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The copper country evening news. [volume] (Calumet, Mich.) 18??-1907, November 07, 1896, Part Two, Image 5

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CCDPPIt (DOIJMEY EYIMM NEW
S T3 L
Calumet, Houghton County, Michigan, Saturday, November 7, 1896.
No 305
Vol. VI. j
THE NEW SOBMRRINF WONDEl
cor: our "mm.
1 J ':'iii:iiHi''!!::;-1"iiti";l,..:'!'
t thfl marvelous Utile submarine
Jnedo boat which the United States
Sment has nearly finished at Hal
Snore does all the astonishing things
ienavy experts promise she will be
U large measure u '"'""
r dreams or juicb nuo u
terplece or ncuon
Leagues inner uic ov.
Tils Is the only new war vesi evir
built by our government upon which
the longluK eyes of ambltloua naval
.Anon were not turned. It Is the
jrsttiuie the navy department has not
been pestered by requests for assign
Btnts to duty on a new slilp. And the
wason Is that the new boat Is looked
ipon as a very promising submarine
coffin for the Hist crew that ventures
at In her.
Much of the warfare of the next cen
tury must be conducted by submarine
lighting machines, and this extraordin
iry craft will, it is believed, solve the
whole rroblem of under water war, to
which inventors and naval experts
target that to hit it would be extreme
ly difficult. At any time it can bink
entirely out of sight at a moment's no
tice. The chimney and air tube are with
drawn Into the Interior In a dozen bcc
cnds.the opening 1h hermetically closed
and the craft dives. It descends by
taking water into compartments In
tended for that purpose, thus changing
Its specific gruvlty. and also by inclin
ing horizontal rudders so as to cause
the noHe of the steel flsh to turn down
ward. The depth attained is regulated
automatically, the limit of safety being
about 06 foet. At a miuh lower level
the pressure of water would crush the
boat.
This submarine marvel has a double
steel shell, and the space between the
two coats Is occupied by water ballast,
coal bunkers and compressed air tanks.
The Interior of the craft la almost whol
ly filled with machinery. There is no
space for officers or crew to sleep or eat.
Food must be brought along iu cooked
When the craft has been wholly sub
merged these engines are stopped, but
there is enough steam at hitch pressure
left In the boilers to propel the vessel
for a considerable time longer. When
It Is on the point of exhaustion the pro
pellers are connected with tha electric
motors, which will run the boat for six
teen hours.
Mk- 1U Own M' trlolty.
The vessel makes its own electricity
by means of its steam engines and
stores It In Its accumulators. This
point gives to the Holland boat an lni
meiibe advantage over most of the for
eign submarine vesnels, which depend
wholly on electricity for motive power,
and are obliged to go to the shore at
short Intervals for the purpose of re
filling their storage batteries.
vvhen the boat dives valves are
opened from the tanks, which contain
air condensed under a pressure of 2,000
pounds to the smiare Inch. By this
means the atmosphere inside of the
have for years given such an Incredible
unount of study. This experiment, if
mccc-ssftil, may render the great navies
of the world powerless.
The new boat U the object of rapt at
tention from the naval nations of the
world, who have ler.rned In these lnt'r
years to look to America for Instruc
tion In the Hi-ieiK of naval building.
There id much speculation und uncer
tainty, however. eten among our own
naval authorities as to whether the new
craft will, upon practical trial, do all
(hat her inventor. J. P. Holland, claims
for her. Kxpet Intents with submarine
war vessels heretofore have been so
disastrous, and t ho manipulation of
this strange c raft Is so different from
anything hitherto taught In naval in
stitutions, t lia t the question of man
ning her is causing the navy depurt
mcnt u world of trouble.
Tin- Woixlt r of thn YrM.
1 The craft is a wonder. It Is nothing
ore nor less than a huge steel tksh,
ith l;:nps capable of holding enorni
niH quantities of fresh air, and possens-
and compac t shape, to be consumed in
such fashion as may be. Life on this
Khip. If ship -he is. will not be a thing
oi joy. Much of the interior space is
takm up by electric batteries and ac
cumulators. KlictrL apiaratus re
quires a good ilc:il of room, but it
makes no Miiokc and needs neither fuel
nor air. There are also steam engines
run by petroleum, and tubular boilers
consisting of a labyrinth of pipes. Th
ttcam engines generate the electricity
that is stored in the accumulators.
