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IVOL. II, Canadian night and Canadian Inde pendente. NO. 2. PUBLISHED BY H. J. THOMAS. SWANTON, VT. tVPRIL 22, 1810. EDITED BY CANADIANS k AMERICAN3. Tlin SORTII 'AMERICA IS FCBLISHED EVE-tV tVED.NESDAT. Price $1 50 per an. in advancc, or $2 00 at the end of the year, and in Hkc proportxon for ur ther delay of paymcnt. Originai. HISTORY OF CANADA. (COUTIKCID.) Discouraged by eli the check they had jnenced tinc their attempt or the Slit December on the waìla of Quebec, and eonseious of their own weakneaa ar.d the aoperiority of the English forcea, the Amer ican eomrnandera thoughtproperto retreat towards the United Colonie; and they f,)rthwith began their march with the greatest circumspction and prude nce, tak ing with ihem ali their beggage ad ira ni'jniiioa which they conveyed on board the batteaux with which they ateended the Richelieu river. The English ssaoonaa spprised ot thia movement,sent Gen.Bour irne io purauit of the Americana; but the English genera! putting no confidence whatever in the country people, and fear ing an ambuscade from the enemy, pneeeded with greel precaution and there by gsve tliem lime to rnake a full and com pete retreat without Iosa of meo or bag gigr. At St. Johna Gen. Sullivan was joined by Brigadier Gen. Arnold, who, in hit preient circumstancea could not keep Montreal any longer becauae by hia vex- tiioui, arbitrary, deceitful and tyrannicaì ennduct he had alienaled the affectiona of ni inhabitants. The American Generala, after mutuai consultation, determined to continue their retreat with aa little delay possible toward Crown Point, where theyexpected io make a atand. Conse que ntly they art fi re to ali the public worka it St. Johna. &, took ali the batteaux with thfiii, therehy leaving no meana to Gen. B ìurgiyne to puraue them. Thia retreat Gen. Sullivan waa conducted with ao mudi akill and prudence that he received cmmendatinn from ali quartera, and waa rouniJered as the aaviour of the American army in Canada. General Burgnyn on hia arrivai at St. J.hns in purauit of the Americana, round they bad not thought proper to wait for him, hut had quietly continued their march tovrirda Crown Point, whither, it waa im pOMihle for him, then to follow them; he therefore atationed hia troopa at St. Johna, and for the preaent abandoned the purauit. Such waa the end of the Canadian cam piign ol 1775 and '76. We bare beard ao mach about thia revolutionary campaign of Canada, that before we became thor ughly acquainted with the real and true nate of facta, we vere prejudiced against the Canadian people for not having fought far their libertiea, at a period when the whola North American Continent waa in -open arma againat the arbitrary power of Grest Britain. Our iaformation waa chief- ty derivcd from newapapera of New York, Baitort, Washington and other Urge roer iDti!e citiea of the United Statea. Theae piperà were conatanily declairniDg against the Canadiana for not joining the Ameri iciDi during the revolutionary war. Thia led u to examine the varioua documenta I the day .front a careful perusal of which e bare been able to learn that in this re pect.aa well aaTn many otheri, the Can, aJiane have been baaely slandered and mia f f prese nted. To aopport our poaition, and lo prove how far the Canadiana bave been calamniated aa lo their attaebment to the Royal cause, we bave taken extracta Voto American, Brilish, Italisa, French od Canadian authors, many of whom ere contemporanea of the period of which are now apeaking. We ahall divide or aubject into Uve parta. In the first place, a (hall endeavor to ahow that the Cana diana welcomed the Americana when they itivaded Canada: Secoadìy, That they joined the Ameri cana aed fooght against the British: Thirdly, That the Canadiana were dis J7l to the crown previooa to tha iavs- 'oa of Casada by the Americana. Fourtbly, That the fai.'ure of the Amer- can arma waa owio g to tbeir own misman- agement: Firthly, That the acquitition of Canada and ite vaat importance to the Union were duly appreciated by the leading tnen of the U. Statea. Tbeae poaitiona we ahall eup portby extracta from Samuel Williams' Hiatory of Vermont, Marshall Life of Waahington.Sparka' American Biography, AHen'e Narrative, Bisce.' Reign of Geo. UT, Botta'a Historyof the American war, Montgomery' lettera to Congress, Private Journal of a British office r, Washington'a officiai lettera to the President of Congreai, Journal of the Continental Congress. Smilh'a llistory of Canada, Lettera of Lafayette, Washington and John Adama. Wo hope by the preaentation of theae facta, to ailence forever, those ignorant, mercenary writera, who have laboured to stigmatize the Canadiana for not aìding the Americana in their noble atruggle for liberty, and we truat we ahall be able to prcsent facta eulTìcient to satisfy our rea- ders, that in the war of 1812. between England end the U. States, the Canadiana were as blanieleaa aa in the war of tho Re volution. To aupport our views on thia aubject we have appealed to American authors, whose teatimony ought to be relied upon, as they could not be supposed to be pre judiced in favor of the Canadian people. Sacred truth alone haa compelled them