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! ' YOL. 1, Cui a di a ri night and Canni! imi In rie pendente. NO. 48.1 ì i.; !! i rUBUSHED BV H. J. THOMAS SWAKTON, VT. MARCII 11, 1840. EDITED BV CNADIANS L A.MERICANS. aS!" THE 50KTI1 AMEKICAX IfilPl'BLISHI D EVCRV WFIDNESDAY, Pria $1 BOper an. in advance, or $2 00 at the end of the year, and in Hkc proportion for fur ther delay of payment. Originai. " HISTORY OF CAJCADA. (cojìtuicid.) The want of specie wai one of the g reat tobstaclea in the way of luccessf ul ope niions io Canada, and accordine to the jaiuuctions fiven to the Commiastoners, wbo had ber r named by Congres lo pro crei northward, notice bad been given to the Canadiaa people that they would noi be forced to take the Continenti! bilia ,jinst their will. Nothing waa more aifcult al that criticai juncture than to procure hard money;-yet Congress con tnved an expedient, whieh.it waathoughl iroold answer in the prcaent circumslan tfi, which wato encourage autlera to follow the American army iuto Canada, who should engagé to give the commissa rJ ali the specie they should receive for their articlea, and in return the commisa rr wii to give them drafts to be counter rgned by the General, and which were to be paid by the Preaident of Congres. On lhe"l5iu Feb. Congres jave an or der to the secret cotnmiltee to deliverto Col. Maxwell 150 atanda of arma for the uieofiuch companie of hia battalion as might be in want of them, in order that they might proceed without any further deliy towarda Canada, where they were very much needed. Such waa the conditionof the American irmy in Canada, that there waa but little prupecl of maintainingthemsclves, if they wrre not apeedily reinforced. Intlieirre epectit lettere, General Schoyler, Woo ir and Arnold, had tried to impres upon the members tf Congress the absoluie ne rfuity of being less tardy in their proceed mgi, and more particularly in aending new troopa to .Canada. But unfortunate U, with that body aa wilh ali olher delib entive bodiea, lime passed in discussion; the ordera had lo be tranaroited often tn disteni parla of the United Colonie; thotc who received these ordera were for the moit part totally onprepared (or earry ing them into cxeculion; thiahad to be re pmented to Congreas, and again Uken into consideratioo; and in ad l.tion to thia, ordera were frequently eaunterraanded. These delay of course proved ruinou to the American cauae in Ctoada.where every thing depended upon ite eflìcacy and promptneaa of the raeans fui iato the hands of the Commander. Congress on the 16lh Feb., pasied the fakiwing resolution: ' JJfreiWa, That the secret committee be dirrcted to furnish colonel St.Clair'a WiUiion with arms, and that the prest tat write to colonel St. Clair, and direct N to Die the utmost diligence in getting battalion ready, and to march the Opiniti, one at a time, aa fast as they ' begot ready, lo Canada, wilh ali poa- Ve expedition." Meura. Duane, Nelson, Gervy, Smith ,! i.lmg were chosen a committee to iider what were the best waya and for jopplying gold and ailver for the :??ort of the Provincial army in Canada, as toully impossible for the Ameri- fe to aupport themselTea in that frotioct witb Continental bilia, which the adiaa peasantry would not tak in ekacge for their Droduc. We abati lo speak in the eonrae of thia hietory, :th arbitrary eonduct ol Gen. Arnold o tried to force theae bilia on the Miaa people, declarìng by proclama that ali those who hai refuaed to take funestai money, ahould be treated as nenie of the American cause. No -wt eould be more impolitic than that Araold on thia occaaion. Cocgrets Cadine the expedition tra ' fom Witìg prosperoua in Canada, and lgrtat deal of the miafortanea now jÌEg ibtt ampaìgn, su to be traced aduetof iht officerà at the head of the expedition. ordered on the 15th. that a committee ol thrre ahould be named to proceed immedialely lo Canada in order toenquire ialo the existindifTiculties, and atso to auggest auch remediea aa should be thotight proper. "The Coifgren, taking into conaderalion the report of the committee of correspon dence, Reaolved, That a committee of three (two of whotn to be membera of Congres) be appointed to repair to Canada, there to pursue auch instructiona aa ahall be giv en them by Congreas : The membera chosen, were