Tr.ix-llii).' tin the Water- Mirfme.
Suppose that tin- boat is traveling on
the surface of the water, at a sixteen
knot gait, when the pilot, looking out
through a class win. low In the turret,
sees a hostile warship coining. Tim
warship is of such vastly greater i'.'
that he pies it Ion before the enemy's
lookout can possibly see the diving
craft, lie touches a button on an elec
tric switchboaid at hi-c side, which
transmit an order to the engine room.
Without half a minutes delay the boat
sinks until her superstructure Is just
charged from the tube it runs itself, ba- ,
lng driven by a screw, with compressed
air for motive ppwer. It may be shot
with accuracy at a mark 200 yards
away and It will run 1,000 yards or
more, exploding on impact.
Cmu Drktrojr 8lriint Jlutllmlilpn.
Let one of thetm fearful projectllea
strike the strongest battleship, an!
th proud ves.se! of steel and iron, a
floating maes of machinery that had
cost ?4,000,000 to construct, is trans
formed In a moment Into un Iron coffin.
carrying officers and crew to the bot
tom. Having delivered the fatal blow,
the submarine boat glides away, to
como up presently mar the surface,
and with the aid of her camera luclda
to look around upon the scene of the
destruction she has caused herself at
the ame time Invisible and safe from
pursuit. Such a craft as the Holland
boat would never try to attach a tor
pedo to the bottom of a, ship. She picks
out a vessel for attack and makes lor
her, occasionally coming near the sur
face Just long enough to permit her
commander to make sure of his course.
The Holland boat 1b able to keep at
sea In bad weather. Its radius of ac
tion, traveling on the eurface, is 1,000
miles; submerged. It, can go sixty
miles. Its speed undor water is eight
knots and it can be perfectly controlled.
Special devices provide against every
couceivablc accident. Iu case It is de
sired to check the downward move
ment of the boat quickly, a touch on a
button connects a compartment of wat
er at the bow with tank of com
pressed air. The expanding air drives
the water out of the compartment, thus
lightening the boat. If the submarine
vessel gets stuck in the mud at the
bottom, or for some other .reason Is not
able to rise, officers and crew will put
on diving uits and escape through a
hatchway.
The boat Is to cost 1.'0,000. If it
proves a success, two others are to bo
built. This one, Mr. Holland says. Is
not as big as it ought to be, but its
Fize was limited by the appropriation.
Asfoon as it Is flnlshedj it will be taken
for a trial trip down the Chesapeake.
MOST UNCANNY SPOT.
BLOOD-CURDLING FEATURES IN
SUPERSTITION MOUNTAINS.
:ip-rlru-e of NlitUt Fiplorrrt Civeru
FUId with tilioul mid Devil -Mnn
Murcli of the I'nutlirri Weird Mounds
it lid bight.
H E most uncanny
spot on the face of
the earth is very
likely within tha
boundaries of the
Superstition moun
tains in Arizona,
says the San Fran
cisco Call. The
name was given
this range of vol
canic rock by the
Indians, and never was name more ap
propriate. Of course the educated
man of today knows all of the strange
and weird phenomenon to be seen there
are the result of natural causes and
can be easily explained, but the poor
Indian who knows not these things can
hardly be blamed for having a whole
some fear of any part of the range.
The stories the Indians tell of the
Superstition mountains would take
months to repeat, but the idea of all
of them seems to impress the fact that
the arch field who presides over the
domain has a hatred of the -red man
and is constantly laying traps to de
stroy him. All who enter the realms
of horror do so at the risk of never
coming back, and all who do come
come back have tsonie new tale to add
to the already long list. The most ter
rible things told of are the swinging
stones that turn out from the walls of
a canyon nnd crush the passer by.
Then there are places where the ghosts
dance; tms that reach out their
branches und entangle all who com
near them. There are caverns filled
with witches and devild and awful
birds that make the strangest sounds.
