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VOL. 1, Canadian IIì?1iIn and Caiiadian Indcpendcncc. NO. 9.
publisiikd by ir. j. thomas. j SWANTON, VT. JUNE 5, 1839. editedbycanadians&americans ri i i: nohtii AMKitriAX S prHf.IIIKO EVERY WEDNESDAY, Pricc 1 50 kt an. in advance, or $2 00 al the end of the year. 1I T DOWN THE TYKANT8! The neer fail who di in jrcat cium ; Tb UlM-k miy ioak iheir $or, Tb-ir liri.l may odden lh lun thtir limbi b runj to' city gaie And car.'.e ali, bui lill their apirit walka brod ; Thougli yarg elp. "d iheri aliare ai dark a doortv. Il bn( ai(rmnt the de-p and aweepmg thought Which or joerg ali olheri, aud whicb conducta The world al lart to freedotn. lituo. People of Canada! Remember that the 1Ihm1 of nmtyrs in the cause of Freedom nlls nloud for vengeance at your hands. ORIGINAL BIOGRAPIIY. Charles Smkgciket was a younger brother of Ambroise Sanguinei, whose .Biography we gave in the preceding num ber. Ile wa born at Lassile in 1803. Ile settled as a farmer in the parish of St. Philippe, in the county of Laprairie, where by bis industry and honesty, he soon ac juired wealth. Hia educalion was ade oua'.e to bis station in life, and hisgood be havior secured bim the friendship of ali who ever became ocquainted with him His poliiical sentimenls were always based on truly Republican principles. In 1828, when the whole Country rose en masse to petition againRt the tyrannical conduci of L.ord I)alhou8Ìe, the subject ofthis Biogra phy was noi behind bis countrymen in de mamling the immediate recali of a Gover ncr so odiouc. Ile was named one of the Committee appointed to carry out this measure at the great meeting of the Coun ty of Huntington, which took place at St. Philippe on the 14th January, 1828. In 1831, at a general election of Repre sentatives, be supported those candidates who had declared themselves in favor of the 92 resolutions. In 1837, be was pre sent at the meeting of the County of La prairie, and took an active part in the pro ceedings of the meeting which had for its object the adoption of measures to counter act the resolutions passed by the Im periai Parliament ofGreat Britain against the liberlies of the Province of Lower Ca nada. On the rising of the Sd day of Jast No vetnber, he hearlily joined his countrymen in their attempi lo overthrow a Govern ment which had been notorious only for its injustice and acts of cruelty towards hia native country. He was so much es teemed by the people in his neighborhood, that he was entrusted with a plaee of ho nor at their disposai. His brother as we stated in the preceding number, was raado a Captain, and he was named a Lieutenant. Il would be useless for us to repeat what we said in his brother's biography about Walker'a affair. Sufììce it to 6ay that be tng bis brother's Lieutenant, he was in the unfortunate expedition, which terminated in Walker's death. We shall not bere repeat the arguments we already gave, to prove the correetness arni propriety of the conduci of those concerned in the fatai engagement, and toshow the injustice and impropriety of the condemnation of these men as murderers. We ali know thesau guinary disposition of the British. Peo ple of the United Siates, your fore iàthers, when they nobly (oughtthe battles of their country, were a!so declared ou lavcs and murdrrers and those among them who had the misfortune to (ali into the hands of their merciless eneroies, were hung as such. Were those victims ever on sidered as murderers, by your forefathers aìthough the British had tried to stigma tire them as such ? No. They were justly and deservedly considered as inno oent roen, who were the victims of their pure and devoled love lor their country. Ili so, doubt not the fact, with those brave and generous Canadians, who, for their Country's Cause, lost their lives on the scaffolJ. Tbey always passed for np right, bonest and respectable men and shall an iniquitous aentence, passed by a servile and bloody Court Martial, blest their mera ory ì No, it shall not be so. The Cana dians and Americana bave been too much accustomed lo British ealumny and false- hoo3i, not to recogn'i7.emartyrsof Liberty, in those innocent and virtuous men, who, like Col. Haynes, bave been executed as murderers. In epite of ali that the Brit ish can do to calumniate their reputation, they will be respected,and their narnes shall be honored by generations yet io come. Our friend having been made a prisoner was taken to Montreal ; on the third day of January last, be was brought before the Court .Martial together with his brother and some others. The trial lasted some dava and on tne 12lhof6ame month he received officiai notice that the next Fri day, (ISlh January,) he should be hung as a traitor to his Queen, and as the mur- derer of Walker. This last accusation he renelled with ereat indisnity. He was not ashamed to own that he had