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North American. [volume] (Swanton, Vt.) 1839-1841, July 03, 1839, Image 1

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.umiliali Stilili and C'aimdiaii Ind pcinlcncc.
NO. l;S
l'L'IìLlSHKD BY II. J. THOMAS.
SWANTOX, VX. JULY3, 1830.
EDITED BV CANADIANS & AMEUICANS
Tilt: NOItTlI AXniH'AN
i i't'i!MMu:i f.vi:uv wkpnkmiay,
IVtVf SI trA)prr an. in advance,
vr $2 00 ut thcjmì vf the year.
11 T lOWS T!IH TYItANTS!
i nrrtr fat w!i di in creai caute ;
,. ;. '... ina iin'ir fìtti,
li,, ii hr .'. inj 4-Jrn in th sun thifir limiti
U- tu? m :njr gì'e
Ar i s-t - !!, l'U' mil '-lii'lf ('tri! 'kf abrosti ;
'I ;(ims y r ria;"" 1 oiheri ahar ai dark
li Jt i gii. ii ì i!i Urli atid wcfiij; thnuflit
VA li rh (.;! 'WT al! otbert, and chicli cornine!
Tiie wiri.i i 11 li fieed". HvtKi.
IY-i!t of Canada ! Rememher that the
l! .r ) i!n:arivrs i'i ! cause ni" Fr r.rnoM
ra U h'. uni l'ur venerante at vmir hands.
OH I K I N A L r.IOCUAPHY.
I'ikrrk Amiot was bum in 1160 in I he
r r i h if Yerchcres in the County of Ve r
cheres. He was broueht up to agricultur
al ju rssu it) end was une of the most weat
thy farmt-rs of Lower Canada. Hisedtica
tion was excel.'er.t and his hnncsty and in.
trgiity were proverbiai. In 1816 he was
elertcJ n mrmber of Parliament for tlie
county of Surrey, wliirh, accordine to the
old division of Counties, compriseli the
whole County !' Ycrcheres & a great part
ni ihe County of Cl.iimhly. Ile continued
a inembcr for the County of Surrey till
1?:0, when the new division of Counties
t iuk place, he was then elected by the
County of Yerchcres. He was always
found a Constant and unwavering friend to
Di'iniicraiic principles. When in 1 827 the
whole Province of Lower Canada petition
el the Imperiai Parliament for the recali of
1ud DaHiou!", who hnd rendered rYmsHf
o'i.ioxi'ius lo the Caiiadian people by bis
tyrannical conduct, Mr. Aniiot ns the Ile
prcsrntative of his County, look the leat
and was present ti the great meeting of
the fn ehotders of the County of Surrey
which touk place at Vercheres on the 27th
December, 1827. Mr. Amiot was the
Yice-PresiJent of ibis meeting and in con
rquerice of the activc part lie took in il
proceedinc he was ordered by Lord Dal
h'MJsie to cive an rccouih of bis conduct
i ne coiniiuon ni ine uovernors demani
he tu ili! y nfused lo comply witb ; the re
u!l was i!,at Lord Dalhousie annuiteti bis
emunission as Captain in the Provincia
Militia on the 25ih June following. At
. .
me meeting anove nieriiioneu ne was
ramed a ir.ember of the Cenerai Committee
i l the County of Surrey. Ili parliam-n
tsrv vote upon tlie uomination of the
Speaker of the House of Atseiub!y, wliich
Lord Dalhousie LaJ unconsiitutionallv
refused to recognize, was higbly approved
by l!,is nieelincj.
On Ihe2lst Aujrust, 1S30, Lord Avlmer
re-inst3tcd Mr. Amiot as a Militia officer
ami promoted bini totherank of a Major.
In Ft bruary 18S4, he voted in favor of the
?2 Kesolutiuns and hnd the satisfaction to
ee bis voteon this ali important nnd vita
Ili
quebtion, approvea ny in ronsiiluency
who in the niontli of November foilowing
re-elected bini asjain.
In the session of 18S6, when it was found
that Lord Gosford had acted hypocritically
and witb the design of deceiving and im
pnsing ujoii the llepresentatives of tbe
people, il was resolved to vote but éix
niontlis suppiies, Mr. Amiot voted in favor
f that measure.