NICKNAMES OF PRESIDENTS
submarine vessel is kept good for half
a dozen hours. In case it gels close
and bad, the foul air may be pumped
out. It is not reeessary for the. craft
to come to the surface even when the
air stored in her reservoirs has been
exhausted.. In such a ca.;e a two-Inch
hosepipe If unwound front the reel, Its
free end being attached to a Moat,
which, when released, riyes to tho sur
face of the water, carrying with It the
hose. Through this fresh air is
pumped into the vessel, and the storage
tanks are rclilled under pressure. Thus
it will be seen t.iat the boat i ablo to
stay under water clmo.-t Indefinitely,
not being obliged io come to the sur
face to take breath. Three days' pro
visions are carried for the persons on
board, four oliiecr.i and eight machin
ists. IU Oi'Kilii of InIoii.
The mot wonderful thing about this
boat. hovrer, is the organ of vision
for peeing while submerged. It has
a single huge eye, by means of which
it Is able to survey the ocean's sur-
... -
,m liii. . ...a.;::: .' S.i!'!', !':';"
AIa:i:iia;L,i;, ajMJB ,l '"'" ' ' "
All of Tliin Ver KnOivn lr riilo
ii y an Imiii'utlva nt Cliitrii-trr
Washington was "Father of Ills
Country," "American Fablus," the
"Cinclnnatus of the West," "The Atlas
of America," "Lovely (Jeorgius,"
"Flowc.r of the Forest," "Deliverer of
America," "Stepfather of Ills Coun
try" and "Savious of His Country."
Adams was the "CoIosmu of Independ
ence," Jefferson waa lfc ".Sage of Mon-
tlcello" and "Long Tom" Madison was
"The Father of the Constitution." Mon
roe was thfl "Last Cocked Hat" and
John Quiiuy Adams tho "Old Man Eloquent."
Jackson was, of course, "Old Hick
ory." "l'ig Knife and Sharp Knife,"
the "Hero of New Orleans," "CUn'raV
and "Old Hero." Van llurcn was the
"Little Magician." the "Wizard of Kin
derhook," "Follower in the Footsteps,"
"Whisky Van," "King Martin the
First," "Sweet Little Fellow," 'Politi
cal Orimalkln" and "Weasel." W. H.
Harrison was "Tippecanoe," "Old Tip"
and the "Washington of the West."
Tyler was "Young Hickory" and "Acci
dental President." Polk also was
"Young Hickory," the sobriquet being
used to resurrect the Jacksonian ele
ment. Taylor was "Old Rough and
Heady." "Old Huena Vista" nnd "Old
Zach." Fillmore was the "American
Louis Philllppe." Pierce was "Purse."
Uuchanan wa "Old Public Functlon-
nrv " nml "Uachelor President" and
"Old Buck." We have now reached
T.incnln the "Rail Snlltter." "Honest
Old Abe." "Uncle Abe," "Massa Lin
hum," "Father Abraham" and the
"Sectional President," the last name
being given by the southerners who
maintained that he represented the
north and not the whole people. Then
.ifilmaon "Sir Veto." (I rant
was "Unconditional Surrender." "Old
Three Stars." "Hero of Appomattox"
and the "American Caesar." Hayes
una ihf. "Pves'ilent de Facto." a name
given him by the defeated democrats,
Garfield was the "Martyr President.'
Arthur wn "Our Chet" nnd the "First
nontlrman n tne Land. i levcianu
Is the "Man of Destiny," "Grover,
nnd "Stuffed Prophet." Harrison Is
Hiiciihone P.en" and "Grandfather'!
Hat."
,nK a single great eye for surveying the
'irface of the ocean on all sides while
Hi vensel l!elf Is submerged nnd in
visible. 't has fins for diving and tcer!ns.
xti'l Ita vitality is furnished by steam
and electricity.,
The bout is practically the Nautilus
'' Jnlrs Verno reduced from dream to
0;,li'y. It Is cigar shaped, pointed at
,)0,h ends; so rt long. 11 feet In di
mptr. and with a displacement of IIS
'"ns wl;rn floating. Submerged It dls
Pfs 138 tons. Under ordinary clr
"iiKtaiiceH It runs cm. the surface like
" ordinary torpedo boat, with a Fpeed
or sixteen knots nn hour. At will It
(an be lowered Jut enough to be under
Vr. Pi,vp f()P n tum,t f Hnrvyizod
(Vrlftel, which is surmounted by a
, mncy. The armour of the turret
'"fight inrhcH thick, and proof nclnt
31)1,1 flro guns. The chimney contnlns
"ibe by means of which the'nlr Inside
r Hie boat Is kept fresh.