taken u; arms against the English Government which he wanted to.abolish ; but he could not bear the idea that the stigma of mur der should be atlached to him. As soon as he was notified to be prepar ed, he made up bis mind to meet bis fate like a brave man, showing thereby that he well understood his position. When the aw- lul moment arrived, accompanied by his elder brother, who was also a sufferer, he marched boldly to the scaffold. Alter ali the necessary preparation, he was shown his place, and a few moments afterwards, the traD cave way and his existence was quickly terminated. Anoiher brave, cour. ageoua and generous Canadian ended his life in the cause of Freedom. Mr. Sangui net was S6 years of age, bighly respected by ali who knew him. He has left a wife and two chiidren to weep over his mournful fate. " HISTORY OF CANADA. We now commence the long promiscd Ilistory of Canada. Having been more Buccessful in obtain mg data than we anticipateli, we have thereby been enab!ed to commence at the eariiest date. We have also promiscd a histor v of the late imurrec tion, and as that subject necessarily forma a part of Caaadian Ilistory, it may be looked for under that head in due tinte. The whole Area of Canada may be es timated at 250,000 square miles of very ir regularform. It is bounded on the East by the Straits of Belisle and the Gulph ol St. Lawrence ; on the Nortli by the terri loriesofthe Iludson's Bay company; on the West and South West by the United Stalea and the Indian T ribes ; and on the South and South East by the American States of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine, and by the British Coloniea of New Brunswick and Nova Scolia. On the 1 1 ih August, 1534, a French mariner from St. Malo, in France, named Jacques Carlier, enlered the vast Gulph io which he gave the name of St. Laurent The next year he returned to America and ascended the Kiver St. Laurent as lar aK Hochelaga, an Indian village at the loter end of the present city of Montreal. He was forced to pass the winter with ihe na. lives, who treated him very kindly. Thia new country was called New France, but was afterwards better known under the name of Canada, or the Province oi' Que bec Ou the 15th January, 140, Fran cois lst., King of France, named by letters patent Monsieur Francois De La Roque De Robetval as his Vice Roy and Lieu. tenant General in Canada. With five ves sels he left France for his new destination accompanied by Jacques Cartier; built a fort on the continenl of Canada at a place not now known. Leaving Jacques Car tier as Commandant, he returned to France and carne back in 1549, and we hear no more of him after. Nothingextraordinary occurred during this administration. France allowed a long period to pass on without taking any trouble whatever about her new Colony, when on the ltth January, 1593, the Marquis De La Roche was appointed by the King of France, Lieutenant General over Canada, with the sanie powers aa Monsieur Francois De La Roque De Roberval. His commission, which be beld lrom Henry the 4th, makes provisions for partilioning the discovered land into Seigneurics and Fiefs, lo be held under the feudal tenure, and as a compensation for military eervicea in the field, when required. After an unsuccess- ful attempt to colonize Canada, he returned to France, where he soon died of grief. In 1C00, Mr. Chauvin received bis com mission as uovernor oi jeiv t rance, where he arrived the same year. He how ever returned very soon to france and died immediately alter. In 1603, be was succeeded by the Com- mander De Chatle, who formed a compa. ny of merchanls, fìlted out an nrmamenl & gave the command of it to Mr. Pontgrave, who had letters patent from the King of France to continue the exploration and discoveries on the continent of America. Mr. Samuel De Champlain, whose name became so conspicuous in afier time in the history of the new Colony, was in this expedition. They went as far up as Hochelaga, which they found destroyed. Commander De Chaltc died the next year His succe8sor was Monsieur Pierre Du Guast Sieur du Monts. This gentleman belonged to the cahiist church, and the commission from the King said that he was sent to Canada to dissemi nate the tenels of the Catholic Church a- mong tne natives oi tue country, with a large armament he proceeded to the new Colony, and after having formed several small establishments of no great import ance he returned to France, where he was deprived of his Commission. Noihing of great consequenceoccured in New France till 1603, when on the Sd Ju- ly, Mr. De Champlain fonnded the city of Quebec. In Seplember, 1609, Mr. De Champlain with Mr. Pontgrave Tetunted to France and left the Colony under the charge of Monsieur Pierre Chauvin. In 1610, Mr. De Champlain returned to Can ada. During ibis period Charles De Bonr bon CountDe Soissons had been commis' sioned