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North American. [volume] (Swanton, Vt.) 1839-1841, August 07, 1839, Image 1

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(YOL. 1, Cnrimliau ItihfM ami Canadinn Imlepeiideiicc. NO. 18.
ruiiLisHKi) uv il. j. tiioUs. SW ANTON, VT. AUGUST 7, ia30. j editkd by canadians americans
. . ; . i ; - - " - : - : r r 'za
TIIK NOKTII A?n:itI( AX
is prm.rsm-D f.vf.hv wfinf.sj.v,
l'ricr si .jO per an. in ad vane,
or S2 00 at the end of the ycir,
and in ld:e proportion Jurfir
ther dritti of pnyment.
IIISTORY OF CANADA.
(tONTIMKO.)
On the 10:li May foilowing, Congr-as
niet at the rity of Philodelphia, accordi)?
lo their lijournment. Mr. Hancock I ad
Iteore the Congressi a narrative of the af
fair of Lexington, which hail takeii plac
un t Ite r.wi Aprii prctrioua. In conse-
inrnre of thia nnwarranted attack upon
the people, Congress reso! ve il to repel
f )rtis by lorce. Ori Uie 26th May, Messrs.
Jay, Desine onJ S. Adama, were appointed
a commiitee to prepare and draft a letter
t the people of Cannda, inviting them lo
join the American people in their struggle
against oppressimi. The next day the
H.lilres to the Canadian people was read to
Congrega and was reconimitlcd, bui on the
'l'.Hh it was rcad nnew and approved of.
h wai franici in the followiug word :
TO TUE OPPRESSE INHB1TANTS Or
CANADA.
Vi ii'ii'h and L'ountrymen,
Alarmeli bv the designa of an aibitrary
iiiinisuy, loextirpate lhe righta and liber
ties bit A mei ieri, a L'use of common
ìn'.ì'jt'r conspired with the dictales of hu
iii.i.my, in uring un to cali your nttention,
liv nur late address, to ibis very iniportant
olij-Ct.
Sirici i h conclusimi of the late war, we
lnve Im'cii happy in consideiing ynu as fel-low-Mihji'cts,
and f'rom the commencemen t
'l'tlie piedoni pian l'or subjugating iliecon
i .tii-iii, we nave viewed vou s lelinv suf-
;cr with us. As we were bolli enlitled
hv liu liounty of an indù Igeili Creator to
tu'i'itotn , and being bolli devoted by the
crui'l edirts nfa despolic admìnilration, to
mini ai min, we perceived the fate of the
IV testar. I nini Catholie. cdonies lo be
'i'i.iirly linked togelher, and therelore in-
ifd you lo join with us in resolving lo he
i -', and in rejccting, with disdain, the
''itiTHol slavery, however artfully pol-
We niost bincerely condole with you on
l'i- arrivai of tini day, in the course of
h IiÌcIi, the min conld iiot sbine on a single
irriiian In ali your exten.sive dominions. Uè
H-sori'd, ihat your unmerited degredation
has engaged ihe most unl'eignfd pilyofyour
-i-ter colonica ; and we fiatter oursekeg
will noi, by tamely hearing ihe yoke,
snirer that pity to be supinlanted by con
tempi. Whn hardy aite;npts are made to de
prive nien of rights bestowed by the Al
miclily, when avenues are cut througb ihe
uhm solenni oonipnets for ihe admission of
';iitÌMn, when the plighteil faith of gov.
unt ci ases to givi seeuritv to dutiful
vitijivts, an i when the insidious stratagems
:i :il manoeuvres of ieace become more
lerrhle ihan h;1 sanguinary operationa of
war. it m hifh lime for them to assert those
' jliis, ar,d, wiih honest ùndignation, op
p the torrenl of oppression rushing in
Jjvin i!,pn).