Kntlrrly K.if from Ath.
ln thl half submerged condition the
oat Is comparatively tnfn from any
,ort of attack. It offers so smaH a
T1IK XKW TORPF.DO POAT
. . i ..tilmnev
awash, so that only tune.
r'ne' hinl's he i in tnW fn-n
Serine,, guns, i-;'-;1-;':;;
,, on theswl.chboanl. '
minute bv the watch the suhma.
nnlt is K,fe fro... all danuer or
,, eighteen feet below the waves.
The Instant the onb r Is given a bit
ofmechanism I, set In operation 1 0
SlHch the-chimncy and air tj. J
(Hescopically withdrawn. U.uer 11.
lnt0 the om!,ty ....;..."; ' " 1
horizontal rudders are m.d. nod N
s ne bv com-ns, when under wa t-r.
The interior of the submarine vesscd
Jignted by electricity, with U.aud.s
cent lamps.
,nrface It Is run b h h l ! I
steam engines, whl 1 ; ; aU ' stern,
ful. actuate twin ' '
face thouKh Itself sunk some fathoms
deep, and invisible. Tho vessel does
not need to rlw above the waves In
order that the pilot may perceive
'vv,rP i. in at." It corner up merely
to within a few feet of the surface, unci
n long tube is elevated vertically out
of the water. Th tube contains a sin
gle arrnngenu nt of lenses and mirrors.
The lower end of it descents into the
.leering room of the bo:t. where there
U pivoted circular table covered-wit n
a white .loth. The device I- an appli
cation of the familiar camera luclda.
i., th,. ,iiot table this way and
. . ... . .! ... tbe surface of
that iue pnui ..... i-,-..v
r:in for mild mound. Ki
...ii .-m-v iloole. Is as dear to his ee
art If were on the deck of a ship In
ti,i open air above.
In her hew tho boat has two torpedo
for ;he discharge of automatic
torpedoes of the Whitehead or Hiwe.l
vnrletv She carries live of these lor-
'doe,, which are projected by com
irPHHcl air. Such a torpedo Is a liol-
ow cigar shaped receptacle, much like
i flVh carrying In Its front end 200
Jound, of gun cotton. After being dU-
The early year3 of Agassiz read
like a fairy tale of Incredible achieve
ment. His bent toward natural science
showed itself almost In Infancy nnd
errw with his growth. At fourteen
tvo nnd him sighing for a list of nn
attainable books D'AnvllIe, llitter,
and Italian dictionary, a Strabo in
r. reek Manaert and Thiersch; and
also the works of Malte-llrun and Soy
fert. Falling to get these he copied
whole volumes with the assistance of
his brother, among others Lamarck's
Animaux sans Vertehres. His parents,
who had destined him to a commercial
career, were with dlfliculty induced to
consent to his studying medicine. At
twenty-three he was not only a doctor
of medicine, but of philosophy ns well,
and the author of a work on It.azillan
'tutu which won for him a naiie
among the scicntlsM or Europe and the
personal intimacy of Cuier and Hum
boldt. At twenty-live he Ug::n his
nr, r'r nn a lecturer a'td instructor, nnd
.tfioonstii'tcd tint extraordi
nary ability as a tcae'ier jmi.i tnvt jmu
of Inspiring enlhnsla.-ni in his subject
which were such marked hnraeteris
tics of his later years. In ISIS he mail.)
h first tlsit to America, and two
years later accepted that professorship
at Harvard which determined the work
of his remaining life.
Tip-toe walking nymbolizea surprise,
curiosity, discretion or mystery.
the hanks of the Rhine will appear
perched on Its summit. When near
enough, a soft muffled 6ound of foot
steps will be beard. What is it? By
looking carefully a procession of pan
thers can be seen walking around the
cono shaped mountain, aa if guarding
the castle on the summit.
Round and round they go, looking
neither to right nor left, and though
considerable noise is made they will
not notice It. Many old hunters say
that it is possible for a man to walk
right across th line and tho panther
will not attack him.
Farther up the canyon are numerous
gulches Into which the moonlight falls.
