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North American. (Swanton, Vt.) 1839-1841, June 05, 1839, Image 1

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VOL. 1, Canadian IIì?1iIn and Caiiadian Indcpendcncc. NO. 9.
publisiikd by ir. j. thomas. j SWANTON, VT. JUNE 5, 1839. editedbycanadians&americans
ri i i: nohtii AMKitriAX
S prHf.IIIKO EVERY WEDNESDAY,
Pricc 1 50 kt an. in advance,
or $2 00 al the end of the year.
1I T DOWN THE TYKANT8!
The neer fail who di in jrcat cium ;
Tb UlM-k miy ioak iheir $or,
Tb-ir liri.l may odden lh lun thtir limbi
b runj to' city gaie
And car.'.e ali, bui lill their apirit walka brod ;
Thougli yarg elp. "d iheri aliare ai dark a
doortv.
Il bn( ai(rmnt the de-p and aweepmg thought
Which or joerg ali olheri, aud whicb conducta
The world al lart to freedotn. lituo.
People of Canada! Remember that the
1Ihm1 of nmtyrs in the cause of Freedom
nlls nloud for vengeance at your hands.
ORIGINAL BIOGRAPIIY.
Charles Smkgciket was a younger
brother of Ambroise Sanguinei, whose
.Biography we gave in the preceding num
ber. Ile wa born at Lassile in 1803.
Ile settled as a farmer in the parish of St.
Philippe, in the county of Laprairie, where
by bis industry and honesty, he soon ac
juired wealth. Hia educalion was ade
oua'.e to bis station in life, and hisgood be
havior secured bim the friendship of ali
who ever became ocquainted with him
His poliiical sentimenls were always based
on truly Republican principles. In 1828,
when the whole Country rose en masse to
petition againRt the tyrannical conduci of
L.ord I)alhou8Ìe, the subject ofthis Biogra
phy was noi behind bis countrymen in de
mamling the immediate recali of a Gover
ncr so odiouc. Ile was named one of the
Committee appointed to carry out this
measure at the great meeting of the Coun
ty of Huntington, which took place at St.
Philippe on the 14th January, 1828.
In 1831, at a general election of Repre
sentatives, be supported those candidates
who had declared themselves in favor of
the 92 resolutions. In 1837, be was pre
sent at the meeting of the County of La
prairie, and took an active part in the pro
ceedings of the meeting which had for its
object the adoption of measures to counter
act the resolutions passed by the Im
periai Parliament ofGreat Britain against
the liberlies of the Province of Lower Ca
nada. On the rising of the Sd day of Jast No
vetnber, he hearlily joined his countrymen
in their attempi lo overthrow a Govern
ment which had been notorious only for its
injustice and acts of cruelty towards
hia native country. He was so much es
teemed by the people in his neighborhood,
that he was entrusted with a plaee of ho
nor at their disposai. His brother as we
stated in the preceding number, was raado
a Captain, and he was named a Lieutenant.
Il would be useless for us to repeat what
we said in his brother's biography about
Walker'a affair. Sufììce it to 6ay that be
tng bis brother's Lieutenant, he was in the
unfortunate expedition, which terminated
in Walker's death. We shall not bere
repeat the arguments we already gave, to
prove the correetness arni propriety of the
conduci of those concerned in the fatai
engagement, and toshow the injustice and
impropriety of the condemnation of these
men as murderers. We ali know thesau
guinary disposition of the British. Peo
ple of the United Siates, your fore
iàthers, when they nobly (oughtthe battles
of their country, were a!so declared ou
lavcs and murdrrers and those among them
who had the misfortune to (ali into the
hands of their merciless eneroies, were hung
as such. Were those victims ever on
sidered as murderers, by your forefathers
aìthough the British had tried to stigma
tire them as such ? No. They were
justly and deservedly considered as inno
oent roen, who were the victims of their
pure and devoled love lor their country.
Ili so, doubt not the fact, with those
brave and generous Canadians, who, for
their Country's Cause, lost their lives on
the scaffolJ. Tbey always passed for np
right, bonest and respectable men and shall
an iniquitous aentence, passed by a servile
and bloody Court Martial, blest their mera
ory ì No, it shall not be so. The Cana
dians and Americana bave been too much
accustomed lo British ealumny and false-
hoo3i, not to recogn'i7.emartyrsof Liberty,
in those innocent and virtuous men, who,
like Col. Haynes, bave been executed
as murderers. In epite of ali that the Brit
ish can do to calumniate their reputation,
they will be respected,and their narnes shall
be honored by generations yet io come.