When the resolulions of Lord John
Kus.se! were known in Canada, meclings
were bi'IJ ali over the country to protesi
!;a!!i!.t sudi a Uarant vio.atiun ol their
cm-ititutional ri;his. Sudi a meeting
wa htld oli ibe lith May 1S37, at Si.
Mate by the conlitueney of the Countv
of ercheres. Our lamentej ftiend was
present al this meeiing and t-arnestiv sup
p iried lliose inanly anj dignified resolu-
t' Tis which were there oJopted. In con
sequeuce ofthe strenuous part he txik at tbe
pr.K-eedir.gs of ibis niwinff, he was caile.l
cive a:i account of liis conduct bv Lord
G ih'.rd, wiu-n tbe bighpiritej anwer he
rfìa le to Ilis Lordsbip's imprriineiit and
tv rsnnicai jiiesti or.s, brouglit ujmn him the
h inorali!.' punishment ol being depmed ol
hi cjaimissioa of Major in tbe Provincia!
Militia which was cance!!ed o:i tbe 24;b
Augunt following.
Far Ironi abating bis zeal lor tlie cause
of freedom, sudi persecutions acted but as
a stiniulus (ifbe ever needed any) toex
cite bwcoumge in tbe great wurk of re
forrn. He was one of the signers ofthe
notice for the convention of tbe great meet
ing of St. Charles in October foilntving,
but was prevented from at!endi;ig thereat
by tsitkiiess. When (he lime carne toslrike
ir freedom or to Bubmit cowardly to a
olavinh lif'', he iefi bis home and j- ined the
brave patri hs al St. Charles camp, where
during tbe baule he evinced the cowrage
ofalion. After the Uritish were masiers
ofthe ground, Mr. Amiot inaile bis es.
cape ihrougb the red-coats nnd succeeded
in biding biniseli' for a long space of lime
On the Glh December Lord Gosford set a
irice on Mr. Amiol's beati and about the
latler end of the sa me month he was macie
a prisoner and thrmvn into a colti, damp
tlungeon in the old jail of Montreal witb
Ins colleague, cornpanion and intimate
friend Mr. Drolet whose biography we
trave in the 7th No., of this paper. Ilis
stender constitution, the innumerable hard
ships he had lately endured and his advan
ced age aided by the ir.salubrity of the
colti dungeon in which he was confined
together witb the scantiness of the food
he was daily allowed, ali these causes
united very eoon reduced bim to estreme
illness. In vain did bis friends intercede
ior ins reiease irom me aumormes. JUis
death was the tine qua non of his libera
lion from jail. It was not unti! the amnes
ty of Lord Durham in July 1S38 that
Mr. Aniiot was released witb heavy bontls
aiTiounting to severa! thousnnd duìlars.
He returned to his once happy home more
like a skeleton than like a living man and
he lingered till the Slsl January following
when he ended his sufTerings brought upon
him by the oppressive, and tn urderous
hands of the odious British government.
Sudi was the end ofoneof the most
respeclable citizens ol Lower Canada and
one of the most faithf'ul anri horiest mem
ber of Parliament and a devoted friend to
civil and religious liberty. And sudi is
the barbarous cruelty of the British gov
ernment in this enlightened age of the
world.
IIISTORY OF CANADA.
(continued.)
On the lOth February, 1763, a treatyof
peace was signed at Paris, between the
Kings of France and Great Britain. We
shall bere quote some part ofthe treaty:
"Il is stipulated that Ilis Most Christian
Majesty renounces alt pretensions he
may bave formed till now, or may forni on
Nova Scotia or Acadia in ali itsparts, and
guarantees the whole and alt its dependen-
cies to the King of Great Britain."
"Moreover Ilis Most Christian Majesty
cedes and guarantees lo Ilis said Britannic
Majesty, in full right, Canada wilh ali its
tlcpendencies, as also the Island of Cape
Breton and ali the otber Islands $ Coasts
in the Gulph and Iti ver St. Lawrence and
ir. general ali that depends on the said
countries, lands, islands and coasts witb
the Soveieignty, property, possession end
ali rights acquired by treaties or otherwise
that the Most Christian King and the
Crown of France may bave had till nowon
the said countries, islands, lands, places,
coasts and tbe mhabitants. so that the
MosiCbristian King cedes and transfer the
whole to the said King andCrown of Great
Britain and this in tbe most ampie manner
and finn, without restriction and witbout
being ab!e to avoid the said guarantee un
der anv pretence whatever, or to troublej
Great Britain in the a bove mentioned pos-
sessions."