Hy the intro l jetion of yourpresent form
of govi-rnment, or rather present form oi
' Tanny, you and your wives end your
!iiiilreii are made slaves. You bave noth
that you can cali your own, and ali
ne fruii of your labor and imlustry mav
taken from you, whenever an avariious
vvernor and a rapacious council may in
1 ne io demani! them. You are liable by
''i'ir ejicis to be transporied into f.ireign
" 1 J n tries to fight battles in which you
sve no interest, and to spili your b'oodn
n!!icts i'rom which neilher honor nor
" n !ument can be derived : Nay, the en-
0( v,,ur very religion, on the
"ym eystem, dependa on a legislature in
''.'eh you bave no share, and over which
j lnve no control, and your priests are
Kt'tl t i eT:'i!sion. bin:shinént a nJ I
"' ii, u-ìieiieer their wealih and ivisses-i
M 1r'H fìir:i;h sulTìrient temtitation. Thev
'r."t he sur( t ti a t a virluous prince wiil
' a.vs fiil the throne, and should a wicked
f care king concur with a wicked min-
rv in extractinj the treasure and strength
vour country, it is imposMble to con
"u to what variety and to what ex
iiies of wretchedness you may, under
' nresent estahliahment be redùcetl.
t reinformed you bave atready been
e ujon to waste your lives in a contest
ut. Should you, by compìving in
mtance, assent to your new establish-
and a war break out with France,
-..4 umi wtti tur- ma tur ftlfTIll . .
' rri,h in expeditions a;a.W their isl-1 -
in the West Indica. j
'tcir:n-tbe presuracd lha: tfcese con-! is
' 'J f W 4 ! ! K ani on tri i I-. .
sideratiuns will bave no weight with you,
or il.at you are o lost to ali aense of honor.
We can uever beìieve that the present race
ofCanadiana are so degeneraled as to pos
aess neilher the pirit, the gaìlantry, nor
the cournge of their anceators. You cer-
fainly wiil nt permit the infamy and dis-
grace ol sucri pusnlanimity to rest on your
own head, and the consequences of it on
your childreu lorever.
t, l'or our pari, are determined to
live free, or not ai ali ; and are resolved,
that posterity shall never reproach us with
having brought sluves into the world.
Permit uà again to repeat that we are
your friend, not your enemies, and be not
imposed upon by those who may endeavor
to creale animofiities. The taking of the
fott and militarv stores at Ticonderoga and
Crown l'oitit, and the armed vesselson the
Lake, waa dictated bv the great law of
self-presertalion. They were intended to
annoy us, and lo cut oli that friendly in
lercourse and communication, which bas
hiiherto subsisted between vou and us.
We hope it has given you no uneaainess,
and you mav rely on our assurances, that
i '
mese colonica will pursue no measures
wbatever, Lut sudi aa friendshiu and a re
gard for our mutuai safety and interest may
sugoest.
Aa our concern for your welfare entitles
u to your friendship, we presume vou will
not by doing us injury, reduce usto the
disagreeable necessity of treating you as
enennes.
We yet entertain hopes of your uniting
wuri us in the delence of our common hb
erty, and there is yet reason to believe,
t i at should wejoin tu implonng the atten
tion of our sovereign, to ihe unmerited and
unparalltlled eppressions of bis American
subjecls, !ie will at lengih be undeceived,
and forbid a licentious ministry any longer
io noi in the rum ol the rights of man-
kii.'J.
The president of Congres3 signed ibis
address, and Messrs. Dickinson and Mifs
llin were charged with translau'ng and
printing it, and to send 1000 copies to
Canada to be distributed among the inhab-
itants of that province.
To be Conlinued.
Du CALVET'S MEMOIR.
Trantlated for the Xorth American.
(cOJfTINUED.)
Extract of Mr. Du Calvel's letter to the
C'anadiacs.
In tlu midst of ali my misfortunes a
friend was fouml, who by his kindness,
lessened the severity of my caplivity. Mr.
L'Evesipe continued bis generosity to
wards nif, and even in the very teeth of
despotisra he never ceased to befriend me,
ami to declare openly,that I was illtreated,
and Gov, Ilaldimand never dared to ill
treat him.Mr.Dumas St. Martin, following
the dictates of his heart, became ihe adoji
led father of my son, who had been left
entirely to the care of my servants and
who was nearlv without clothes. and in
the most complete state of maciation.
Mr. DuChesnay opened bis purse to stop
the sale of my property, which had been
sei.ed in consequence of the illegal
jndgment rendered against me ; he even
carne to my celi and would suffer no one
to witness his generosity towards me.
WhiLst on one band I was persecuted,
on the other band friends tried ali they
could to hea! the wounds of my bleeding
heart.
After my liberation, my friends offered
me 2000 guineas to aid me in my misfor
tunes, and to obtain juslire from ihe ad
ministrators of the laws, but I never shall
be a burthen to my friends if I can help it.