Dr. Benj. Franklin, Mr. S. Chaae, and Mr. Carrol, of Carrollton. Reaolved, That Mr. Carroll be requeat ed to prevail on Mr. John Carroll to ac coinpany the committee to Canada, to as sist them in auch matterà aa they shall think ueeful : That this Congreas will make provision to defray any expensra which may attend thia measure. Reaolved, That eighl tons of powder be immediately aent to Canada, for the use of the forcea there." Two daya afierwards Mecsrs. J. Adams, Whyte and Sherman were appointed a committee to prepare instructiona to those who had been named to proceed to Cana da, which instructiona were read and duly approved on the 20th March, after having been debated paragraph by paragraph they were as follows: Intlructiont io Benjamin Franklin Samuel Chase, and Charles Carroll, of Carrollton,Commissioners appointed to go to Canada. Gentlcmen, You are with ali conve nient dispatch, to repair to Canada, and to make known to the people of that coun try, the winliee and inientions of the Con grega with re8ject t them. Hepresent to them, that the arm of the United-Colonies, having been carrifd into that province for the purpose ol'frustrating the designa of the British court araint our common liberties, we expect not only to defeat the houlile machinaiions of ijovornor Carleton againat us, but that we ahall put it in the jn)wer ofour Canadian hrethren to pursue such measuresibr securiug their own freedom and happiness, as a gent-r-ous love of liberty aud sound policy shall diciate to them. Inforni them, that in onr judgment, their interest and ours are inseparably nnited; that it is impossible we can hi reduced to servile submission to Great Britaiu with- out their sharing our fate: And, on the olher hand, il we shall ohtain, as we tloubt not we shall, a full rstsblishment of ur righi, it deiwnds wholly on their choice, whether thev will partieipate wilh us in those blessings, - or siili remain 6ubject to every acl ol tyranny, which British minis teri shall please to exercise over them. Urge alt auch arguments as your prudence ehall suggest, to enforce our opinion con cernine the mutuai interest of the two countries, and to convince them of the im- possibility of the war being conclude! to the disadvantage of these colonie, if we wisely and vigorously co-operate with each olher. To convince them of the upnghtness of our inientions towarda meni, you are io declare, that it ia our inclination, that the people of Canada may set up auch a lorm of government, a will be most likely, in their ludgement, to produce their nappi- ness: And you are, in me sirongesi lerms, to assure them, that it is our earneat de aire to adoot them into our union, aa a aister colony, and lo seenre the asme gen eral aystem of mild and eqoal lawe for them and for ourselves, wilh only auch lo cai differences aa may be agreeable to each colony respeclively. Asaure the people ot Canada, inai we have no anorehension that the French will take any pari with Great-Britain ; but, that it i their interest, and we have re aon to believe their inclination, to coltivale a friendly intercoorse with these colonie. Yoo are from this, and for such other reaions as mav appear proper, to urge the necessity the people are under of iinraedi otely taking some decisive aiep, to pat themselvea under the protection of the Uni ted-Colonies. For expediling auch a mea- aure, you are to ex pi aio to them our me ihod of eoliecting the sene of ihe people, and conducting our affair regularly by commitiees of observation and inspection in the aeveral distrieta, and by convention and committee of eafety in the serersl co lonie. Recommend ibete mode to them Explain tothem the Datore and principles of government among freemen j deveiop ing, in contrast to those, the base cruel, and insidious design invoived in the late acl of parliament, for raaking a more effec tual provieion for the eovernment of the Drovinc ol Uuebec, ndeavour io sura ulate them by motive of glory, as well a interest, to assume a part in a contest, by which they muti Le derjJy affecled ; and to aipire to a porlion ol that power, by which they are ruled ;-and not to remain the mere spoils aoJ prey of conquerora and lorda. You are further to dettare, that wfbold aacred the righi of conscience, and may promise to the whole tieople, solemnly in our name, the