"On bis part, His Britannic Majesty con-
sents to grani to the inbabitants o!" Canada
the free esercire of the Catholic religion.
Ile bball consequer.tly give the most exten-
ded orders ttiat bis new suhjects, Roman
Catholics, pro'ess their religion according
o the f irm? of the Church of Rome si far
as the law s of Enciand thali allow it."
'His Britannic Majesty consenta nore-
over ihnl the F rendi inhabitants or oihersjmenls respectively in sudi manner aud
who have been the suhj.xts of the Most j forni used and din cte.1 in the colonies ami
Christian King in Cannila, may tvithdraw ! Province in America, which are under
in ali stcuriiy and liberty where they may
deem proper, that they may sell their prop-ertii-s
provided it he to the suljects of Ilis
Biitannic Majesty; and that they take xilh
ihem tlieii movcable property, wilhout he
ing reslraiiieti in theirenngratu n, under any
pretence wnatever, except n delts or
criminal suils; tbe term limiteli forlheemi
gration shall be fixed at eighteeti tnonths
from the date of the exchange of the ratifi
caliti of this present treaty."
In the month of Oelober lollowing, a
proclaniation was issued by the Court Of
St. James in the following lerms:
"Whereas we have taken into our roya
consideralion the extensive and important
acquisitions insured to our Crown in Amer
ica nv tue tieiiniiive treatv ol raris, ccn-
duded at Paris, the lOih day of February
last; and desiring thal ali the beloved sub
jeets of'our Kingdom as well as ol our Gl
onies in America, may as soon ns )ossible
reap the bent fits of the great advantages
that must result therefroni, for their coni
merce, their manufactuies, and navigatimi,
we have thoughi proper, witb the adviceof
our Privy Council, to emanate our present
rovai proclamation in which we publish
aDd declare to our beloved suhjects, that
with the advice of our 6aid Privy Council
we have granted our letters patent under
tbe great Beai of Great Britain, to erect in
the countries and islands to us ceded and
confirnied by the said treaty, four Govern
menls distinct and separate, known and
called by the names of Quebec, East Flori
da, West Florida, and Grenada and limi-
lej and bounded as follo ws that is to sav;
"First the Government of Quebec
bounded on the coast of Labrador by St.
John's river, and f'iom thcr.ee by a line
drawn from the source of that river thro'
St. John's lake to the southern extreniity
oflake Nipissing, from there the said line
crossing the river St. Lawrence and lake
Chauiplain by the 45th degree of latilude
North.runs along the heights of land which
divide the rivers which fall into the St. Law
rence river, from tbose which are dischar-
getl into the sca, and aiso along the north-
ern coast ofthe bay des Chaleurs; and the
coast of the gulph St. Lawrence lo Cape
Rosiers and from thence crossing the oullet
of tbe river St. Lawrence by the Western
extremity ofthe island of Anticosti, is ter-
minated at the above mentioned St. John's
river.
"And so as toextend the free lìsheries
of our subjects to the coasts of Labrador
and to tbe adjacent islands, we deemed it
proper, wilh the advice of our said Privy
Council, to putall this coast from the St.
John's river to Hudson's strnits, togelh
er wilh the islands of Anticosti and De la
Magdeleine and ali the small islands situa-
ted on said coast, under our Government
ofNew Foundland."
