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—Extra— DUBUQUE, DEC. 27, 1849. TELEGRAPHED Expressly for the Galena North Western Gazette and Daily Advertiser. WASHINGTON, Dec. 21,1849. PRESIDENT^ MESSAGE. Fellow• Citizens of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives Sixty years have elapsed since the estab lishment of our Government by the Con gress of the United States, and you are again assembled to legislate for an empire of freemen. The predictions of evil proph ets, who formerly pretended to foretell the downfall of the Constitution, are now re membered only to be derided, and the Uni ted States of America, at this moment, pre sents to the world the most stable and per manent Government on the earth. Such is the result of those who have gor.e before us. Upon Congress will ultimately depend the tendency of our Government, and ofthe transmission of it unimpaired to posterity. We are at pcace with all the world, and seek to maintain our cherished relations and our amity with the rest of mankind. During the past year we have been bless ed by a kind Providence, with nn abund ance of the fruits of the earth, and although the Destroying Angel, for a time, visited ex tended portions of our territory with the ravages of a dreadful pestilence, yet the Almighty has, at length, deigned to stay His hand, and to restore the inestimable blessing of general good health to a people who acknowledge his power, deprecate His wrath and implore his merciful protection. Enjoying the benefits of amicable inter course with foreign nations, we have not been insensible to the distractions aid wars which have prevailed in other countries of the world. It is the proper theme of thanksgiving to Him who rules the desti nies of the nations, that we have been able to maintain amidst all these contests an in dependent neutral position towards all bel ligerent powers. Our relations with Great Britain are of the most friendly character. In conse quence of the British navigation acts, Brit ish vessels from British and other foreign ports, will, under our existing laws after the first day of lanuary next, be permitted to enter our ports with cargoes of the growth, manufacture or production of any part of ttie.woild on the same terms as to duries, imposts and charges, as vessels of the Uni ted States, with their cargoes and our ves sels will be admitted to the same advan tages in British pojts, and entering there in on the same terms as British vessels. ^ttrrfild no order hi" Council disturb this legislative arrangement, the late act of the British Parliament, by which Great Britain is brought within the terms proposed by tho •act of Congress of the 1st of March, 1817, 4t is hoped, will be productive of benefits to both countries. A slight interruption which existed be ween this Government and France, I am fcappy to say, lias terminated, and our Min ister has been received. It is therefore un necessary to refer now to circumstnnces which led to the interruption, and I need not express to you the sincere satisfaction with which we should welcome the arrival ofan other Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from a sister Republic, to which we have so long been, and still re main bound by the strongest ties of amity. Shortly after I had entered on the Execu tive duties, I was apprised that a war steam er, belongirtg to the German Empire, was being fitted out at the harbor of New York, with the aid of some of our naval olHcers, rendered under the permission of the late Secretary of the Navy. His permission was cranted during an armistice between that Empire and the Kingdom of Denmark, which had been agreed to Schlosvvig Hoist ein. I was apprehensive that this act •of intention,on our part, might be esteemed as a violation of our mutual obligations, in curred by the treaty with Denmark, and of the provisions of the act of Congress of the 20th April, 1818. I directed that no further aid should be rendered by any agent or of ficer of the Navy, and I instructed the Sec retary of State to apprise the Minister of the German Empire, accredited to this Go vernment, of my determination to execute the laws of the United States, and to main tain the faith of treaties with all nations. The correspondence which then ensued between the Department of State and the Minister of the German Empire is herewith laid before you. The execution of the law, and the observance of the Treaty, were deemed, by me, to be due to the honor of the country, as well as to the sacred obli gations of the Constitution. I shall not fail to pursue the same course, should a similar gase arise with any other nation. Having avowed the opinion on taking the woath of office, that in disputes between con flicting-foreign governments that it is our interest, no less than our duty, to remain •distinctly neutral, 1 shall not abandon it.— Vou will perceive front the correspondence submitted to you in connection with the subject, that the -course adopted in this has been properly regarded by the belligerent persons interested in the matter. Although the Minister of the United States to the -German Empire was appointed by my predecessor, in August, 1848, and has for a long time been in attendance at Frankfort on-the-Maine, and although a Minister ap pointed to represent the Empire was re ceived and acknowledged here, yet as such Government as that of the "German States, 'under one Constitution or form of Govern ment may, at length, be organized it is believed by those well acquainted with the existing relations between Prussia and the States of Germany, that no such union can be permanently established without her co operation. In the event of the formation of such a union, and the organization of a cen tral power in Germany, of which she should form a part, it would become necessary to withdraw our Minister. While Prussia exists as an independent kingdom, and diplomatic relations are maintained with her, there can be no necessity for the continuance of the mission at Frankfort. I have, therefore, re called Mr. Donaldson, and directed the ar chives of the Legation at Frankfort to be transferred to the' American Legation at Berlin. Having been apprised that a considerable number of adventurers were engaged in fit ting out a military expedition within the United States against a foreign country, and believing, from the best information that I could obtain, that it was designed for the Island of Cuba, I deemed it due to the