free and undieturbed exer ciseof thfir rcligion ; and, lo the cletgy, the full, perfect, and peaceable poaseMiou and enjoymenl ot ali their eslates ; that the government of every thing relaiing to their rcligion and clergy, shall be left en ti rely in the hands ol the good people of that province, and such legislature as they shall conslitute ; provided, however, that ali denominaiiona of Christiana be rqually entitled to hold offices, and enjovcivil priv ilegea, and the freeexercise of their reli gion, and be totally exrnipt from the pay ment of any ti the or tssea for the aupport of any religion. Inlorm them, that you are vested, by thi Congress, with full imwer to etiect these purposes; and, thereiore, press them to have a complete representaiion of the people assembled in convention, with ali possible expedition, to deliberale concern ing the establishment of a form ol govern ment, and an union with the United Col onica. Aa to the terni of union, insist on the propriety of their being siniilar to those on which the other colonie unite. Should they object to this, report to this Congress the objections, and the terni on which alone they will come into our union. Should they agree to our terms, you are to promise, in the name of the United Colonies, that we will defend and protect L HnA..L f " n ri (w4 flvnlnat ali . n um iu. UIC ptUIC Ul vouaua agallisi an vi.viinirn, in the same manner as we will defend and protect any of the United Coloniea. You are to establish a free press, and lo give directionj for the Irequent publication of such piece as may he of service to the cause of the United-Colonies. You are toaettle ali dispute between the Canadians and the continemal troops, and to rnake such regulalions relating the reto, as vou shall judge proper. You are to make a strict and impaniai enquirvinto the cause and imprisonment of colonel Du Frpe, lieutenant-colonel Nefeu, major St George Dupre', and major Gray, officerà of the militi, and of John Fraser, Eaquirtr 4t a judgeof llie pOllCe oC Montreal, and take such orders concerning them as you may judge proper. In reforming any abuses you may ob seve in Canada, establishing' and enforcing regulations for the preservation ol peace and trooù order there, and coniposing dif ferences between the troopa of the Uni ted-Colonies and the Cnnadians, allolhcers and aoldiers are required to yield obedi- ence to you ; and, to enlorce thedecisions that you or any two ol you may make, you are empowered to suspend any military offi- cer from th exercise ol bis cimmission, un the plea8ure of the Congress hall be known, ifyou, or any iwo of you, shall think il expedient. . You are also empowered to sit and vote as members of councils of war, in directing fortifications and defences to be maJe, or to he demolished, by land or by water; and to draw ordera on the preaident for an v sums of money, notexceeding one hundred thousand dollari in the whole, to delray the expense of the works. Lastly, You are, br ali the meana you can use, io promoie me execuiion oi me rc8olutions now made, or herealier to be made. in Co ne resa. On motion, Reaolved, That the followmg additional instructions be given to the coui- missioners aforesaid : You are empowered and directed to prò mote and encourage the trade of Canada with the Indian nations, and io grant pass porta for the carrying it on, as far as it may consisi wun ine uaitriv ui me iiwjjs, and the public rood. You are also directed and authorized to assure the inhahitanta of Canada, that their commerce wilh foreign nations shal!, in ali reepeets, be più uppn an equal foot ing with, and encouraged and protected in the same manner, ai the trade ofthe United Coloni. You are also directed to use every wise and prudent measure to intrduce ami give credit and circulation lo the continemal money in Canada. . In case the formerreaolotion of Congreas respecting the English Americsn troops in Canada has not been carried into etfret, you are directed to use your best endea vours for forming a battalion of the New York troopa in that country, and to ap poiat the field and olher officerà out ofthe gentlemen who have eoniinoed there dar ing the campaigo, accordine to their re apeclive ranks and merit. And, ifit should befound ìmpracticable, you are to direct icch of them as are provided for in the four