"We have deemed it proper with the
adviceof our Privy Council to join the is
lands of St. John and of Cape Breton or
lsle Royah with ali the smat! islands there
to aiJjoining, to our Government of Nova
Scotia."f
"And whereas it willgreatly contribute
to the prompt settiement of our said new
Governments, lo inforni our beloved sub
jects of our parental care for the securily
ofthe liberty and properties of ihose who
are or shall be inbabitants thereof; we
have deemed it proper to publish and de
clare by our present proclamation that in
the letters-patent under the great seal o
Great Brilain bv which the said Govern-
ors are constiluied, We bave expressly
given power and direction to the Govern-
ors of our said colonics respeciively, that
as soon as the stale and the circumsiances
of our said colonies shail allow il, wilh the
advice end consent of the members of our
Council, they shall cai! and convocate
Gtneral Assembliti in the said Govern-
Tli second, tliir J and fourtlWiave no referenee
lo CaoaJi, io we onm it.
t We ujiprew here an article re'ating to the
annria'iou of the ner Alabama, lo the ileo
Pretinct ol Georgi.
our immediate Government; vvehave also
given power to our said Governors, with
the consent of our Council that the rep.
resentaiives of the people, so convo
caied as albresaid, doconsiitute andordain
laws, (tatuies, ordinances for the public
peace, their welfare ami the good gov-
luuiuii oi our saia roionies, as
also of the people ami inbabitants there-
of, assimilar as possihle, to the laws of
England and under the sanie regu'ations
and restrictions as in the olher colonies
i
anu in ine meuniiiiìe and till the said As-
seniblies may lie convocated as aforesaid,
ali those who inhabit or shall retire to our
colonie, may expect our rovai proleciion
for theenjoynient of the benefit ofthe laws
oftheRcalm of England; and to this ef
fect we have given power utider our greal
seal, to the Governors of oursaid colonies
respectively, to erect and constitute, witl
the advice of our said Councils respectively,
Courts of Judicalure and of Public Justice
in our said colonies, to bear and judge ali
cases, civil as well as criminal, according
to the law and equity and asmuch as pos
sihle in conformily to the laws of England,
witb liberty to ali persona who may ihink
themselves wronged by ibe decision ofsuch
courts, in ali civil matters, lo appeal to us
in our Privy Concil, under the usuai con
ditions and restrictions."
"We bave deemed it proper, with the
advice of our Privy Council as aforesaid,
lo give to tbe Governors and C'onn.
cils of'our said NewColonies on the Conti-
ìcnr, full power aud aulhoiity to cntcr into
agreement and bargain with the inbabitants
of our said new Colonies or with any otb
er persons who may setile therein, for tbe
lands, possessions and inheritnncesol which
t may now or hereafter be in our power
to dispose, and to grnnt them to sudi per
sons under sudi conditions and for such
small annual sums, aervituclcs and reeon
noissances as iiave succeeded in eslablish-
ing aiulsettlinp the otber colonies and un
der such other conditions as may appear to
us necessary and convenient for the advan.
t&ge of the granlees and for the ameliora
tion and settlement of our said colonies."' f
"Given at our Court, the 17tli day of
October 1763, in the third year of our
Reign.
"God Save the King."
Before we proceed any farlher in the bis.
tory of Canada, let us examine how far tbe
Canadians had a right to he satisfied with
their new Government. Ist Could they
wiilingly forgive the borritile and atrocious
murder of their innocent countrvman Mr.
Nadeau, and furiher, the cruel and in-
fernal manner by which he had come to
his death ? 2nd Could they be satisfied j
with their new masters after the ungener-
ous, illiberal and inhuman treatment they
had received from them when their own
generosity had actuated them to volunteer
their services tog-o ani) punisti the Indiana
Michilimakinac who had scalped their
unjust and tyrannical oppressors? What
gralilude and attachment could the Cana
dians feel for a race of men for whom thev
(the Canadians) had generously incurreil
the greatest peri! & privations, and wiio in
return had cruelly abantloned tliein wilhout
any succour whatever, and at the mercy
of those very barbarians against whom the
Canadians liad taken up arrns in defence oi
the unkind British ?