friendly relations existing between the United States and Spain, to the Treaty be tween the two nations, to the laws of the United States, and, above all to the Amer ican honor, to exert the lawful authority of this Government in suppressing this expedi tion, and prevent the invaston. To this end, I issued a proclamation en joining it upon the officers of the United States, Civil and Military, to use all lawful means within their power. A copy of that Proclamation is herewith submitted. The expedition has been suppressed. So lone as the act of Congress of the 20th April, 1818, which owes its existence to the law of Nations and to the policy of Washington, shall remain on the statute books, I hold it to be the duty of the Executive, faithfully to obey its injunctions. While this expe dition was in progress, I am informed that a foreigner who claimed our protection, and had been clandestinely, as, was supposed, carried off in a vessel from New Orleans to the Island of Cuba. I immediately caused such steps to be taken as I thought necessa ry in tho case, if the information I had received should prove correct, to vindicate the honot of our country to a person seek ing an asylum on our soil, and the protec tion of cur laws. The person alluded to hav ing been abducted, was promptly restored, and the circumstances of the case are now about to undergo investigation before a ju dicial tribunal. I would respectfully suggest that, although the crime charged to have been committed in this case, is held odious, and in conflict with our opinions on the subject of national sovereignty and personal freedom, there is no prohibition of it, or punishment for it provided in Buy act of Congress the expediency of supplying this defect in our criminal code is, therefore, recommended to your consideration. I have scrupulously avoided an interfer ence in the wars and contentions which have recently disturbed Europe During the late conflict between Austria and Hun gary, there seemed to be a prospect that the latter might become an independent nation. However faint the prospect at the time, ap peared, I thought it my duty, in accordance with the general sentiment ofthe American people, who deeply sympathise with the Maygar patriots, to stand prepared, upon the contingency of the establishment, by her, of a permanent Government, to be the first to welcome independent Hungary into the family of nations. For this purpose, I invested an Agent, then in Europe, with power to declare our willingness, promptly to recognize her independence, in the event of her ability to sustain it. The powerful intervention of Russia in the contest extin guished the hopes of the struggling May gars. The United States did not, at any time interfere in the contest, but the feel ings of the nation were strongly enlisted in the cause and for the sufferings of a brave people, who had made a gallant, though un successful efTor! to be free. Our claims upon Portugal have been, during the past year, prosecuted with re newed vigor. As it has been my object to employ every effort of honorable diplomacy to procure their adjustment, our Charge •d'-Affairs at Lisbon, George W. Hopkins, made able and energetic efforts to settle these unpleasant matters of controversy, and to obtain indemnity for the wrongs which were the subjects of complaint. Our present Charge d'Affaires will JMSO bring to the prosecution of these claims ability anil -zeal. __T.be revolutionary and distracted condi tion of Portugal in past times has been ful ly represented as one of the leading causes of her delay, in indemnifying our suffering citizens, but I must now say it is a matter of profound regret, that their claims have not yet been settled. The omission of Portu gal to do justice to the American claimants, has now assumed a character so grave and serious, that I shall shortly make it the sub ject of a special message to Congress, with a view to such ultimate action, as its wis dom and patriotism may suegest. With Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, Beigium, The Netherlands, and the Italian States, we still maintain our ac customed amicable rela'ions. During the recent revolutions of the Papal States our Charge d'Affaires, at Rome, has been un able to present his letters of credence, which, indeed, I was directed by my predecessor to withhold until he should receive further orders. Such was the unsettled condition of things in those States, that it was not deemed expedient to give him any instruc tions on the subject of presenting his cre dential letters, different from those which he had been furnished by the late Administra tion, until the 20th of June last, when in consequence of the most accurate informa tion ofthe exact state of things at the dis tance, he was instructed to exercise his own discretion in presenting himself to the then existing government, if in his judg ment, sufficiently stable, orif not,to wait for further events. Since that period Rome has iinufcrgotiS another revolution, and decides the stability of the government to become sufficiently permanent to justify htto In opening a diplomatic intercourse with it. Wi'.h the government of Mexico it is our true policy to hold the most friendly rela tion, and since the ratification of the treaty of Gaudaloupe "Igo, nothing has oc curred to disturb W -_A faithful observ ance of the treaty and insincere regard for her rights cannot fail to secure the lasting confidence and friendship of the Republic. The Message of my predecessor to the House of Representatives, the 8th of Feb ruary last, communicating, in compliance with a resolution of that body, a paper call ed the Protocol, signed at Querretaro, on the 30th of May, 1848, by the Commission ers of the United States, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Mexi co, having the subject of correspondence between the Department of State and the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo tentiary of the Republic, accredited to this government. A transcript of that corres pondence is herewith submiited. The Com missioners on the part of the United States for marking the boundary between these two Republics, though detained in reaching San DiegcT by unforeseen ob stacles, have arrived at that place within a short period of the time required by the treaty, and was there joined by the Commissioners on the part of Mexico. They entered upon their duties, and at the date of the latest intelligence from that