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°iT 3Ba Es BZrVifN EU5USdlND TUB. Ia* li lue of the 17th June we copied, ab.D "sls h at . of May 96th, the tbis article, whiheb we And eon - a the aeraof of Jane 9th and here to our columns. The eace establiahed by the treat ft Bobhares lastednd ye Cor sider ing the npots. for picking "s quar. rwel which Trkey afforded Russia In that period, it T at first ight surprising that the outbreak of bostilities should have been so long deferred. But the )paetivity of RBussi is amply explained by the ex. haustlon consequent on the Napoleonic ware, and, in point of fact, when at last . Turkish misgovernment and cruelty, cal minating in such atrocities as the massacre of Selo, Induced or forced the Cszar to move, that potentate was by no means as well prepared as he might desire for so seriouns * a task as the invasion and conquest of the -- territories of the Sultan. Alogether, the Russian forces availab'e for active opera- c ienas in the South numbered considerably lees than one hundred thousand effectives, a and 'those were not suchb warriors as waer Smespiao and orodiSoo.-O the other hand, however, the position of Turkey was worse than that of her enemy. The Turk - ab-fleet had Just been annihilated at Nav arno, Russia being thereby made mistress o4 the Black sea; and as for the Turkish c army, it was almost non existant. The '1 Janissaries became-so troublesome that it 1 . was found necessatyto break up that or- t ga 1ization and in their place was created a motley host, "wearing," as Moltke says, b " Russian Jackets and Turkish trousers, o with Tartar saddles, French stirrups, and e' English sabres." Exclusive of the irregu a lars, who were chiefly Asiatic horsemen, oI there were only. about seventy thousand ri men in line. The single arm in which the - Turks were suaerior to their antagciatse aI was the cavalry, the irregulars Just refer- w red to being numerous, daring, and caps- gI ble,like their horses, of enduring hardships lb that would have destroyed, and did de- m| stroy the ponderous men and ponderous li chargers which the Emperor Nicholas had, it in a foolish moment, substituted for the rI Cossacks and Cossack po pf "former ti eampaigns. Such were the " g forces oI in the war of 1828 9. Len e what r. thse forces'did, and first let us turn our m attention to the operations in Europe. b Three corps, or about 80,000 n, cross- t ed the Pruth on May 7th and b, under M the eemmand of Marshal Wittgenstin.. is Of these, one corps, eompriang nearly sI 40,00 men, was to pas ve e Lower !t Deanube and march tbrough the Ddbrudsea T on Varns; another corps, wr e siege w train was to besiege Brailow lihile the at third corpse as to occupy Mpavila and tb Wallachia, take Silistria, and aprotet the di Sacommunications and flank of remain- lii 'd~ of the army. This progr am was in Ift great part accomplished, but mere through om the treachery of some of the Tatkish gen- he erala and the leactivity of otbes than em through the strategy of the Rusian goner- om alun-ebleL Silistri suocessfull- pfend- Bi td -itself, while the gates of ibrIdlow, Ri '-Iatehin, and Varna bhad to be opened by tri ltibh4ng the commanders. A strategical Er erg which was near leading to the most ap diroas consequences was committed in su golgI away from Varna to attack Shumla de -the latter place being much less useful ha o t1e Roalsns4who bhad the command of an the aes) than the former and more difficult be 'to be takes; and, in abort, up to the time sta Sthat Wittgenstein began his retreat north- to wards the only successes which the Ros- TI slave bad won by sheer ability on the part be of their commanders were theose of General an Glemar, who, with most insignificant "~ meoas, did wonders in protecting the flank M of the main army against the incursions of am the Psbha of Widden. But if it was the eof incapacity of the 1 arkish commander rath- At b" than the genius of the Russian whichb an gave t victory, such as it was, to the we avsadee4,rla this campaign of 1828, the fol- gel low y he case was reversed, and it eat was 0t genius of the Russian general in- oes chief, aId not the folly of the Turkish, bet which ill bht put an end to Turkish do- poi minalon in RDE p. Marshal Wittgenstein out was succeeded by his chief of the staff, he General Diebiteeh, a soldier of consummate arm talent, and of astounding strength of will, ten whose first care was to reorganize his army. Ak On the other side, also, reorganization was hba "attempted, and the Grand Visier, Reschid die Mohammed Pasha, was appointed to the his chief command. In May the war recom- way menced, but two or three