Our friend having been made a prisoner
was taken to Montreal ; on the third day
of January last, be was brought before the
Court .Martial together with his brother
and some others. The trial lasted some
dava and on tne 12lhof6ame month he
received officiai notice that the next Fri
day, (ISlh January,) he should be hung
as a traitor to his Queen, and as the mur-
derer of Walker. This last accusation he
renelled with ereat indisnity. He was
not ashamed to own that he had taken u;
arms against the English Government
which he wanted to.abolish ; but he could
not bear the idea that the stigma of mur
der should be atlached to him.
As soon as he was notified to be prepar
ed, he made up bis mind to meet bis fate like
a brave man, showing thereby that he
well understood his position. When the aw-
lul moment arrived, accompanied by his
elder brother, who was also a sufferer, he
marched boldly to the scaffold. Alter ali the
necessary preparation, he was shown his
place, and a few moments afterwards, the
traD cave way and his existence was
quickly terminated. Anoiher brave, cour.
ageoua and generous Canadian ended his
life in the cause of Freedom. Mr. Sangui
net was S6 years of age, bighly respected
by ali who knew him. He has left a
wife and two chiidren to weep over his
mournful fate. "
HISTORY OF CANADA.
We now commence the long promiscd Ilistory of
Canada. Having been more Buccessful in obtain
mg data than we anticipateli, we have thereby been
enab!ed to commence at the eariiest date. We
have also promiscd a histor v of the late imurrec
tion, and as that subject necessarily forma a part
of Caaadian Ilistory, it may be looked for under
that head in due tinte.
The whole Area of Canada may be es
timated at 250,000 square miles of very ir
regularform. It is bounded on the East by
the Straits of Belisle and the Gulph ol
St. Lawrence ; on the Nortli by the terri
loriesofthe Iludson's Bay company; on
the West and South West by the United
Stalea and the Indian T ribes ; and on the
South and South East by the American
States of New York, Vermont, New
Hampshire and Maine, and by the British
Coloniea of New Brunswick and Nova
Scolia.
On the 1 1 ih August, 1534, a French
mariner from St. Malo, in France, named
Jacques Carlier, enlered the vast Gulph
io which he gave the name of St. Laurent
The next year he returned to America and
ascended the Kiver St. Laurent as lar aK
Hochelaga, an Indian village at the loter
end of the present city of Montreal. He
was forced to pass the winter with ihe na.
lives, who treated him very kindly. Thia
new country was called New France, but
was afterwards better known under the
name of Canada, or the Province oi' Que
bec Ou the 15th January, 140, Fran
cois lst., King of France, named by letters
patent Monsieur Francois De La Roque
De Robetval as his Vice Roy and Lieu.
tenant General in Canada. With five ves
sels he left France for his new destination
accompanied by Jacques Cartier; built a
fort on the continenl of Canada at a place
not now known. Leaving Jacques Car
tier as Commandant, he returned to France
and carne back in 1549, and we hear no
more of him after. Nothingextraordinary
occurred during this administration.
France allowed a long period to pass
on without taking any trouble whatever
about her new Colony, when on the ltth
January, 1593, the Marquis De La Roche
was appointed by the King of France,
Lieutenant General over Canada, with
the sanie powers aa Monsieur Francois De
La Roque De Roberval. His commission,
which be beld lrom Henry the 4th, makes
provisions for partilioning the discovered
land into Seigneurics and Fiefs, lo be
held under the feudal tenure, and as a
compensation for military eervicea in the
field, when required. After an unsuccess-
ful attempt to colonize Canada, he returned
to France, where he soon died of grief.
In 1C00, Mr. Chauvin received bis com
mission as uovernor oi jeiv t rance,
where he arrived the same year. He how
ever returned very soon to france and
died immediately alter.
In 1603, be was succeeded by the Com-
mander De Chatle, who formed a compa.
ny of merchanls, fìlted out an nrmamenl &
gave the command of it to Mr. Pontgrave,
who had letters patent from the King of
France to continue the exploration and
discoveries on the continent of America.
Mr. Samuel De Champlain, whose
name became so conspicuous in afier time
in the history of the new Colony, was in
this expedition. They went as far up as
Hochelaga, which they found destroyed.
Commander De Chaltc died the next year
His succe8sor was Monsieur Pierre Du
Guast Sieur du Monts.
This gentleman belonged to the cahiist
church, and the commission from the King
said that he was sent to Canada to dissemi
nate the tenels of the Catholic Church a-
mong tne natives oi tue country, with a
large armament he proceeded to the new
Colony, and after having formed several
small establishments of no great import
ance he returned to France, where he was
deprived of his Commission.