quarter, some progress had been made in the survey. The expenses incident to the organization of the Commisston and its conveyance to the point where its operations were to begin, have so much reduced the fund appropri ated by Congress, that a further sum, to cover the charges to bo incurred during the present fiscal year, will be necessary. The length of frontier, along which the boundary extends—the nature of the adja cent territory, and the difficulty of obtaining supplies, except, at or near the extremes of the lines render it also indispensable, that a liberal provision should be made, to meet the necessary charge during the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1850. I accordingly, re commend this subject to your attention. In the adjustment of claims, of American citi zens, in Mexico, provided for by the late Treaty, the employment of counsel en the part of the Government, may become Im portant for the purpose of assisting the Com missioners in protecting the interests ofthe United States. I recommend this subject to the early fa vorable consideration of the Government. Complaints have been made in regard to the inefficiency of the means provided by the Government of New Granada for trans porting the U. S. Mail across the Isthmus of Panama. Pursuant to our Postal con tract with that Republic, on the 6th of March, 1848, our Charge d'Aftairs, at Bo gota, has been directed to make such rep resentations to the Government of New Grenada, as will, it is hoped, lead to a prompt removal of Ibis cause of complaint. 'I he s&neuinai) Civil War, w liich the Re-' public of Venezuela, has for sometime past, been cariying on, has been closed. In its progress, the lights of some of our citizens, resident, or travelling there, have been vio lated. 1 he restoration of order, will afford the Venezuelan Government an opportunity to examine and redress those grievances, and others of long standing, which our Rep resentatives at Carraccas, has hitherto inef fectually urged upon the attention of that Government. I recommend the observance of the same course towards all other American States. "lhe United States are the great Ameri can power, to which, as their natural ally and friend, they should always be disposed first to look for mediation and assistance, in the event of any collision between them and any European nation as such we may of ten kindly mediate in their behalf, without entangling ourselves in foreign wnrs or un necessary controversies, whenever the faith of our treaties with any of them shall re quire our interference. The extension of the coast of the United States upon the Pacific, and the unexampled rapidity with which the inhabitants of Cali fornia especially are increasing in numbers, have imparted a new consequence to our re lations with the other countries whose terri tory borders upon that ocean. It is probable that the intercourse between those_countries and our possessions in that quarter, particu larly with the Republic of Chili, will be come extensive, and mutally advantageous in proportion as California and Oregon shall increase in population and wealth. It is desirable, therefore, that the Government should do everything in its power, to foster and strengthen its relations withthose States and tha the spirit of amity between them and the United States should be mutual and cordial. A new convention has been negotiated with Brazil, providing for the satisfaction of American claims on that government, and it.will be submitted to the Senate. Since the last session of Congress we hive received an Envoy Extraordinary aud Minister Plenipotentiary from that Empire, and our relations with her are founded upon the most amicable understanding. Your attention is earnestly invited to an amendment of our existing laws, relative to the African slave trade with a view to the successful suppression of that barbarous traffic. It is not to be denied that this trade is still in part carried on by means of ves sels built in the U. S. and owned or naviga ted by some of our cilizens. The correspondence between the Depart ment of State, and the Minister and Consul ofthe United States, at Rio Dc Janeiro, which has from lime to time been laid be fore Congress, represents that it is a custom ary device to evade the penalties of the laws. Vessels sold in Brazil, when provi ded with such papers, by the "Consul, instead of returning to the United States,for the reg ister, proceed at once, to the coast of Aftici, for the purpose of obtaining cargoes of slaves. Much additional information of the same character has been recently communi cated to the Department of State. It has not been considered (he policy, of our laws, ,to subject an American citizen, in a for eign country, who purchases a vessel built in the United States, to the inconvenience of sending her home for a new register, be fore permitting her to proceed on her voy age. "Any alteration of the laws which might have a tendency to impede, the transfer of property in vessels, between cur citizens, ot the free navigation of those vessels be tween different ports of the world, when employed iu lawful commerce, should be carefully considered but I trust your wis dom may devise a method by which our general policy, in this respect, & at the same time, the abuse of Hag will, by means of sealed letters iu the manner indicated, be prevented. Having ascertained that there is -no pros pect of a re-union of the five States of Cen tral America, which formerly composed the Republic of that name, we have separately negotiated with some of them, treaties of amity and commerce, which will be laid before the Senate. A contract having been concluded with the State of Nicaragua by a company of American citizens for the purpose of con structing a ship canal through the territory of that State, to connect the Atlantic and Pacific" oceans, I have also directed the commencement of negotiations with the State of Nicaragua, pledging both govern ments to protect those who shall engage in it and perfect the woik. All other nations, are invited by the State of Nicaragua to en ter into the same stipulations with us, and the benefits to be derived by and from such an arrangement, will be the protection of this great ocean communication against any power which might seek to obstruct it, or to monopolize its advantages. All states entering into such a treaty will enjoy the advantages of passing through the canal, on the payment of the same tolls