months before anc an important preliminary blow was struck ben by the Russians. To have a proper base was of operations south of the Balkans, they stre seized by a coup de mtain the fortified sea- ed port of Sizeboli. The next step was to re- kie ece 8ilistria, which has so often proved whi a serious obstacle to Russian armies. The but e was commenced May 17th, and on con Ily 1st the place capitulated after a tou splendid defence. And now came one of thu the two movements which decided the fore issue of the campaign. The Grand Visaier atta advanced from bShmla with all his availa- less ble foree to fall on the BRussian troops near Rau Vuarns. Had be only that force to contend Ive with he might, sad probably would, have mol aehioved a great victory. But no sooner Rn. had Dlsbitseh heard of his advanoe, than of I he conceilved the bold idea of making a by rapid march from Sillsetia, throwing him- pr sef on the communications of the Ottoman army, and oecupying the only road by be whleh it could retreat He was souccess- ot mtl that, had he been awr of the extent pla his vicltory, he might hd immediately se afterwards taken Shumla itself. The othar of debr movement wuas the bold march com aore e Balkans. Leaving 10,000 men was to wateh Shumla and the b9Wen army C which it sheltered, he marehd back to wit Yeni-basarr, as if in retreat to Silistrla, gal aad then directed his columns to the right, cpl :over one or two roada whihob, as it turned to i Ot, were undefended. All the fortresses wer on the way yielded at once, Jamboli afford- t'e tag enormous stores to Diebitechb; and at mal leagth, on August 19th, the Muscovite Can army was encamped before Adrianople. eesa Bat the daring of this Russian general was Euar to be still more strikingly manifested. He acte had now only about tJOO le before a Taor city'o 80000, besides garrison of 12,000. wer "e p oded oOCcupy that city, andSh rae ar, cmns, and dbo.t the middle of September the right wing of the Rassiae army was at Enos, on tlbe Mediterraneuan the left was 110 miles away, at Media, on the Black tl. ( .; while the catre was at Kariatirs, on ie direct roato Osnatantinople. Hern after one siege, one reat battle, and a led, march of 500 'miles-Diebliteb's progress the was arrested by the re-establishment of o- pee. It may ~ ked why peace was oeeoluded till t h ret ,prise of all had ere fallen lt6 hi bands t The answer is to be found in the sadly reduced streugth of hib'army, but especdblly In the ravages of Sthe plague, the aeeccount of whiheb quoted er- by Major Russell from Moltke's book, is ar- caluelated to make one weeonder, not that hat Diebitach, having got so far, did not go s farther, but that he had ever the nerve to we attempt the passage of the Balkaor. If he itl bad possessed only 20 000 more men, and 'x- if those aetually under his standard were ale not falling out of the ranks every day by I st hundreds, it is the opinion of more than I -one military critic that he would have ire hoisted the double headed eagle in the re, streets of Stamboul. ell But all this time a campaign was pro- a t' ceeding in Asia, which though not fought I he on so large a acale, was more successful c he for the Russians, and more decisive in its a a- conclusion. The occasion was as nearly as 'y possible an anticipation of that we now t se, eem about to witness. While-i a ,-snattben miietIach, were push- e er ing across thb Danube through Bulgaria t as and Roumelia, a general was fighting his k way through Armenia with such foresight, s v- atrategieal skill, readiness, caution; and a Ns audaoity as have been exhibited only by t sh commanders of the mnost brilliant genius. I bThe operations planned and conducted by I' it Puakiewitsch in 1828 and 1829 still excite 1 r- the admiration of military students, I ia and when we consider, in addition to 0 's, his achievements, that his forces at the ii ', outset numbered only 12 000 men, and nev ad er were more than 20,000, and that-what t a with unpeopled wastes, rivers, great ridge, a ., of mountains, a want of roads, and fort- a id resses made almost impregnable by nature v 1e -the country could be held as easily as a ts any in the world against an invading army, ti r- we must at once see that there is ample e - ground for admiration. "We see," says 0 )5 Major Russell, "a small force advancing, d a- as it were, with extraordinary rashness b is into the heart of an enemy'seountry, fight- B i, ing battle after battle against extraordina- a 1e ry odds, taking fortress after fortress by a ir the most desperate assaults, and, in fact, t to scouring victory when by all the ordinary w it rules of war it ought to be