The hislory of my imprisonment alone
afTects, stirs, and undoubledly, sofienskind
bearts, but governments never pkjue ihem-
selves upon iheir tenderness. In our
bliMHfy days, the first quality of a minister
consista of consummate insensibility; and
to judge of minisiers generally by their
acts we should take them for men entirely
destitute of ali feeling, anJ who glory in
ceasing to be humane beings. But the bis
tory of the caplivity of a whole people or
of large numbers chained ti p together, or
subjecl to be put in irons at the mere whim
of their governor, ougbt at least to alami
the administration of the country ; becaune
a caìamity, a general oppression ia alwaya
j a harbinger of an approaching revolution.
i .1 t ll 1 L"l
uch lhe hornb,e 61luat'on unJer wh,ch
e province of Quebec has groaned and
yet groani.ng. I could coont by hun-
dreds the companions of my caplivity,
taken from the mosl respectable class of
the people.
Nantes of the principal gentlemen who
were prisoners with me at Quebec.
Valentino Jautaud, Lavnjer.
Fleuri Mesplet, Printer.
Francois Cazeau, Merchant.
Charles Hay, do.
Louis Carignan, do.
Joseph Dufort, do;
Pellion, Surgeon.
. Burton, Piker,
Bostic,
Williams,
La Terriere,
La Vallee,
Jacques Noels,
Director of tht Forges.
Blacksmith,
Shoemaker,
Hamel,
Cazettej',
Foucher,
Liebert, jr.
Cazeau, jr.
D'IIelzen, jr.
The inquisitions of Spain and Portuga
in the strongest exerlions of their mona
chal fanaticism, never filled their infernal
dungeons with greater rapidity than the
state inquisition established at Quebec
luring the late troubles, filled the mil
itary prisons of that city. The mere men
tioriof the name of Bostoniani, even pro
nounced with indifference, was a aure
passport for a lodging in one of the damp
cells. Not only that, but the bare auspi
cion of not nbborring that name was a
crime against the state suflìcient to cause
atonce the incarceration of a citizen. The
Canadians were taken by dozeus or more
at once, 8nd torn from their families; no
regard was paid to the tears of a fathèr or
a mother, of a wife or of the children who
were doomed to certain ruin by the incar
ceration ol their friends. The Canceaux
(a prison-ship) was very soon overloaded
with these victims; such a large number
condemned to bad nourishment and to
filth, were very soon visited with infec
tious diseases; contagion was spread ali
over the ship and would hnve extended to
Quebec, had not the vessel been removed
to Iste d'Orleans a few mile3 below the
city.
In the midst of ali these horrors, as if to
increate their ravages, Gen. Haldimaod
under the pretence of economy, reduced
lhe rations of the prisoners. The Capt.
of the prison-ship, recoilecting that be be-
longed to the human species, thought that
he could allow one of the prisoners to go
end beg on the Island from the inhabitants
some victuala lo support his unfortunate
companions. It was not long before these
wretched men were reduced to complete
nakedness, perishing with languor and
starvation. V ainly in their despair did
they petition the Governor for a trial.
More than 50 men were condpmned lo ex
pire in ali the agonies of deep misery, ren
dered a thousand times more horrible by
their nudity.
A large number of the prisoners belonf-
ing to lhe respectable class of the citizens,
had spent ali the ' resources of their for-
tunes, to mitigale their sufferinga. They
were bo rnuch reduced as to appear like
skc.ctons, and in their 6tate of complete
nakedr.esa were revolting to human nature.
Some well-meaning persons inspired by
Christian charity, went from house to house
to solieit donations in favor of the pri
soners who were complctely destitute.
But General Ilaldimand waa not a man
for balf measures; not satisfied with hav
ing diminished the rations ailowed by gov.
ernment, he reproved under the strictes
prohibitions and threats, this act of charity
by the citizen, and condemned these mis
erale vidima to perish by the most horri
ble and frightful starvalion.
The unfirtunate AxDRE.a prisoner whose
family'i name waa never known, during
a whole year and a half, was reduced to
three quarters of a pound of bread and a
little water each day in the heatof aummer.