the work, if constructed on these guarantees, will become a bond of peace, instead of a subject of emulation and strife between the nations of the earth. Should the great mar itime states of Europe consent to this ar rangement, and we have no reason to sup pose that a proposition so fair and honorable will be opposed by any, the energies of their people and ours will co operate in pro moting the success of the enterprise. "*I do not recommend any appropriation from the National Treasury for this purpose, nor do I believe that such appropriation is neces sary. Private enterprise, if properly protected, will complete the work, should it prove to be feasible. The parties who have procur ed the charter from Nicaragua, for its con strubtlon, desire no assistance from this government, beyond its protection. They profess that having examined the proposed line of communication they will be ready to commence the undertaking whenever that protection shall be extended to them. Should there appear to be reason, on exam ining, the whole evidence, to entertain se rious doubt of the practicability of construct ing such a canal, that doubt should be speedily solved by an actual exploration of the route should such a work be conduct ed under the common protection, for the equal benefit of all, it would be neither just nor expedient that any great maratime State should command the communication. The territory through which the canal may be opened, ought to be free from any foreign power. No such poiVefr should occupy the position that would enable it hereafter to exercise so cnntrollng an influence over the commerce of the World, or to obstruct a highway which ought to be dedicated to the common uses of mankind. The routes across the Isthmus of Tehu autepic and Panama are also worthy of our serious consideration. They did not fail to engage the action of my predecessor. In the negotiation of treaty of Gaudaloupe Hidal go, our minister was instructed to offer a very large sum of property for the right of transit across ths Isthmus of Tehuauteplc. The American Government did not accede to their proposition for the purchase of the right of way, probably because it had al ready contracted with private individuals for the construction ora passage from Jual-n Acnlo river to Tehtiantepitt. I shall not renew Miv proposition fr a right, which shrill bft secured equally to all nations, by the payment of a reasonable toll to the owners of I he i«aprof*»n«nf, doubtless would be well contented with that compensation, and of the mari time states ofthe world, in separate treaties negotiated with Mexico, binding her and them to protect those who should construct the work. Such guarantees would do more to secure the completion of the communication thro' the territory of Mexico than anv other con sideration that could be offered,"as Mexico herself would be the greatest gainer by the opening between the Gulf and the Pacific Ocean. It is presumed she would not re fuse her aid in the manner proposed to ac complish an improvement to her own best interests. We have reason to hope tl at the proposed railroad across the Isthmus a* Pan ama, will be successfully constructed under the protection of the late treaty with New Granada, ratified and exchanged by my predecessor, on the 21st day of June, 1846, which guarantees the perfect neutral ity of the Isthmus and the rights of sover eignty and property of New Graoada, over that territory, with a view that the free transit from ocean to ocean may not be in terrupted or embarrassed during the exis tence of the treaty. It is our policy to encourage every practi cable route across the Isthmus which con nects with South America,either by railroad or canal,which the energy and enterprise of our citizens may induce them to complete, and I consider it obligatory upon (hem to adopt that policy, especially in consequence of the necessity of facilitating intercourse with our possessions on the Pacific. The position of the Sandwich Islands with reference* to the territory of the Uni ted States, on the Pacific the success of the persevering and benevolent citizens who have repaired to that remoto quarter iu christianizing the natives,and inducing them to adopt the Government laws suited to their capacities and wants, and the use made by numerous whale ships of the harbors of the Islands as places of resort for obtaining re freshments and repairs, all combinc to ren der their destiny particularly interesting to us. It is our duty to encourage the author ity of those Islands to increase efforts to im prove & elevate the moral and political con dition ofthe inhabitants,and we should make reasonable allowance for the difficulties inseparable from this task. I desire that these Islands may maintain their independ ence, and that other nations should concur with us in this sentiment. We could in no event be indifferent to their passing under the dominion of any other known power. The principal commercial States have, in this a common interest, and it is to be hoped, that no one of them will attempt to interpose obstacles to the continued inde pendence of the Islands. The receipts into the Treasury for the fiscal year ending on the 30th of June last, were $48,830,997 50 in Treasury notes funded, $10,833,000, The expenditures were, in cash, $46.798.382 iu Treasury notes funde ',, l^n^a^t^dGO, making an ag gregate of $67,631,607 82. Ths accounts and estimates which will be submiited in the Report of the Secretary of the Treasu ry show, that there is a probability that there will be a deficit, occasioned by the expenses of the iVJexian war. and Treaty, on the 1st of July next, of $58.21-2.166 and on the 1st of July, 1851, $10,547,059 73 making, in the whole, a probable deficit to to be provided for, of $63,752,143 12* The extraordinary expenses of the war with Mexico, & the purchase of California & New Mexico, exceed in amount this deficit, together with loans, heretofore made, for these objects. I therefore submit, that au thority be given, to borrow whatever sums may be necessary to cover that deficit, and recommend a strict economy, in appropri ations & expenditures of the public money. I recommend a revision'of the existing tar iff, and its adjustment, on a basis which may augment the revenue. I do not doubt the right or duty of Con gressto encourage domestic industry, which is the great source of national as well as in dividual wealth and prosperity. I lo*k to the wisdom and