beaten." Ar- a ir mies melted before Paskiewitech like snow p before the. sun, and towns surrendered A I- through the very terror of his name. On el ir May 25, 1828, be started from the neigh- i a. borhood of Alezandrople straight for Kars, p y seeding atthe same time small columns to B ir the Black Sea and to the 8outh by Ararat. at a The Pasha of Erseroum was on the march ol :e with 60,00') men to assist Kars, but so si ie skillful and determined was the attack en no d that fortress that it surrendered in three se e days, and when the force intended to re- p. lieve it appeared on the scene the Russian th a flag was already floating from its battle- a. h ments. An outbreak of the plague now Ci k- ept Paskiewitsech idle for some time, and tr n enabled the Seraskier to place 80,000 men di - on the right rear of the Muscovite army. S, But as soon.a. be could move again, the of Russian general; causing his opponent to re pr y treat by pretending to make an attack on fri 1 Erseroum, suddenly retraced his steps and no t appeared befre Akbhalkalaki, which soon lei a succumbed. By an equally swift and nsud a den movement, he next marched on Ak- pl1 I haltitkb. This was a very strong place, W f and was defended with great gallantry; se t but, after a succession of assaults and Ri a struggles almost without precedent in his- Ie tory, it, too, was taken. Nor was this all. th The army which went to its aid, havingt an t been inceationaly divided, was attacked tic 1 and utterly defeated in a night assault. of tI" The actual capture of a strong place,' ca Major Russell remarks, -' is often but the th f smallest portion of the results." The tic efect of the capture of Akhaltikh was that an, Aktakhur and Ardagon capitulated at once, ha I and at the end of September the Russians all were masters of Armenia, as far as the Sa- del genlogh mountains. Psakiewitsoh's next i, campaign was equally, if not more ano- car eeseful. As he was enormously outnum- tro bered, his only chance was to take the op sid posing fores" in detail, and this plan he at once resolved to adopt. With 7,000 men J he managed to attack in front and flank an army of 15,000, which the Seraskier's lieu- d tenant had destined for the retaking of hay Aklhaltsikh, and succeeded in sending it due back on the mountains in a thoroughly V5J disorganized condition. And now came had his crowning achievement. The Seraskier oaJ was threatening Kare, with 30,000 men, ,,. and his lieutenant, having reorganized hias od beaten forces, which now numbered 20.000, con was moving to his aid. They were both Jon, strongly posted, and, unless ontmar ce ivr- an a ed could not possibly be defeated. Pas tuone kiewitsch determined on a movement which was of the most hazardous character .A but the brilliant success of which is its arem complete justification. He made a circui- aia tons marcs over two snowy ridges, and s a thus interposed himself between the two aood forces of the enemy, each of which be then for attacked and defeated in asuocession. "In less than twenty-five hours," says Major A Russell, "his soldiers had marched thirty- iow five miles and beaten two armies, both more numeronus than themselves." The Russian general did not fall into the error - of Hannibal, and lose the fruits of victory M by inctivity after it had been won. He pressed on without delay and captured BHassan-Keleb, and in four days afterwards Ex he was in possesulon of Erseroum. Various AS other operations of minor importance took ar placee, in all of which Paskiewitsch was 1 sucessful, but with the fall of the capital tal of Armenia the chief work had been an- rims oomplished, and soon afterwards peace was declared. m Considering the conquests pf Paskie- - witsch and Diebitsch, the Czar did not L gain very much by the Treaty of Adrian. ople, though, if we consider the extremity to Which his victorious troops in Europe were reduced, we shall probably come to the conclusion that he did well in not making greater demands. In Asias his Caucasian frontier was rounded off by the 159. cession of the Pasbalik of Akhaltslkh; in Europe he acquired Brailow. He also ex acted an indemnity, the fortresses held by Turkg on the left bank of the Danube a were Yellnquished and the fortifications rased, and, fnally, Servia and Montenegro oat wr aedo - on. -& er land rather than between Rasis and Tar. at key, Major Russell thinks it unnecessary as to enter into its history at any leneth, sad sk *a w words on the suject will amfoe also sn for our purposes. Daring the twenty-tour - years that had elapsed sines 1829. the un a usual event occurred of Rseis Interposing as to save Constantinople and Turkey from