Noihing of great consequenceoccured in
New France till 1603, when on the Sd Ju-
ly, Mr. De Champlain fonnded the city of
Quebec. In Seplember, 1609, Mr. De
Champlain with Mr. Pontgrave Tetunted
to France and left the Colony under the
charge of Monsieur Pierre Chauvin. In
1610, Mr. De Champlain returned to Can
ada. During ibis period Charles De Bonr
bon CountDe Soissons had been commis'
sioned Gov. General of the Colony, & Mr
De Champlain was named his Lieutenant
The death of the Count took place very
soon after, and the Prince De Conde be
came his successor; Mr. De Champlain
was continued in his office of Lt. Gov., of
Canada. Il was in 1613 that the second
city of Canada was lbunded. From its pe
culiar situalion, being situated on a sandy
point at the confluence of the St. Law
rence and the diflerent branches of the St
Maurice, it was called " Three Rivers."
This place is 90 miles above Quebec.
In 1620 the Prince De Conde ceded his
Vice Royalty for 11,000 crowns to the
Marshal De Montmorency, his brother-tn
law, who also retained Mr. De Champlain
as Lieutenant Governor, and named Mr
Dolu as Colonial Agent in France. Dur
ing ali these rapid changes of administra
lion, the colony was increasing but slowly.
As a proof of this, we eliall add that in
1622 the whole population f Quebec
which had beenfounded 14 years, was 50
souls only.
It was in 1622 that the charter of the
company of Merchants, which had been
formed by Commander De Chatle in 1603-,
and to which the greatest privileges had
been granted, but which they had abused
was cancelled.
Ik 1624 the fort of Quebec was built
with 6tone. Marshal De Montmorency
the same year sold his Vice-Iioyalty to his
Nephew, Henry De Levi, Duke of Van
tadour. The next year a Recollet Priest
by the name of Nicolas Viel, and a young
converted Indian returnin? from Lake
Huron to Quebec, were drowned by the
upsetting ofthe canoe ir. a rapid of the
channel which divides the Island of Mon
trea! lrom the Island of Jesus. This fata
spot is stili known by the name of Sault
des liecolleis.
Altbough France had experienced the
greatest inconvenience possi ble from her
system of colonization, in giving the dis
posai of her colonies to a company of Mer"
chants, yet a new company called " Des
cent .3oei'e," was formed. And incor
porated by Royal edict, 19ih Aprii, 1623,
Extraordinary privileges were granted to
them. The fort of Quebec, ali New France,
Florida, with ali the rivers &c, were to be
under their exclusivc jurisdiction. No
heretics were to be allowed to settle in the
new Colony. One of the conditions ofthe
act of associatimi was that the descendants
of Frenchmen inhabitating the new coun
try would be citizens of France and should
enjoy the same privileges as the other
subjfctsof the King if they wentto France.
The first vessels which were sent to
Canada by this new company, were taken
hy the Engliah, who the next year, 1629,
took Quebec & kept it nearly three years.
By the treaty of St. Germain de Luye,
Quebec was returned to the King ol
France on the 29th March, 1632.
The company ' Des Cent Assocìes was
the next year reinstaled in ali its privileges,
and Mr. De Chamnlain waa a?ain sent
back to New France as Governor. In
1635, the College of Quebec was founded
and ai the latter end of that year Mr. De
Champlain, the Governor General of the
Colony, died, very much regretted by every
one. Ul ali the f rench uovernors tic was
undoubtedly the noblest and ihe mosi en-
terprizing. He left his name to several
ocalities and more particularly tothe lake
which 6eparates Vermont from New York
Mr. De Montniagny, succeeded Mr. De
Champlain as Governor of Canada. He
followed ali the plans ol his predecessor
In 1640, the Island of Montreal was taken
possession of by a Company to wbom the
King of France hnd conceded it. On the
15th February, 1644, the King of France
cor.firmed the donation ofthe Island of
Montreal to the religious order of Sulpi
cians at Paris, wiio kept il till the present
day. This company immediately began to
build the city of Montreal, to which they
gave the name of Ville Marie.
In 1647, Mr. Daillebout succeeded Mr
Montmagny as Governor General of Can.
ada, but nothing worthy of note occurred
under his administration. It was under him
that the Abbey De Quelus, who had been
some time in Montreal, carne from France,
in 1657, wilh deputies sent from the Sem
inary of St. Sulpice lo take formai posses
sion of the Island of Montreal, and to build
a Seminary. We mention this fact be
cause we shall have occasion to notice
hereafter the doings of the successors of
this new religious order.
On the llth July, 1658, Marquis D'Ar-
genson arrived at Quebec as Uovernor
General. The next year on thelCth June,
Francois De Lavai, Titulary Bishop of
Petree, arrived in the new Colony. This
was the first Catholic Bishop who carne
to Canada. About this time Baron D'Av
angour was named Gov. General ol New
France, in place of Monsieur D'Argenson.
In 1662 the Kingjof France sent 400 troops
to the colonipts, and commissioned Mon
sieur De Monts to visit the whole country
and to report thereon.