patriotism of Congress for the adoptiou of a system which may place home labor on sure and permanent footing and by a due encouragement of manufac tures give a new and increased stimulus to Agriculture, and promote the developement of our common country. Believing that to the attainment of these ends, as well as the necessary augmentation ofthe Revenue and prevention of frauds, a system of specific duties is best adapted to the country. I strongly recommend to Congress the adoD tinn of that system, fixing the rates high enough to afford substantial and sufficient encouragement to our own Industry, and at the same time so adjusted as to ensure sta bility. The question of the continuance of the Subtreasury system is respectfully submit ted to the wisdom of Congress if continued important modifications of it appear to be indispensible. For further details and views of the above and other matters connected with Commerce, the Finance and Revenue, I refer to the report of the Secretary. No direct aid has been given by the Gen eral Government to the improvement of Agriculture, except by the expenditure of small sums for the collection of Agricultural statistics, and for chemical analysis, which has been paid for out of the Patent office.— This aid is, in my opinion, wholly inade quate to give to the leading branch of Amer ican industry the encouragement it merits. I respectfully recommend the establishment of an Agricultural Bureau, to be connected with the Department of the Interior, to ele vate the social condition of the Agricultural ist. To increase his prosperity, to extend his means of usefulness to his country by mul tiplying bis sources of information, should be the study of every statesman, and the primary object of every Legislature. No civilGovernment having been provided for California, the people of that Territory, impelled by the necessities of their political condition, recently met in convention for the purpose of forming a Constitution and State Government,which recent advices lead us to suppose will be accomplished, and it is be lieved they will shortly apply for the admis sion of California into the Union, as a sover eign State. Should such be the case, and should their Constitution be ceuformable to the require ments of the Constitution of the United States, I recommend their application to the favorable consideration of Congress The people of New Mexico, will also, it is believed, at no distant period, present them selves for admission into the Union. Pre paratory to the admission of California and New Mexico, they will have instituted for themselves a republican form of Govern ment, and lay its foundations in such princi ples, and organize its powers in such form, h& to themselves seems most likely to affect their safety and happiness. By awaiting (heir actions, all causes of uneasiness and fear & disquietude will be removed, & confi dence and kindly feeling be preserved with a view of maintaining the harmony and tran quility so dear to all. We should abstain from the Introduction of those exciting topics, of a sectional character, liitheito producing painful apprehensions in the public mind, and I respect the solemn warning of the first and most illustrious of inv predecessors, against famishing any ground for character ising parties by geographical denominations. A Collector has been appointed at San Francisco under the act of Congress ex tending the revenue laws over California. Msmuja* l.ave W« n taken to organize the custom l.oue.« at that and mentioned in that act. At the earliest je riod practicable the Collector proceeded over laud, and advices have not yet been received of his arrival at San Francisco. Mean while it is understood that the cus toms have been continued to be collected by officers acting under the military authorities, as they were during the administratiou of my predecessor. It will I think, be etpe dient to confirm the collections thus made, and direct the avails, 'vitli such an allow ance as Congress may think fit to authorize, to be paid into the Treasury for the pur pose of meeting Appropriations for I have trsnsferred the Indian agencies from the Upper Missouri and Council Bluffs, to Santa Fe and Salt Lake and have caused to be appointed sub-ageuts in the vallies of the Gila, the Sacramento and Joaquin rivers. Still further legal appropriations will be necessary for effectual and successful exten sion of our Indian intercourse ovei the new territory. I recommend that commisioners be au thorized by Congress to decide upon.the validity of the present subsisting land titles iu California and New Mex'.co, and that provision be made for the establishment of Surveyors General in New Mexico and Cal ifornia, and for surveying r.nd bringing into market the public lands in those terrilo res. Those lands, remote in position, and dif ficult of access, ought to be disposed of on terms liberal to all, but especially favorable to the early emigrants. In order that the situation and character of the piincipal mi neral deposits may be ascertained, I recom mend that a Geological and Mineralogical exploration, to be connected with a generel Survey, and that mineral lands be divided into small lots, suitable for mining, and be disposed of, by sale or lease, so as to give our citizens an opportunity of procuring a permanentright of property in the soil. This would seem to be as important to the suc cess of mining as of agricultural pursuits. The great mineral wealth of California, the advantages which its ports and harbors and those of Oregon afford to commerce, es pecially with the Islands in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, and the populous regions of Eastern Asia, make it certain that there will arise in a few years, large and pros perous communities on our western coast. Communications the best and most expedi tious which the nature of the country will admit, should be opened within the Teritu ry of the United States. From the navigable waters, from the Gulf, to the Pacific, the opinion, as elicited and expressed by two large and respectable Conventions, lately assembled at St. Louis and Memphis, points to a Rail Road, as that which, if practicable will best meet the wishes and wants ofthe country but while this, if a successful operation, would be a work of great material importance and of a value to the country which would be difficult to estimate, it is also to be con sidered as an undertaking of vast mag nitude and expense, and one, if it be in deed practicable, that must encounter many serious difficulties in its construction. To avoid failure and disappointment, to ena. hie Congress to judge of the practicability of the proposed enterprise, to decide clearly whether the same shall be undertaken, if found to be feasible, and whether as a na tional or private work, I recommend, a preliminary reconnoissance of the several proposed routes, by the several scientific corps, and that they report on the practica bility of making such a road, with estimates of the cost of construction and suppoit.