of Melhemet All, the ruler of Egypt. This, of a course, was a passing phase of the great id drama, and in 1858 the refasal by tha Porte to of Prince Mensehikeffs imperative de of mand for a protection over the Greek of Christians led to the oceupatio. of Molds d via and Wallachia, which, in its turn led is to a declaration of hostilities by -Turkey. it The Ottomans commenced by taking 1o possession of Kalatat and Turtukai. It was a wise step, for those two points afforded ie admirable bases from. which to fall on the d flank and-communications of the Russians. e Bat though Omar Pasha had the advan y rage of holding Kalafat, and was by no n means an unakilful commadder, the quality e of his troops forbade him from undertak e ing extended operations in the field, and thus harassing the enemy in an tffectual - manney. The Russians, on their side, had t brought to the Danube too small a force 1 only 50,000 men-to crops that river, and a so the year passed away without any im a portant engagement. In March next year, r the Czar saw that lie had pmdealatal mis aidopttung-lf measures in such an emergency, and he summoned the celebra a ted but now aged warrior Pasakiewitech to a his councils. Paskiewitech characteristic , ally suggested a bold offenafve, and accor I dingly, the army having been reinforced r by some 90,000 men, part of it crossed the Danube in March at Ibraila, Galati, and r Tultaeha, driving back before it as far as a Trajan's Wall a force of 20,000 men under , Mastapha PUash, while the remainder > marched to undertake the reduction of 8il. a istria. At sea, also, fresh exertions were made. At Sinope six Russian sbip. of t the line, aided by four frigates and four steamers, attacked and utterly defeated seven Turkish frigates, aided by two cor vettee-an event which created no trivial I sensation in England. But for all this ac tivity success did not smile on the Russ;an enterprise. Silistria could not be taken. t Omar Pasha's force at Sbumla, though it dared not advance to the relief of tie beleaguered town, sufficed to prevent the Russians in the Dobradscha, who had marched dp the right bank of the Danube to help in investing it, from carrying out their intentions. Moreover, the Russians were defeated in a battle at Giurgevo; and boally, in August they retired from the Principalities altogether ,at a word from Austria. Henceforth the war changed its character. It was, as we have said, one between the allied powers of England and FPrance and Russia rather than one between Russia and Turkey. Even in Asia, where another campaign was fought out on the old groumd at Kars, the Turks were as slated by the English and Magyars; Colo nel Williams and Colonel Lake (the pre sent chief of the Dublin Metropolitan Police) having conduceted the defence of that fortress against Moravieff. We may add that Kara was captured, but in the Crimes, as need hardly be said, the allies triumphed, whereupon peace was concla ded. By the Treaty of Paris the Black Sea was neutralised, and the coast districts 8 of Roumania, then included in the Russian province of Bessarabia, were separated from Russia, and j Jined to the territory now ruled by Prince Charles of Hohenzol lern. We have now surveyed the eight com pleted wars between Russia and Turkey. We may rest assured that the lessons the story tesaches have not been lost upon the Russians. It seems to us that-two of those lessons stand out more prominently than the rest. One we have already indicated, and it is that Russia is bent on the destrao tion of the Ottoman Empire at the bands of her own soldiers, and on the consequent capture of Constantinople. The other is that nsufficient preparations-prepara. tions out of proportion to the magnitude and resources of the Muscovite E tpire have been the chief cause of the failure of all previous efforts to accomplish this vast design. If everything we hear be true, no mistake has been made this time in taking care that such superiority as lies in trained troops, materiel, and organization is on the side of the invader. JoNls &d Rocus, UZNDERTAKERS AND EM ALrSUSas.-The many friends of these two wel-known and popular gentlemen will be pleased to see that they have formed a co partrership for the purpose of oon ducting the Undertaking and Embalming bualness at l5J and 251 Magazine street. Both gentlemen have had years of experience in the business, Mr. Charles C. Jones for the past few years having been the head manager at Mr. Frank Johnson's, and Mr. John G. Roche, whose popularity w t rpro-r by his election as Corcner, havitg g~r:w op i' l ,,.-!, cse. Messra. 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