In 1663, Monsieur De Mesy was seni to
relieve Baron D'Avangour in the admin
istration of the Colonial Government
With Monsieur Gaudais he was also sent
to take formai possession of New France
in the name of His Majcsly, to, whom the
company of " Des Cent istorie" had
ceded their rigbts by an authentic instru
ment hearing date 24th February, 1663
Thus terminated the unfruitful system o
colonization by societies of merchants and
soecu ators. 1 he colony was then so
weak and so poor that it depended eniire
ly on the mother country for subsistence,
The population did not exceed 7000 souls
Mr. Gaudais, that same year, adminis
tered the oath of allegiance to ihe colonists
settled the administration of justice, ani
named a Counci! which was composed oj
the Governor in Chief.the Catholic Bishop
the lntendant. 4 Councillors, which were
chosen by the three above named gentle
men. an Attornev General and a Clerk
Mr. Talon the first lntendant of the Col
nnv arrived at Quebec in 1G65. Justice
was administered in the new Colony afte
the ordinances of the Kingdom of France
and the " Coutume de Paris,"
BesiJes this Conncil which met, every
Mondav to decide cn ci vii and crimina
matterà, there were also three inferior tri
bunals: one at Qnebec, one at Montrea
nd one ai Three Rivers. These inferior
Court were liolden hy Lieut. General
and a Lieutenant partìetilar, an Attorney
General & a Clerk. Apeal from these in
ferior tribuna! could be made to the Great
Conncil at Quebec. In the month of June,
1669, the King of France sanctioned leve
rai regulations made by the Council at
Quebec, and also the enaction of a code
of ci vii Lawa for the Colony.
The successor of Mr. De Mesy as Gov-
ernor General was Monsieur De Courcel
es who was appointed in 1665. The Mar
quis De Tracy arrived at Quebec in 1666,
with several companiej of the Regiment
called Cartgnan. The importante ofthe
Colony became apparent to the new gov
ernor and three new Fotta were built on
the Itichelieu river : one by Monsieur De
Sorel, at Sorel, now William Henry; ofte
by Monsieur DeChambly at Chambly, and
the third by Monsieur De Sallierwat Ste.
Therese, mìdway between Chambiy and
St. Johns.
The next i-overnor was Count De
Frontenac, who suoeeded Monsieur De
Courcelles in 1672. The next year the
new Governor built the Fort of Cataracoui
now Kingston in Upper Canada.
In 1676, the whole population of FrencU
descent and of converted Indians amounted
to 8,145 souls as shown by a eensus taken
that year by the special order of the King.
In 1682, he received orders to proceed to
France and to cede his government to
Monsieur De La Barre, who tried to
subdue the Iroquoin, but failed in hia
attempt. During these frequent chang
es of administrations the Colony was
in a miserable and wretcbed state : expo-
sed to the sudden altacks of the Indians
and ofien to lamine. Under such discour '
oqioj oiroumotalfUf the nutatluii luiICao-
sed fa s ter than onc roight suppose. In
1636, a census showed that there were
11,249 souls in the colony. The Marquis
De Nouville was the successor of Monsieur
De La Barre.
As the colony wìj constantly harrassed
bytheindians that were excited against
ibe French people by the British, it was
resolved in France to take possession of
New York. Mr. De Frontenac was again
appointed Governor General of Canada
and arrived at Montreal on the 27th Oct.
1639. It was under his government, that
the British General Sir William Phipp9
entered the St. Lawrence with 34 sail and
about 3,000 men to subdue Quebec.
This occurrence took place on the 5th Oct.
1690. The English General sent a mes
senger to the French Governor to suni
mon him to surrender the city, forts, mu
nitions of war and the prisoners, wilhin art
h our. Mr. De Frontenac answered that
such was not the proper way lo address
him and that he might expect a proper
answer to his impertinent demand from ibe
cannon. This expedition turned out a to
tal failure for the British, who lost a great
number of mer. and were obliged to sai!
back to their own shores, which they ef.
fected on the 25th of the same month.
After nine years of a good and judicious
administration, Canada had the misfortune
to loose its General Governor who died on
the 28th November 1693, in the 78th year
of his age. He was replaced by Mr. De
Callieres. To this Governor is owed a
general pesce to the colony, which under
bis administration enjoyed ali the fruita of
tranquility till his death, which occurred on
the 26th May, 1703.
The number of Frenchmen and their de
scendants in the colony, amounted in
1705 to 15,000 s"'ils. In 1708 the Roman
Clergy not content with the tythes the
people were forced to pay them, which was
the 26lh part of ali grains, wanted to in
crcaseit to the ISth pori; hot they were
foiled in their attempts. In 1723 the com.
merce of the colony was found to bave
made considerable progress during ten
years of foreign and internai tranquility.
Nineteen vessels cleared from Quebec, load
ed with Furs, Lumher, Starei, Tar, Flovr
Pease, Pork, Q-c. Six Merchant ship
andtwoships of war were also boilt that
year at Quebec.

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