— For further views of Ibis, and other matters connected with the Home Department, I refer you to the Report of the Secretary of the Interior. I recommend early appropriations for continuing river and haibor improvements which have been already commenced, and also for the construction of those for which estimates have already been made, as well for examinations and eslimates preparatory to the commencement of such others as the wants of the country, and especially the advance of our population over new dis tricts, and of the extension of commerce may render necessary. 'J he estimated amount which can be advantageously expended within the limits of the fiscal year, under the direction of the Topo graphicaf Engineers, accompanies the report of the Secretary of War, to which I respectfully invite the attention of Congress. The cession of territory made by a late treaty with Mexico, has greatly extended our exposed position and renders its defence more difficult. The treaty has also thrown us under obligation to Mexico, to comply with which a military force is requisite, but the military establisement is not materially changed. Great embarrassment has resulted from the effect upon the rank in the Army, here tofore given to brevet and staff commission. The views of the Secretary of War, on this subject are deemed important, and if carried into effect will, it is believed, pro mote the harmony of the service. The place proposed for the retiring disabled offi cers, and providing an asylum for the rank and file, who have from age, wounds and other infirmities, occasioned by services, have become unfit for further duty, is re commended. Thus a means of increasing the efficiency of the army,& as an act of justice due from a grateful people to the faithful soldier. The accompanying report of the Secretary of the Navy, presents a full and satisfactory account of the Naval services. Our citizens engaged in legitimate ^com merce have enjoyed its benefits wher ever our national ships have gone, they have been received with respect, our offi cers have been received with kindness and courtesy, and they have on all occasions, pursued a course of staid neutrality in ac cordance with the policy of our government. The naval force, at present, in commission is as large as is advisable with the number of men authrised by Congress to be employ ed. I invite your attention to the recommen dation of the Secretary of the Navy, on the subject of reorganization in the various grades of officers, and the establishing of a retired list, for such of the officers as are disqualified for active and effective service. Should Congress adopt some such measure as has been recommeuded, it will greatly increase the efficiency of the Navy, and re duce its expenditures. I also ask your at tention to the views,expressed by him,in re frence to the employment of war steamers, and in regard to the contracts for transporta tion of the United States Mails, and the op erations ofthe svstem upon the prosperity of the navy. By nn act »f Congress,passed Au gust 14th, 1848, provision was made for ex tending po«t offices and mail accommoda tions to California and Oregon. Exertions been toad* to •Ketule that law, but ri _"'i rrjfn,r, the Im provement of its rivers and harbors. A pariy engaged on the canal survey was deputed to Oregon in July last, but ac cording to the latest advices, they had not left California and directions have been given to them, that as soon as they had fix ed on the site of the two light houses and buoys, authorized to be constructed in Or egon, to proceed without delay and make a reconnoisance of the most important' points on the coast of California, and es-j transporting ptcially to examine and determine on sites! for light-houses, on the coast —the speedy erection of which is earnestly demanded by a rapidly increasing commerce. .iii)-nr-ii-i|in-i Li.i|ir other points: the limited provision of the act, in&dcquary the means it authorized,the ill adaptation of the Post Office law to that country, and the measure of the compensation allowed by those laws, compared with the prices of labor aud rents iu California, render those exertions in a great degree ineffectual more particularly an efficient provisioi^of law is required. On this subject,the act of 1845 re ducing postage, has now by its operation during four years produced results showing that the income resulting from suGh reduc tion cf postage is sufficient, for the whole expense of the service ofthe Post Office De partment, not including the costs of trans portation in mail steamers, from New York to Chagres, or from Panama to Astoria, which have not been considered by Con gress as properly belonging to the mail service. It is submitted to the wisdom of Con gress whether a further reduction of postage should not now be made, more particularly of the letter correspondence. These should be relieved from their unjust burden of and delivering the franking matter of Congress, for which provision should be made from the Treasury. I con fidently believe that a change may safely be made reducing all single letter postage to a uniform rate of five cents, regardless of distance, without thereby imposing any greater tax on the Treasury than that which constituted a very moderate compen sation for this public service, and I, there fore, respectfully recommend such a reduc tion. Should Congress prefer to abolish the franking privilege entirely, it seems proba ble that no demand oil the Treasury would result from the reduction of postage wheth er any further diminution should now be made, or the reduction to five cents, tvhjch is recommended should be first tested, is submitted to your decision. Since the commencement of the last ses sion of Congress, a postal treaty with Great Britain has been received and ratified, and such regulation has beey formed by tho Post Office Department of the two countreis in pursuance of that treaty, as to carry its provisions into full operalinn. The attempt to extend this favorable arrangement, through England to France, has not been equally successful, but the purpose is not abandoned. For a particular view of the Post Office Department, and other relations con nected with that portion of the public ser vice, I refer you to the Report of the Post Master General.