battalion now raising in New York, to repair to their reapective corp. To enable you to carry ibi resolotion fato effect, you are furniihed with blank cm mÌMioni, signrd by the presìdent. Betohed, That the memoria! from the Indian traderr rceiding t' Montrtal, be delivered to the corami sto nera going io Canada. The diaught ofthe commission being taken into cuntideration, and debated by paragraph, waa agreed to a follows. The delegate f the Uuited Colonie of New Hampshire, Le. &c. lo Benjamin Franklin, L. L. D. meni ber of the rovai academy of aciencea at Paria, F. R.'S. Le. Slc. one of the delegate of the colony of Pennsylvania; Samuel Chaae, Esq., one of the delegale of the colony of Ma ryland, and Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, Eq., of the aaid colony of Maryland, greeting: Know ye, that we, repoing special trust and confidencain your 7.eal, CJelity, abilitie, te assiduily, do, by these presents, conslitute and sppoint you, or any two of you, commiasionera for and on behalf of us, and ali the people of the UnK ted Colonies, whom we represent, io pro mote, or lo forni an union between the said coloniea and the people of Canada, according to the instructiona herewith de livered yuu, and such aa you may hereafter receive; and to execute ali aueh matterà and thinga as you are or shall be directed by your aaid instructions; and we do re quire ali officerà, soldiers, and othera who may facilitate your neguciation, or pro mote the auccess thereof, to aid and assist youtherein; and you are, from time to time, to trsnsmit and report your prored- uigs to Congress. This commission to continue in force lill revoked by thia or a future Congress. Daied at Philadelphia, thia SCth dayof March, 1776. By order of Congreas." 1 Gen. Schuyler had been instrucled bv Congress to establish provision atores at suitable places on the Hudson river be- ween Aibany and the Highlands, so as to upply such troops as were called out on their march io Canada. Congress on the I7lh Feb., pasaed the following resolulions. " Thst the offer made bv general Schuv- ler to tiay at the rate of four ahillings per day, l'or each of the sieda hired to forward the Pennsylvania and JNew Jersey lorc in their march to Canada, be complied with: ' That the officerà in the continemal ar- tnies be enjoinsd to use their utmost dili gence in preventing every kind ofplunder; and that ali who shall onend here.n, be punished according to the striclrst disci pline: , I hat the resolvea or Uongress for en- couraging sutiers, to aliena the army in Canada, be published, with the Informa tion ihai hosiery, ahoes, coarse hnens, aoap, rum, sugar, and wine, are much wanted there: That a few artificers, such as armour- era, smiths, carpenters, harness-makers and wheelwrights, with proper persons to superintend them, he forthwith sent to Canada. - That it be recommended to the conven tion of New York, that auch of the offi cer, who served faithfully in Canada the last campaign, as are willing lo continue there, he prelerred, in the new leviea of the colony of New York, to others.'' Before resuming the account-of the military operations ofthe Provincial army in Canada, we must recali to the raemory ofour readera the fact that Congress had, oc the 25lh January, exprcssed it desire ihat a funeral oration should be delivered by Dr. Smith, in honor of th brave Mont gomery, and of thosa officerà and soldiera who fought and fell with him in maintain- ing the principici of American liberty. This funeral oration wai delivered on the 19th February following; and in order to aitend ihia oration, and outofrespect for the memory of Gen. Montgomery, and thoe who had fallcn with him, Congress ad- jonrned to the next day, without proceed ing to any other business. We hall for the moment lay aside the proceeding of Congress in regard to the Canadian expedition, and will turn the at- tention of our readera to what waa going on in that province. We have already given, we think, a pretty correct account of the most important eventa which look place in Canada aince the Americana had invaded it, and have taken great paini to give aa accorate an account aa possible of the attack on Quebec. The next day, Ist Jannary, 1776, be gan a new year, which waato be peenliar ly unhappy for the friend of liberty in C. nada. The last