Gov. General of the Colony, & Mr De Champlain was named his Lieutenant The death of the Count took place very soon after, and the Prince De Conde be came his successor; Mr. De Champlain was continued in his office of Lt. Gov., of Canada. Il was in 1613 that the second city of Canada was lbunded. From its pe culiar situalion, being situated on a sandy point at the confluence of the St. Law rence and the diflerent branches of the St Maurice, it was called " Three Rivers." This place is 90 miles above Quebec. In 1620 the Prince De Conde ceded his Vice Royalty for 11,000 crowns to the Marshal De Montmorency, his brother-tn law, who also retained Mr. De Champlain as Lieutenant Governor, and named Mr Dolu as Colonial Agent in France. Dur ing ali these rapid changes of administra lion, the colony was increasing but slowly. As a proof of this, we eliall add that in 1622 the whole population f Quebec which had beenfounded 14 years, was 50 souls only. It was in 1622 that the charter of the company of Merchants, which had been formed by Commander De Chatle in 1603-, and to which the greatest privileges had been granted, but which they had abused was cancelled. Ik 1624 the fort of Quebec was built with 6tone. Marshal De Montmorency the same year sold his Vice-Iioyalty to his Nephew, Henry De Levi, Duke of Van tadour. The next year a Recollet Priest by the name of Nicolas Viel, and a young converted Indian returnin? from Lake Huron to Quebec, were drowned by the upsetting ofthe canoe ir. a rapid of the channel which divides the Island of Mon trea! lrom the Island of Jesus. This fata spot is stili known by the name of Sault des liecolleis. Altbough France had experienced the greatest inconvenience possi ble from her system of colonization, in giving the dis posai of her colonies to a company of Mer" chants, yet a new company called " Des cent .3oei'e," was formed. And incor porated by Royal edict, 19ih Aprii, 1623, Extraordinary privileges were granted to them. The fort of Quebec, ali New France, Florida, with ali the rivers &c, were to be under their exclusivc jurisdiction. No heretics were to be allowed to settle in the new Colony. One of the conditions ofthe act of associatimi was that the descendants of Frenchmen inhabitating the new coun try would be citizens of France and should enjoy the same privileges as the other subjfctsof the King if they wentto France. The first vessels which were sent to Canada by this new company, were taken hy the Engliah, who the next year, 1629, took Quebec & kept it nearly three years. By the treaty of St. Germain de Luye, Quebec was returned to the King ol France on the 29th March, 1632. The company ' Des Cent Assocìes was the next year reinstaled in ali its privileges, and Mr. De Chamnlain waa a?ain sent back to New France as Governor. In 1635, the College of Quebec was founded and ai the latter end of that year Mr. De Champlain, the Governor General of the Colony, died, very much regretted by every one. Ul ali the f rench uovernors tic was undoubtedly the noblest and ihe mosi en- terprizing. He left his name to several ocalities and more particularly tothe lake which 6eparates Vermont from New York Mr. De Montniagny, succeeded Mr. De Champlain as Governor of Canada. He followed ali the plans ol his predecessor In 1640, the Island of Montreal was taken possession of by a Company to wbom the King of France hnd conceded it. On the 15th February, 1644, the King of France cor.firmed the donation ofthe Island of Montreal to the religious order of Sulpi cians at Paris, wiio kept il till the present day. This company immediately began to build the city of Montreal, to which they gave the name of Ville Marie. In 1647, Mr. Daillebout succeeded Mr Montmagny as Governor General of Can. ada, but nothing worthy of note occurred under his administration. It was under him that the Abbey De Quelus, who had been some time in Montreal, carne from France, in 1657, wilh deputies sent from the Sem inary of St. Sulpice lo take formai posses sion of the Island of Montreal, and to build a Seminary. We mention this fact be cause we shall have occasion to notice hereafter the doings of the successors of this new religious order. On the llth July, 1658, Marquis D'Ar- genson arrived at Quebec as Uovernor General. The next year on thelCth June, Francois De Lavai, Titulary Bishop of Petree, arrived in the new Colony. This was the first Catholic Bishop who carne to Canada. About this time Baron D'Av angour was named Gov. General ol New France, in place of Monsieur D'Argenson. In 1662 the Kingjof France sent 400 troops to the colonipts, and commissioned Mon sieur De Monts to visit the whole country and to report thereon. In 1663, Monsieur De Mesy was seni to relieve Baron D'Avangour in the admin istration of the Colonial Government With Monsieur Gaudais he was also sent to take formai possession of New France in the name of His Majcsly, to, whom the company of " Des Cent istorie" had ceded their rigbts by an authentic instru ment hearing date 24th February, 1663 Thus terminated the unfruitful system o colonization by societies of merchants and soecu ators. 