to record facta as they occurred. We have also referred to British authora who cer tainly would have praiaed the loyalty of the Canadiana if they had been true to the crown, yet they testify notonly that the Canadiana were disoffecled, but that they actually joined the rebel army. We have likewise quoted from other authora, who ali agree that the Canadiana werodissatis fied with the British government, and that il a auuicient Torce had been seni into Canada, that Colony would have been lost to England, so inveterate was the ha' tred of the Canadiana against ber. The Canadian teeleomed the Americani when they invaded Canada. In consulting the journala of Congress for the vear 1775, we aee that several secret mesaengera had been dispatched from the Province of Quebec to inforni that honor- able body that the Canadiana had decided not to take up arma against tho Americana in their contest with England. Whenthe cairn & dispassionate readercomes to reflcct that the Canadiana and Americana had not the aame origin, apoke different Ian guages, and posaeased adverse religioua creeds, and that the year '59 waa yet fresh in the memory of the former, that had i not been for the aid and assistance afford ed by the English Colonista the Acadiana would not have been so nnmercifully and aoinhuinanly annihilated, end ita gener oua, brave, and too confiding people scat tered to the tour winda of the world, we ask ia it not surprising that the invaderà were welcomed by the people of Canada? Our readera muat know that the Canadiana were attached, by the dearest tiea, to the Acadian people; a common origin, a aimi lar language and religion united theae people, and moreover they had belonged to the aame crown.But there was yet another recollection fresh in the memory of the Canadiana they had been forced, by on controlable circomstances, and by the cowardice of their French Governora, lo aubmit to the Crown of England, for which they bad the greateat antipathy; nor, aa we have before aaid, bad they for gotten that the English Colonista had aid ed England in subjugating them. AH theae recollectione were yet present to tbe minds of the French Canadiana; yet what waa their conduct when the Americana appeal ed to them for the mere obiettante oi neulrahUj. 1 hey answered we ww noi remajn neutral; if yousend into our coun try a large end respectable force, suflìcient to protecl na from the oppression of Erg land, we will join you and fieht in the sacred cause of liberty. AH the entrea liea, ali the threata end the persecuzione of the British Governor and hia miniona, to gether with the powerful influence of the Catholic clergy, were of do avail to move the Canadiana in favor of the crown of England. It is true that the nollene, the remnant of the ancient nobility of Franca, implanted on the coki aoil of the northern region of Canada, the Catholic clergy, and a few dupee of bolh the noblesse and the clergy, did join the British; but where was the masa of the people? On what aide did tly ranfc; tve aay-.with the Amer icana. Have thfj 'sentrd ali the tnjuriea they bada jtiarijJ focomplain of against th-K!gVkÌCu1tJfttvis, more partjcuUrly against the inhabitanta of the New Eng- and Statea? No; far from it ossoon asa orce was acnt to Canada, they received the Provinciali with open arma, and fur nished them with ali the necessariesoflife, and even furnished thero with materiata of war. In the life of Washington by the late Chicf Justice of the United States John Marshall we find, page 50, voi. 1. 2nd edition, the following passage: " The opinion which had been formed of the favorable riisposition of the Cana diana waa not disproved by the event. They gave essenti al aid to the Americana, and cheerliilly faciiiiateu tiieir marca through that province." In consulting Allen'a narrative of bis owu caplivity as pullished in Burlington, Vt. 1933, we read, page 25, the following words: " I nassrd through ali the parishes on the river Sorel, to a pariih at the moutli of the aame, which is eslied by the 6ame name, preaching pohtics; and went from thence aerosa the Sorel to the river St. Lawrence, and up the river through the parishes to Longueuil, and ao farmct with good success as an itinerant. In tra round my truard were Canadian, my in- terpreler, and some few attendanti excepl- ed." Samuel Williams ia hia hiatory of Ver mont, Voi. II, page 44, in apeaking of the aiege of St. Jobns, makea use of the following language : " Provincial partiea were di?peraed over the adjacent country and every where mei with a favorable teception irom the Lana dians." The aame autlior, in apeaking of the manner in which the troops under colonel Arnold were received by the Canadian people, epeaka aa followa : voi. 2, page 52 " Aa soon as Arnold appeared with hia troops, the Canadiana discovcred the sarce disoosition loci ve him a favorable reception that they had manifested towards Montgo mery : at St. igan, the nret trencn vii lago at which they arrived, about twenty- five leaguea from Quebec, they were kind ly entertained and ylentifully aupplied with fresh beel, butter, iowls, and vegetables.' In speaking of Waahington'a proclama tion to the Canadiins, the aame author, page 53, same volume, says : The proclamsiion