One of them has a sort of overhanging
ledge and beneath It appears a crowd
of men. Surely they are talking, for
their arms appear to move, their heads
turn from side to Bide. Some have on
white clothes and other appear to
be of different colors. A peculiar
sound like tbe murmur of voices fills
the air.
By climbing a small canyon to the
left the most startling sight in the
mountain can be seen. Surely it is not
of this world. The canyon suddenly
terminates In a gulch that crosses it
from side to side. At first sight it Is
only an abyss of inky blackness. Lis
ten! A peculiar rumbling sound can
be heard and from the profound depth
a white robed figure will appear; then
another and another, until there is a
whole procession of ghosts passing
over the brink.
Many of them will wave their arms,
as if beckoning the observer. While
this hs going on clouds will appear to
float in from the sides and perhaps
thunder will be heard In the distance.
But the procession moves on and
passes up a canyon and finally disap
pears over a cliff. Silence will follow
and the act will be repeated. This
canyon cannot be traversed farther,
but by turning back and entering a
small valley on the other side three
giants can be seen in conference. They
are sitting close to a tree and their at-
ITALIAN ANTIQUITIES.
An I'udarcround Trad Id Than la
pit of I.rsal Interdictions.
Some days ago a well-known dealer
in antiquities offered for eale to the
Louvre museum, in Paris, a splendid
collection of ancient silver vases from
Italy or Greek or Italian workmanship,
uays tho London News. Tbe museum
was unable to pay the price asked
20,000 and declined the bargain. The
Italian minister of education, having
learned of this, has taken proceeding
under the Pacta law against Sig. dl
Prlsco, the owner of these antiquities.
The latter is a large land owner at
Bosco Reale. He secretly made excava
tions on his estate and found twenty
eight silver vates of remote antiquity.
Notwithstanding the Italian law pro
hibiting owners of antiquities from
sending them out of the country with
out leave, or, rather, on account of thl
law, which prevents old works of art
from commanding anything like their
natural price in the impoverished coun
try, Sig. dl Prisco smuggled his find
cut of Italy and offered It to a Taria
dealer for 3,000. Continuing mean
while his search, be found other silver
vase, which duly Joined their fellows
In Paris, and the whole lot waa offered
to the Louvre. The Italian minister of
education throws interesting light on
the facilities which underpaid officials
are supposed to afford illicit exporter
of antiquities. He issues a notiflcatiou
that, should any officials be found to
have connived at this latest evasion of
the Pacca law, they will be criminall
prosecuted.
IturUil Theruioinetars.
Recent observations made by Prof.
A. Agassiz In the Calumet and Hecla
mine, near Lake Superior, to ascertain
the rate at which temperature In
creases toward the center of the earth
give a slower rate of increase than has
been found in previous recorded obser
vations. The observations were made
at various depths by placing register
ing thermometers In holes drilled ten
PRETTY SALVATION ARMY MAIDS.
Will ) A'VM' .1
I
The ever progressive Salvation
Army has Just added to Its equipment
wat many people consider its most at
tractive feature. The latest novel' y
of this up-to-date organization, nnd the
one which Is shortly to come to New
York Is called the "Singing Battalion,
and is attached to the Western divis
ion which has Its headquarters at Chi
cago Its members are all women offi
cers of the army, nnd have been se
lected wfth a special view to their
comelinem. As a result the new corps
makes a charming appearance, and. as
each of these pretty girls Is attired in
the costume of her native country, the
effect Is extremely picturesque. The
idea of organizing this band of singers
of all nations grew out of n desire on
the part of the army commanders in
different sections to reach people of
even' nationality in the most direct
and effective way. There were plenty
of fine slngem in the army, but they
Wild animals by the thousands come
right out of the solid rocks. Fishes
with legs come from the lakes and
drown nil within their reach. Fire and
smoke and horrible groans and bowks
1111 the air on all sides.
. To see the weird aspect of this un
canny region is best to select that time
of the month when the moon is full.
The moRt interesting portion is in a
canyon that opens on the north side
of the range, and If an explorer will
manago to get about ten miles Into
thin during the daytime, and, after se
lecting a quiet spot, wait for the moon
to rise, lie can have an experience he
will never forget. But don't go unless
your nerves are strong.
