paska l
V
curds and Is always pyrf
Ehupe. It Is ornamented
paper rose Inserted on the 'f
are sine qua non for the d f
ance of Easter, bdt what rela
may hove, If any, to the Jef
of the Passover It Is dlfficu
although In many other rei
Is a striking resemblance to
tee of the temple In JerusaW
THE SABBATH
ritual of the Russo-Oresk cb

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