had a good effect ; the Canadiana attorded Arnold such assis tance as was in their power, and be march ed on in ease and asfety." Sparks in hia American Biography, in givingthe biograpky of Benedict Arnold, and apeaking of the hardships the gallant band under that offìcer had to undergo, and of the reception they tnet with from the Canadiana, says voi. Sd, page 38 : ' Here (Lake Megantic) were found lientenanta Steel and Church, who had been aent forward a second timo from the Great Carrying Place with a party of men to explore and clear patha at the portagea. Here alao waa Jakins, returned from the aetttements, whomade a favorable report in regard to the eentimenta of the people, saying they were friendly and rejoiced at the approach of the army." The aame author, in the aame volume, page41,spcaks of the friendly disposi tion of the Canadiana towarda the American army under colonel Arnold, in the following terma : He (Arnold) immediately aent back aev eral Canadiana and Indiana with Cour and caule, wiu) met the troopa marebing through the wooda resr the bank of the river, a'.l their boata having been deatroy ed by the violence of the rapida. The whole army arrived wiihin four or fi ve dava, emerging from the foreata in amali and detacbed parties, and greeting once more with joy unspeaksble the babitationa of civilized men. 1 hey were received in a friendly manner by the inhabitants, who aupplied their wanta with hospitabie abun dance, and seemed favorab'y icclined to the ohjects of the expedition, noi beicg vet heartily reconei'ed to the barlhen of a foreign yoke, nowevcr ligbt io itntlf, which the atere forlanea of war had doontc-d thrm t wear aince the briliiant victorv of Wol e on the Heighta of Abra ham." In the r.rxt psge, the aame author in speaking of the effect of the Proclamation of Gen. Washington to the Canadisns, uses the following words : Ile (Arnold) wss also furnished with printed copìea of a manifesto, aigned by General W ashmgton, inierded fr ciistn. bulion amorig the people, explaitiing the frounda of the contest between Grest tritnin and America, and encourazing them to join their neighbors in a common cause by rallying around the standard of liberty, lhese instructiona were stnctly observed hy the American troops, and had their desired inUucnce. 1 he itnpression waalasting. To this dsy the old men re- count to their children the story of the " descent of the Bostonianv," as the only great public event that haa ever occurred to vary the monotonous incidente of the sequestered and beautiful vallcy of the Cliaudiere." Robert Bjsset, an English author, who wrote the Hislory of the Reign of George the III, whilst apeaking of ArnHd'a expe dition through the wilderness of Kenebec, and of the manner in which he was re ceived, aaya, voi. lst, page SC6 :- The Canadiana received the Ameri cana here with the same good will that Montgomery's corps had expenenced in the neighboùrhood of Montreal ; they aup plied them liberally with proviaiona and ncressaries, and rendered them every other assistance in their power." Botta in bis Ilittory of the American War, voi. lst, page 2G2, epeaka on the same suhjcct in the following terma: " They (the Americaoi) resumed their march ; and at length dUcovered, with inconceivahle joy, the so jrces of the Chau diere, and, aoon after, the first babitationa of the Canadiana. 1 he6e showed them selvea heartily well disposed towards the Congress, ano otiered the Americana ali the euccoura that were in their power. Notonly were the Canadiana dispoBcd to treat the Americana with Lindness and benevolence at the begining of the Cana dian Campaign, but even when ali around them waa but gloom and despair, and when victory crowned the limisi) arma and the Americana were retreating before them, the Canadiansalthough abandoned by the Americana were stili ready to asaist them in their misfortune. In the first vol ume of the last author we have just now quoted, we find that when the Americana were forced to abandon the 6iege of Quebec and when the English were cruizing in the St. Lawrence and ecouring the whole country in pursuit of the fugitives, the Canadians were kindly secreting the sick. page 304: "The sick, attacked for the most part with thesmallpox, escaped as they could; the Canadian were tnoved with eompat tion, and eoneealed them here and thercS In the next page we read the following eentence "The Americans, whether wounded or sick, were eoneealed in the foresta or in the habitalion of the Canadian, where they had to vjìtr alt kind of evilt uniteti. l o be Lonttnved. IVIiscclIaneotift Artide. Copy of a petition now in circulation in favor of " the hero of the Thousand la- landa." TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. Your petitionera would most respect fully cali your ettention to the imprison ment of Wm. JOHNSON, who, by i decision of the Districi Court in Albany, waa amerced in a fine of Fivc Dollabs, and aentenced to One Ycar's imprison ment in the County Jail, for 1 sring to assist hia countrymen to gain their free dom. We conGdently believe that, when Your Excellency ahall take mio consider ation the ago and inCrmities of the pria oner, in connection with the important aervicea rendered, by