—By acts of the 3d of March 1834,a board was'constitutedjto make ar rangements for taking the seventh census, composed of the Secretary of State, the At torney General, and the Post Master Gen eral—and it was made the duty of the board to propose and cause to be printed, such forms and schedules for collecting, in statis tical tables, under proper heads, such in formation as to agriculture, commerce, manufactures, education etc., as would ex hibit a full view of the pursuits, industry, education and resources of the country. The duties enjoined on the census board, thus established, having been performed, it now rests with Congress to enact a law for carrying into effect the provisions of the constitution which requires an actual enu meration of the people of the United States, within the ensuing year. Among the duties conferred by the Con stitution upon the general government, is one of general application, but not on that account less obligatory—I allude to the trust committed to Congress as the exclusive leg islator aud sole guardian of the District of Columbia. I recommend those interests to your kind attention. As the national metro pnlis. tHfi nf WoG^in^ton muvt bu tilt? object of general interest, founded as it was, under the auspices of him whose im mortal name it bears, its claims to the fos tering care of Congress presents additional strength. Whatever can contribute to its prosperity must enlist the feelings of its constitutional guardians, and command their favorable consideration. Our government is one of limited powers, and its successful administration eminently depends upon the confinement of its co-or dinate branches within its own appropriate sphere. The first section ofthe constitution ordains that all legislative powers therein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States which shall consist of a Sen ate and House of Representatives. The Executive has authority to recommend, not to dictate measures to Congress. Having performed that duty, the Executive De partment of the government canuot right fully control the action of legislation until thai decision shall have been presented to the President for approval. Th? check provi ded by the constitution in confening the qualified veto, will never be used by me ex cept in the cases contemplated by the fa ther of the Republic. I view it as an ex treme measure, to be resorted to only in extraordinary cases —as when it may be come necessary to defend the Executive against encroachments of the legislative power—to prevent hasty or inconsiderate or unconstitutional legislation. It is under these considerations only, that the elector wou'd fill a component part of the sov ereign power of the nation. With equal care we should study to defend the rights of our judicial department. The Union can on!y be preserved, in its purity, by the suppression and entire dimin ution of every claim or tendency of one co ordinate branch, to encroach upon another. With the strict observance of this rule, and the other injunctions of the Constitution, with a sedulous observance of that respect aud love ofthe Union of the States, which our fathers cherished and enjoined upon their children and with the aid of that over ruling Providence which has so long guard ed our liberties and institutions, expect to transmit them and their innumerable bless ings to the remotest posterity. But attach ment to the Union of the States should be habitually fostered in every American for more than half a century, while kingdoms and empires have fallen, this Union remains unshaken the Patriots who formed it have long since descended to the grave— yet it remains, the proudest monument to their memory and the object of affection and ad miration of |every one who bears the Amer ican name. In my judgment the dissolution of the Union would be the greatest of calamities, and to avoid that should be the study of every American. Upon its preservation must depend our own happiness, and that of countless generations to come. What ever dangers may threaten it, I shall stand by it, and maintain its integrity, to the full extent of the obligation and the power con ferred on me by the Constitution. Z. TAYLOR. Washington, Dec. 4, 1849, SPEAKER ELECTED! Hon. Howell Cobb, of Georgia, was cho sen Speaker of the House of Representa tives, on Saturday. The following telegragh despatch gives all the facts of which we ai$ in possession at the time of this writing: WASHINGTON, Dec. 22. At the last ballot in the House to-day Cobb received 112 votes, Winthrop* 100.— One of the tellers declared Cobb, of Geor gia, elected, Mr. Stanley introduced a res olution declaring bin elected -Speaker. JilLL'llS'ii*!' THE POSTMASTER GENERAL ANU CHEAP POSTAGE. ,j The following is an extract from the lie port of the Postmaster General: What should be the degree or measure of the re duction of postage at this time is entirely a question to be settled by Congress but it is proposed respect fully to submit what jvould be the probable cffect of one measure of reduction. The most obvious and prominent feature now in our postage is the double price, ten cents, charged on all single letters carried over thiee hundred miles.— The reduction of this ten cent postage, and charging all single letters at fire cents each, would much sim« plify the manner of accounting, and render the same bolh more facile and perfect—would remove the dis satisfaction arising from the great difference in the postage in difieieut offices, even in the same vicinity, but separated by this arbitrary line end would pro mote and encourage the correspondence and inter course, by mail, between the most distant parts ofthe country, which most need and demand it, in precise proportion as their other means of intercommunica tion are slow and unfrequent. The next inquiry is, what would be the effect of this reduction on the receipts from postage, and bow would it affect the Trea3Uiy. It is not possible, from any returns or data in tho Debarment, to ascertain with much precison the num. ber of letters passing annually in the mail under this charge often cents. Even if the number of ten cent letters were actually known, it would still be impossi. ble to determine how many of them were ten cent let ters liom being double. '1 ho.nee arises the great dif. ference in the estimate of loss of revenue from such a reduction as was presented in the report ofthe Post master General last year, to-wit,$715,137 and that of the First Assistant 306,738. From a careful examination now made of the data in the Department, it is estimated that the whole num. ber of charged letters sent through the mails, the past year was 62,000,000, and of this number, about 16,500,. 