During the winter, which is long and severe
in those northern cliraatcs.so much aoaa to
freeze wild beasti in the foresta, he was
net ailowed Are in bis cell. 1 1 is wife at
la&t found out the a bude of his captivity ;
she carne to comfort ber husband with nome
refreshment she had begged with bitter
tears ; but she waa denied the pleasure of
seeing him ; she was reproached as being
guilty of crime against the Government,
because ade felt for her husband, and was
ordcred io leave the province. IIow many
other victims were imprisoned in thedark
ness ofdamp cells, and died wilhout ever
hearing the voice of a friend.
Apropos: Europe has not yet forgotten
the history of the ' Iron Maak,' that famous
prisoner confined in the Bastile at the lat
ter end of the reign of Louis XIV. Well,
there exists yet, or at least there existed
when I left Quebec, a prisoner of that de
scription. They hadconfined him in an
apartment of the upper story of the jail,
a man of high standing as far as we could
judge by some few chances we had of see
ing him ; the sentry had received orders to
fire upon him if he dared to show himself
throngh the iron grates which fastened hi
Windows. Public suspicion in the Prov
ince, establinhed belief that this unknown
individuai was one of those French gentle
men who, in the last troubles, carne and
staid a short space of tinte at Quebec, and
whose mission is up to this day a politica
mystery. Alter having eutertained you
with the recital of so many inhuman
actions, this refiection strikes my mind.
France which, according to English
notions, ia lhe first despot of the world,
thought it her duty to spili the blood of the
despolic Lully ; there is nevertheless a
great difference in the violences which
were committed at Pondichery and those
which are daily enacled at Quebec, which
surpass the former, as well in number as
in the darkness of the deeds. What shall
be the fate of the governor of Quebec.
Time alone will show.
(To be continued.)
From the Detroit Post.
Preskntment or the Grand Jury of
Detroit, (Mich.) The Grand Jury,
empannelled and sworn, on the ISth i list. ,
in the Circuit Court of the United Staies
for the District of Michigan, to enquire
into otTences against the laws of the Union
committed wilhin lhe district, do present,
that under a due sense of their Bolemn ob-
ligarions, they have, for ten davs, been
diligently and laboriously engaged in the
execution of the trust confìded io them.
Their attention has been engaged in the
investigation of a military expedition al
ledged to have been organized and set on
foot, on this side of the river Detroit, a
gainst the British Province of Upper
Canada, a part of the territorial dominions
ofa nation with whom the United States
are in amity and at peace. That such an
expedition, feeble in ite means and strength,
disjointed in its organization, not united in
council, and without specifìc objectofaU
tack. oid take place from this to lhe op
positc shore, was suflìcienfiy proved to the
urand Jury: liut against none of the
survivors of the expedition waa the evi,
dence decisive nongh to justify the in
dietment of any of ihem. In relation to
some of those who lost their hvea on the
occasion, or havesince ceased to exist, not
much difficulty was experienced in aseer
taining their prticipation in theunlawful
expedition of December last: Bui lhe bus
iness of the grand jury was with lhe iiving
and not the dead. Failing. therefore, af
ter the examination of sixty witnesees, to
bring home, agreeably tolaw, to any per-
son, the alledged offencc of a violation of
the peaceful and neutral relations of the
United States, they bave deemed it their
duty simply to present the faci to the court,
and lo add a few brief reflections upon the
subject. j
The organization and setting on foot.!
wilhin the territorial limita of the United
States, or in their porta of any military or
marine expedition against nations with
whom ihey are at peace, are in direct vio
lation of their own laws, aa well as the
law of nations. Such an expedition is an
act of sovereignty, which no set of men
whether citizen or the subjecta of a foreign
ower, can lawfully aulhorize or carry in
to execution. It ia an act of sovereignity
which belonga to the nation in its aggre
gate capacity alone, or lo the government,
the legitimate organ of its will, to perform.