him, to that very eovernment, by which he ia now deprived of hia liberty, and offset them against the nominai ofìence with which he Bianda charged, the former will preponderate over the Istter, and induce you to exerciae the power vested in theP'esidenr, of gractiag oardon to ali auch aa have e.'ther ltn un- justly condernned, or are eotitled to clemen cy from palliating circumstancea. We be lieve that, even, tre pr.soner usa oeen guilly of a partisi violation of our neutra! ity lawa, that the full force of the penalty oeght net to bt visited upon oc, wLo in- fringfd upon our lawa, only through oe- cessity, in order to accomplish the cmanci- pation of hia rountrymen from tho asme vassalage which our forefathera resisted io the struggle or the Revolution. e plcaJ n hia ia!iiation the desire which every troe patriot must feet, lo assist hia fellow countrymen when he bchoUla them strug gane against oppreasion. We ask your at- tenuon to the important fact, that our Independence waa gained by the assistance of men, who where lorced to violate the lawa of their own country, ere they could come to our asimtance. We thereiore hope that as you bear in mind the dark tlays of the Revolution, and are not untnindful of the eervirea which the nriaoner' rendered this country during the last war with Grral Dntain you will not fati to exereise the pardoning power in behalf of the im pnsoned. BRITISII MILITARY FORCE AND FORTIFICATIONSIN CANADA RE PO RT OF GEN. SCOTT. Head Quarler F.atttrn D 'rùion, Elizabetluown. N. J. March 23, 1840. Sin, I have received f rom your office copìea ot two resoiutions, psised, rea pectively, the Dth and 12th inatant, one by the nenate, and the other by the House of Representativca'; and i am asked for "any information on the eub- jecl of both, or either of the reaolutiona, that may be in my posseaaton" In resprct to the nevai force recenti? maintained upon the American lakes by Ureat iintain, i nave just had the nonor to report to the Secrctary of war by whom the reeolution ol the House of Kepreaen tative (of the Olii instanti waa direclly re ferred to me. I now confine rayaelf to the Senate'i rei olution, respccting ' military I omit na vali preparationa or the Uritish authontiea on the Northern frontiera of the United States, from Lake Superior to the Atlantic ocean, distinguishing the permanaci front the temporary end lield worka, and partic- ularly notmg thoae which are within the claimed limita of the United Statea." I will here remark that, however welt my dutiea have made me acquainted with the greater part of the line in queslion, I have paid but alight attention to the forta and barracka crected by theBritish author itits neor the borderà of Maine, above Frederirton, in New Brunawick, or in Upper Canada, above Cornwall, being of the fixed opinion (which need not here b developed) that ali auch structurea Would be of little or no military value to either of the partiea in the event of a new war be tween the United Statea and Great Bri tain. I was, last aummer, at the foot of Lake Superior, and neither aaw nor heard of any British fori or barrack on the St. Mary' river, the outlet of that lake. Between Lakea Huron and Erie, tha British have three seta of Barracka: on at Windsor, opposite to Detroit; one at Sandwich, a little lower down; and the third at Malden, eighteen milea from tho first; ali built of sawed Ioga, atrengthened by blockhousea, loopholes, ice. Malden hai long been a military poat, with alight de fencea. These have been recently atrength ened. The worka al Sandwich and Wind sor have, alao, I think, been erected wiih in the last six oreightmonths. Near the mouth of the Nisgara tbe British havo two amali forta George and Messisauga. Both existed during the laal war. The latter may be termed a perma nent work. Slight barracka have been erected within the laat two yeara, on the aame aide, near the Falla and at Chippcwa, with breastworks at the latter plaee; but nothing, I believe, above the worka first named.on the Niagara, which can be term ed a fort. Since the commeccement of recect troa bles in the Canadas, and(consequent there upon) within our limite, Fort William Henry at Kingston and Fort Wellington opposite to Ogdensborgh,(o!d works)hava bolh been atrengthened, within themaelve besidea the addition of dependenciss. These forta may be called permanent. On the St. Lawrence, below Prescott and frontini our territorv, I know of no otber military poat. Twelve mite above, at Brockville, there may b tem porary barracka and breaatworka. I know that of late, Brockville haa been a militar station. j In the system of defence on the ap proaches to Montreal, the ile eux Jfoiz, a faw milea below our Une and in the out let of Lake Chamnlain, atands at tbe beai. This li.' and contams within itself a aysten of permament Worka of great stretgth. Oa them the British Government haa, froro time to lime, aince the peace of 1815, ex pended mueh akill and labor. OJelltown, nesr our line, on tbe west ern aide of iake Champ.'ain, haa betn a atation for a body of Canadian militia, for two year, to gusrd the neighboùrhood. from refagre inceadiariea from our side. I tbick that barracka have been traetei l'i 4 ! ' t I I ri. I t : r it 1 i l i ' ì f t r