000 were subjected to the ten cent postage, on ac. count of distance. If then the reduction were to bring no moie letters into the mail, the diminution of revenue therefrom, the first year, would be $776,000. It is already shown that the surplus, on th first day of July last, was $691,682 70, and that, on the first day of July next, will be $358,710 67, which will undoubt. edly increase in future years, by natural accumulation, and by increase ofthe number 'if letters arising fiom tnis reduction, will, in the first year, occasion no change in the Treasury, and it is extremely uncertain whether its operation can ever produce that eflect. A biief trial of this experiment will show its effect, and if it should not produce any important draught on the Treasury, then furtherreductions of postage should be made, and a corresponding provision from the 1 rcasury, adopted until after this has been tested by experiment, is respectfully submiited. From the Boston Herald of Tuesday* PROFESSOR WEBSTER AND HIS FAMILY. One of our reporters visited Cambridge last evening, and ascertained that on Solur day night Marshal Edwards, in consequence of apprehensions by the Mayor, that an at tack might be made upon the residence cf Professor Webster, on Garden street, assem bled twenty-five special policemen, who were directed to patrol near the house, with out exciting suspicions of their object. No attempt, however was made to n.elest the innocent cccupauts of the dwelling, which s not owned by Professor Webster, but by Jonas Wyeth, Esq. Our reporter also learn ed some facts in relation to ths personal his tory and family relations of the Professor.— He is the son ofthe late Redford Webster, Esq., formerly an effluent resident of the north part of Boston, where he died some time about the year 1835, leaving about $40,000, which, we learn, is convey ed as a life estate to Professor Webster, and at bis death, to his childjeu. Young Web ster, while in College, wa6 not considered passionate or fractious, but rather chicken hearted, as one of his college mates expres ses it. He is nervous, but not quarrelsome. After he had graduated, he went to Europe, and finished his medical education in Eng land and Scotland. On his return from thence, about the time of bis father's death, he stopped at the Azores, and became ac quainted with Miss Hinckly, now his wife, al.the port of Faj'»l: BJ «»««. with ner ramer, who held the post of Amer ican Consul at that port. He married her there, and returned to Cambridge, and lec tured at the college for a year or two, when he was elected professor, in the year 1837. Since then he has resided in Cambridge, and has lectured on chemistry, geology, and minerology, at Cambridge and at this city and was in receipt of a salary, and from tickets to his lectures at the medical college, at the time of his arrest, of from two to three thousand dollars, which from bis carelessness about money matters were in sufficient for his wants, and kept him al ways in debt. His family now consists of a wife and four daughters, the youngest six teen years of age, and the eldest about twen ty-three. The eldest is married to Mr. Dab ney, the present consul at Fayal. The oth er three daughters reside at Cambridge, and with their mother are in deep affliction on account of the arrest and suspicions of their husband and father. The feeling entertain fd among the citizens of Cambridge, who best know Dr. Websfer, is, that he is inno cent of the charge on which he has been ar rested, or that, if guilty, some unknown provocation must have induced the fatal at tack. Our reporter called last evening at the jail, and ascertained that the professor had passed a quiet day, having partaken of his meals regularly, and being free from that alternate excitement and gloom which char acterized him for some twenty-four iiours af ter bis arrest. Maple Sugar.—A "good" man will make six or seven hundred pounds in three weeks. The man that took the piemium at Auburn in 1846, kept all his vessels clean, he ran (he hot sugar into conical vessels having a half inch bole, plugged at botton, until the sugar was thoroughly hard then put three layer of woollen cloth ou top, and poured on a pint of water every morning fcr three weeks in succe&sion. The water looked like brown molasses, and the sugar, when done, like loaf sugar. Refugees in Egypt.—Alexandra, Egypt, has of late been crowded with military refu gees, flying from the scenes of the abortive revolutions in Europe. They are in a des titute condition, and the Moors are much alarmed last they should make use of the arms they possess to obtain oubsistance. "Is smoke offensive to you?" said a land lord, as he took out his segar, to a family that had just moved into bis house. "Not at all, sir," said the female of the household. "I am glad to hear it," said he, "for all the fire places here smoke so bad, that you will be bacon before you -have inhabited tlx* premises sfx weeks." W. H. Prescott is said to be engaged fijj* on the "Life of Philip II of Spain," which will be punished during the coming year. American Art.—The London Times, speaking in the same connection of the three* mile Panorama of the Mississippi exhibited in that city, and (be rail road to the Pacific( remarks that life, indeed,is short, but Amex,* ican art is long. A child only three years of age, son of Antoine Ravel, made his first essay OQ thfi tight rope at New York on Monday week. Bern.—We see it stated, that Bern, the Polish general, in embracing the faith of Mahomet, declared that it wis his religion to fight Russia, and he would turn to any quarter where he could have a chance to fulfil that vocatiou. Col. Webb's eoniiaxioO with the Courier, the New York Mirror esses Irototba date of bis departure* Mir* Biynond hia i fole control of thft JpuraaK m'