Sd Could tlie Canadians wh-i had been
always arcu-t uneil to be governed bv
French laws and the Coutume de Paris,
be content to see a new code of laws intro-
duced suddenly and thal tooin a Unguage
foreign to their countrv, whilst those
laws and nages by which their properties
were held and their trade was regulated,
were totally annibilated ?
j.t .t i r . il . t
ui un wnai saiisiacuon coma me
Canadian people 6ee their country di
vided and subdivided among the neighbor
ing Engìish colonies? True enough by
ff "Die ret efihi proclamation reUtet lo the
rewaids of oiti soliiien ard the lands beionjinj i0
ibe Indiana. Y ihoucht it betier io aupureas it .1
it K ?err lonr and bai do ralaiioa to iht b:i.orr I
of Canada. I
j ibis narrow policy Ei irlai,d lias been sadly
paid for its wantoii preniediiaied injustice'
to the CanaJian it'0)le. 'ricoiitierog
which was Biij'iined to ilie State of New
Ytnk gave lo Geli. Montgomery a free
entry to Canada, and by the treaty of peace
of 1783, ilie Americana bave kepi a great
pnrtion of the lormer French possessionsj
which this day enjoy the blessings of po
liticai freedom, whilst poor unlortunate
Canaila is yet under the unrelenting rod
of protui and tyrannical England.
Thus we see that in the short pace of
threeyenrs afler the British had full pos
session of Canada, they fiati already coni,
milted four great acls of injustice towarda
their new subjects.
Let us continue. Tbe treaty of peace
concluded at Paris on the lOth February
17C3 and the proclamation of King George
the Third on the 7tb October following
were not known in Canada till in 1764.
The Canadians were sadty disappointed lo
be forced to live with their new matiters,
but they had to make "a virtue of neceasi
ty" and so ihey quietly submitted.
A .Mr. Brown, a Scotchman by birth,
imporied iuto Canada a Press and Type
from Boston and established a news-paper,
which lie calted the "Quebec Gar.ette."
It is tlie sanie paper which stili exista in
the city of Quebec and is the property of
Mr. John Neilson. ,
Gen. Murray who wasnamed Governor
of Canatla this year, according to th
instruction8 be had received from the Co
lonial Minisler, formed a Legislative Colin
cil to enact laws ami regulations for the
peace and mantaiiiance of the tolony. la
the nomination of the niembers ofthe Leg
islative Council, the new subjects were en
ti rely excluiled; 6trangers totally unac-
quainted wilh tbehabils and wants of ilio
Canadian people were those selected to
draft laws for them. The sanie narrow
and limited policy which then actuated tbe
first Governor of Canada, hos always been
observed in ali provincia) appointmenta,
not however so conspicuously. The first
Legislative Council of Canada under Brit
ish Government was coinposed of the fol-
owing persons: ''William Gregory, Chief
Justice; Paulus Emilius Irving, Ilector
Theophilus Cramahe, Samuel Holland,
Adam Mabane, Thomas Dunn, Walter
Murray and Francois Mounier."
The first ad of ibis body on the I7th
Sept. 1764, was to confirm alt the judge
nients and deciaionsof the military tribunal
which had been established since the con-
quest in the cities of Quebec, Montreal
and Three Rivers. They also established
Courts ol Justice civil and criminal in tbe
three dilTerents cities above named. They
declared tbe English laws lo be the law
of t he country and ordered the Canadian
people to conform tbemselves lo those
laws. The abrunt introduction of the
English laws into Canada created discon-
teni and confusion among the Canadians
who understood nothing about this new
code. The consequence was that a great
number of the former respeclable tawyer
of the Colony were forced to quit
and passed to France, whilst the Province
was al once inundaled by English lawyers
ofthelowest class, who seemed to have
come to Canada only to ainass large for
tunes and to devour the subitanee of the
inhabitants.
These lawyers had nothing of an eleva
teti ebaracter about them but on the coi:
trary s old justice to tlie liighesfbidder and
even thohe who paid tbe musi, were not
always ceri ain to gain. The Chief Jub
lice ofthe Province whom tbe government
of Ensland liad taken from one ofthe jaila
of London, was also connecled wilh those
lawyers in their illegal t rafie of the law,
and bis injustice and want of mora!
hoiiesty were so glaring and palpable that
general Murray was at last forced to can
cel his commission and to interdici bini
the righi of pleading any case whatever in
the Province.
Armlher subject of diecontent for the
new suhjects was that thev were declared
iricompetent Xn act as lawvers in the difler-
ent Coorti o His Majesty, and alno as
jurors l hese insults atitied to tiieir inaa-
tìnssifutity in the Legislative Council, ren-
uered the Canadians quite unnappy anj
very anxious about their futare fate.
ITo bt Conltiutd.)
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