No principle is bette? esiabìished, none of
greater importance, than tfiia, both as re
gards the domestic peace and the exterior
relationa of nations. In the earlv inter-
course of the United States, as a aover
eign power, with France and Great Bri-
tain, this government was ofien called r.p-
on to a (limi and maintain thia great prin
ciple, ao esseittial lo the '.ìpre macy of law
at home, and to the prrservalion of peace
abroad. The eorreepondence of Mr. Jef
ferson, under the direction of Preaident
Washington, with the British and French
envoya, is full and conclusive to the point
inquestion. Common acnse and common
humanity equally inculcalea iti sacred ob
servance. The domestic iranquility of
atates, the question of peace or war with
their neighboring or distarà powe ra, could
never ealely be ailowed to rrpose in the
band8ofafew individuali", without the
autbority of law, and contrary tu ila high
obiigationa. The blood and treasure of
millions of human beings, the incalculable
calamiiiea ol war ought never to be coni
ini lied to the will, to the passiona and the
reafiitments, of irresponsible persons, when
reHponsible governments, intiluted by the
people themselvea, have those freat inter
eati entrusted to their exclusive charge.
While, however, the grand jury con
derhn the repeat ed violation of the neutra!
laws of the country, and view with deep
concern and regret the predatory incur
aions from our shorea into a neighboring
province, perceiving" in their progress and
resulta nothing bui individuai suffering,
they are free to confess, that Iheir ym
pailiies, in common wilh those of their
fellow citizena, are alwaya enlisted with
those of any nation earnestly engaged in
the assertion of its liberty and indepen
dejice. They hold the right of self gov
ernment to be inherent in every peoplej
and whenever they ee, in any opprcssed
country, tho banners of freedòm unfurled,
their anxioua bolicitudes, their bn-H wiahea,'
their mosl lervent hopes, attenti the fflorta
of that country io relieve itself from the
fetters of tyranny and oppression.
The attention of the Grand Jury has
alsobeen specially attracted to acoinplaint,
that a combination was entered into some
montlrn ago, in this city by certain Britibl
subjects and others, to the efl'ect that in the
event of a war between the United State
and Great Britain, the persona engaged in
the alleged combination would enter the
British 6erviceand assist the enemy toaub
due the aims of this nation in battle. , A
great number of witnessea have been ex
amined on ih is subject. Ths oniy evi
dcnce.except rumor, which the Grand Ju
ry have been able to oblain of the reality
of the charge ia a letter written by a Brit
ish subject in Detroit to another in Toron
to, dated in December, 1837, in which the
wriler states, in subsl ance, that in case ol
a war, between two and three bundred per
sons had agreed to join the British against
the United States. Called, however, be
fore the Grand Jury, this per son admilted
that he had written such a letter, but ata
ted thathe knew nothing of the fact him
self having derived hi information from
another individuai. That individuai, up
on his examination, said that he had been
invited toaign an agreement in writingv
giving the pledge to join the British in case
of a war, but that he had not seen the
agreement. The person alledged to have
given this invitation declarea upon oatli;
that he neilher invited that nor any other
individuai lo aign such an agreement, nor
does be know of the existence of any agree
ment, verbal or written, of the kind. He
admitted that he had expressed the opin
ion, that in the event ofa war between the
two nations, four or five hundred British
subjects, on this side, would co over and
join the British standard on the other side:
. I . L . 111- i . . . .
mai ne wouiu inmseii ao so, because he
waa a British subject ; and that he believ-.
ed about one hundred and fifty persona, he
among them, did go over, during the late
troubles on this frontier. His teatimony,
however, was very vague and general aa
to inoivuats, implicating no citizen, native
or naturalized, in the nefarioua intentions
imputed to sòme, nor anr British aubiect
eitherof respectability or known to this
community generally. Ile himself went
over in hi business capacity.
Anoiher complaint waa incidentally
brought to the notice of the Grand Jury."
It was stated that a young gentleman, tn
respectahle standing, had called nnón a!
colored person in this city to induce him
ann otner persona of the Bame description,
to iinrte and take un erma on the if of
the British government, in case of war.
The Grand Jury bave been able, neilher
from the two individuala in question, nor
from any aource, lo oblain one particle of
trut h of the complaint.
Upon the whole, the Grand jory bave
been nnable to found any further proceed
ing upon the information received on ihese
aabjecta, than to remark, that the namea
ofa few of our most honebt and faithful
naturalized citizens have been coupled w.'th
those imputed transactiona, and that they
bave, nodoubt truly, diaowned ali agency
in any thing of the kind, ex pressi ng th
utniost indignation at the imputation, as
weil aa towarda the object of the alledged
conspiracy. The Grand Jory further anx
iouly hope, that foreign eubiecta.who have
neither been nor intend to be naturalized,
but nho have, for years, enjoyed the prò
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