1 he colony was then so weak and so poor that it depended eniire ly on the mother country for subsistence, The population did not exceed 7000 souls Mr. Gaudais, that same year, adminis tered the oath of allegiance to ihe colonists settled the administration of justice, ani named a Counci! which was composed oj the Governor in Chief.the Catholic Bishop the lntendant. 4 Councillors, which were chosen by the three above named gentle men. an Attornev General and a Clerk Mr. Talon the first lntendant of the Col nnv arrived at Quebec in 1G65. Justice was administered in the new Colony afte the ordinances of the Kingdom of France and the " Coutume de Paris," BesiJes this Conncil which met, every Mondav to decide cn ci vii and crimina matterà, there were also three inferior tri bunals: one at Qnebec, one at Montrea nd one ai Three Rivers. These inferior Court were liolden hy Lieut. General and a Lieutenant partìetilar, an Attorney General & a Clerk. Apeal from these in ferior tribuna! could be made to the Great Conncil at Quebec. In the month of June, 1669, the King of France sanctioned leve rai regulations made by the Council at Quebec, and also the enaction of a code of ci vii Lawa for the Colony. The successor of Mr. De Mesy as Gov- ernor General was Monsieur De Courcel es who was appointed in 1665. The Mar quis De Tracy arrived at Quebec in 1666, with several companiej of the Regiment called Cartgnan. The importante ofthe Colony became apparent to the new gov ernor and three new Fotta were built on the Itichelieu river : one by Monsieur De Sorel, at Sorel, now William Henry; ofte by Monsieur DeChambly at Chambly, and the third by Monsieur De Sallierwat Ste. Therese, mìdway between Chambiy and St. Johns. The next i-overnor was Count De Frontenac, who suoeeded Monsieur De Courcelles in 1672. The next year the new Governor built the Fort of Cataracoui now Kingston in Upper Canada. In 1676, the whole population of FrencU descent and of converted Indians amounted to 8,145 souls as shown by a eensus taken that year by the special order of the King. In 1682, he received orders to proceed to France and to cede his government to Monsieur De La Barre, who tried to subdue the Iroquoin, but failed in hia attempt. During these frequent chang es of administrations the Colony was in a miserable and wretcbed state : expo- sed to the sudden altacks of the Indians and ofien to lamine. Under such discour ' oqioj oiroumotalfUf the nutatluii luiICao- sed fa s ter than onc roight suppose. In 1636, a census showed that there were 11,249 souls in the colony. The Marquis De Nouville was the successor of Monsieur De La Barre. As the colony wìj constantly harrassed bytheindians that were excited against ibe French people by the British, it was resolved in France to take possession of New York. Mr. De Frontenac was again appointed Governor General of Canada and arrived at Montreal on the 27th Oct. 1639. It was under his government, that the British General Sir William Phipp9 entered the St. Lawrence with 34 sail and about 3,000 men to subdue Quebec. This occurrence took place on the 5th Oct. 1690. The English General sent a mes senger to the French Governor to suni mon him to surrender the city, forts, mu nitions of war and the prisoners, wilhin art h our. Mr. De Frontenac answered that such was not the proper way lo address him and that he might expect a proper answer to his impertinent demand from ibe cannon. This expedition turned out a to tal failure for the British, who lost a great number of mer. and were obliged to sai! back to their own shores, which they ef. fected on the 25th of the same month. After nine years of a good and judicious administration, Canada had the misfortune to loose its General Governor who died on the 28th November 1693, in the 78th year of his age. He was replaced by Mr. De Callieres. To this Governor is owed a general pesce to the colony, which under bis administration enjoyed ali the fruita of tranquility till his death, which occurred on the 26th May, 1703. The number of Frenchmen and their de scendants in the colony, amounted in 1705 to 15,000 s"'ils. In 1708 the Roman Clergy not content with the tythes the people were forced to pay them, which was the 26lh part of ali grains, wanted to in crcaseit to the ISth pori; hot they were foiled in their attempts. In 1723 the com. merce of the colony was found to bave made considerable progress during ten years of foreign and internai tranquility. Nineteen vessels cleared from Quebec, load ed with Furs, Lumher, Starei, Tar, Flovr Pease, Pork, Q-c. Six Merchant ship andtwoships of war were also boilt that year at Quebec.