hope of redemption for that doomed country had already vanished in the death of the gallant Montgomery, which wa to be sueceeded by eventi yet more appal'ing to the hearta of those who hated British tyranny. The poor Cana dian were yet doomed to te the taveaof lUe Brhith, and in spile of their gallant rrsistanee to trans-ailantie oppreion they were yel to nfTcr more than they had al ready done. A with individua! o il i with nationa a Irivial circumstance will often afleci them and lurn the scale for or against a whole people happine. ' On the In Jnuary, the cbromahder of Quebec, gai e ordera that ih cornea which laid near Vres-dt-Vitl battrj'jhovld U broughtinto the city, which order wa im mediately fuISHed, On the same day the bodiea of thirieen individuala were brought in, among rubici) were found those of capi, M'Pherson and of capi. Cheeseman, both aid to general Montgomery, Thee bo die were both identified. h w not tilt that day that the Bfitish wer apprizedr through two American desertershat Gen. Montgomery was missine, nd that it wa appoied in the American camp that he waa among rhe ilun. li waa nfortuiiate ly too true ; after a careful examination of the bodiea whwh had been brought in froa Pres-de-Ville, the body ofthe General waa recognised. On the 4ih, eapt. Anderson, whor ai we- have already nientioned, had Ieen killed al the assault ot Sault-u-Mltlot, wa buried with military honour. On thi ame day General Montgomery wa also buried, but without any cercrnonv what- ever. It waa then on false informalion that Botta, in hi history of the American Revolution, cay thst general CaTleton or dered that the body of the American Gen eral ahould be interred with ali the amai military honors. Botta makfa thi the base ora grand eulogiuni of the ublime generosity and noble eenlimenta which acluated the Goveroor af Canada. Sir Guy Carleton might bave been aB ,honet man in private life, but in hi officiai ca pacity wefind him a paltronra tyrant, and aeoward; ele why did he anction and approveth cruel and indignant treatment inflicted on Col. Eihan Alien? TW he should order a coffin for the body of Gen. Montgomery is nothing more nor less than tvhttt Ifìv .ti n ...Ai. LI ,1 A 1 .t remain of a fellow being. We are vet to be convinced that aentimenia of penerosity and philanthropy are prevalent among Brit. ish officerà ; more particularly toward their enemie in arms. At any rate the hiatorv of Canada thus far fornihea not a aingle nstance. To cloae oor remarki on those unfortu- nate and noble victim who fell in freedom'a cauae under the wall ol Quebee, we copy ) the lollowing nota in relation to Capt. MacPheraon, one of the aidv-de-camps of uen. .Montgomery, from Smith Hitory ofCanada voi. '2, page 110, -aa follo wi: "M'Pherson waia very promisingyoung man, whose father resided in Philadelphia, , and had made a considerale fortune by Privateering ; ibis gentleman had a broib er in the 16th Regiment in the Eogiish . service, at the time of Montgomery' ex pedition in Canada, and who was aa vio lent in favor ofthe English Government, as the General's Aide rie Camp was enthu iaitic in the cause of America the latter had accompanied bis General a day or two previoui to the attack in which they both ! losi their lives, to view and meditate on the spot where Wolfe had fallen: on hia re turn he lound a lelter from tua brother, the Enplish officer. fullof the Litiroat r. proaches against him for having entered into the American aervice, and eontaining a pretty direct wih, that if he woold not ahandoi) it, he might meet with the de erved fate of a rebel. The Aide do Camp immediately returned h:m an antwer in delenee of his conduci, hy no meana at temptrng lo ahake the opjiotite principle of hi broiher, bui fullof expreion ofkind ne and aBection ; this letter he dated, "From the apot where Wolf lot hi life in fizhting the cueof Englnd, in Friend ship ttilh Jlmerica Thi letter hd wareely reaehed the officer at New-York, belare it wa followed by ,ihe new of hi brother' deth ; the efiéct wa jnttantane ou, he quiited the EngfUh cervice, and entered into that of America.' (To Le eontinued.") "' Such i the proeres Temperoce is ma- kinrr in Cork, that the revenue in that city on Whiikey ha decreased iu one rnoulh 10,000. "The distillen are-i!king vf shuiting tip shop. ! i ii,- i li . !