In most parts of the world silence
conies with the night. Just the reverse
MCins to be the case in the Supersti
tion mountains. Or Is thl Imagina
tion? But suddenly the air is rent
with the most unearthly shriek that
ever fell on mortal cars. Again
ar:aln It o:nv and rolls nnd echoes
through the canyons, getting weirder
with each reverberation. The cry is
tr.krn up on all sides until the moun
tains Fcem like pandemonium.
Rat nerve yourself and pass on. Keep
to the bottom of the canyon and you
will l.e in no danger of a fall. Silence
will come ngaln and If you keep on you
v. ill soon come to a cone shaped moun
tain ri!rg before you. Approach clos
er and a castle iu perfect as any on
nil sang In English, and this language
was unintelligible to thousands of
lately landed foreigners who came to
the meetings. It was not feasible to
give songs In all the living tongues, but
It was comparatively easy to find mem
bers of the army belonging to all the
different countries represented In the
various audiences. So pretty girls
from Japan. Russia. Roumnnia.
Sweden, France, Scotland, Holland
and even Turkey, were pressed Into
service and Instructed to provide them
selves with becoming costumes, mod
elled arter those common to their sev
eral countries. The result was that
this novel band In creating a furor
through Indiana. Wisconsin. Michigan
and the other Western Hates which it
has visited. In the coal and iron min
ing districts which are scattered
thickly over these states, a large pro
portion of the workmen are foreigners,
and wh-n they discovered that tha
tltudes show them to be interested la
what one of them is saying.
Farther up the canyon there 1 a
large cliff and behind it at intervals
can be seen flashes of light. Thunder
follows and the earth beneath jour
feet will shake. Possibly one of the
flashes may throw you to the ground,
and you can hear the hissing of ser
pents near by. If you happen to be
In the right place you can hear a grind
ing sound and a rock on top of a cliff
will swing outward. But It won't fall,
as tho next shnke will swing It back.
Dozens of experiences like those
just related are likely to befall the
night explorer in the Superstition
mountains. s) that when daylight
conies he will feel ns If he has hern to
the infernal regions or with Alice In
Wonderland.
IVni'tt Mnrni:l:lr.
Delicious peach marmalade may be
made from very ripe, soft peaches.
nnd ! wiped carefully, but not peeled; cut In
halves, remove tbe stones; allow ira'f a
pound of sugar to every pound of
peaches. Put the peaihea in a pre
serve kettle, add water to coer, and
bring slowly to a bod; stir und mih
the peaches; add the sugar with ft
handful of peach kernels pounded to a
paste, boll and llr until thick nnd
smooth, being careful not to scorch;
put away In glass Jars. Apple and
pear marmalade may be made in the
same way.
army had girl singers who came from
the Fatherland they flocked to the
meetings in great crowd. By giving
their gatherings this international
character the army has brought with
in its influence many people who
would otherwise have remained away.
Often when a little family of Swede
or Polandcrs, for instauee, have sat
through one of the Singing Battalion's
concerts one of the men will leave his
scat and. stepping up to the young on
cer who happens to wear the costume
of his country, address her In his own
language. His delight is touching
when he hears her kindly response in
his own familiar tongue. The dia
logue, which Is as much enjoyed by
one as the other, usually ends by the
army lassie Joining the family group
and volunteering to sing for thni re
ligious songs with which they have
been familiar since childhood. New
York Journal.
feet into the rock and plugged with
wood and clay. After the thermome
ters had remained in place three
months the holes were opened and the
results obtained. The highest tempera
ture recorded at a depth of 4,080 feet
was 79 degree Fahrenheit. At a depth
of ten feet the rock temperature was
o9 degrees. Between these limlta there
was a column of rock, or 4,475 feet,
with a difference of temperature of 20
degrees, or an average increase of 1
degree for each 22.1.7 feet. The obser
vations in the St. Gothard tunnel gave
an Increase of 1 degree for each 60 feet
and those of Lord Kelvin elsewhere
made the Incrrase degree for each ol
feet. The thickness of the crust of the
earth deduced from Lord Kelvin's rate
of Increase of temperature downward
was twenty miles; from the St. Gothard
rate, twenty-dx miles. Prof. Agassiz'
if.le would make the crust over eighty
miles thick. It is conceded, however,
that the close proximity of the enor
mous 'mass of cold water In Lake Su
perior Is a possible source of error la
observation made in the Calumet and
lleda mine. Popular Science Monthly.
A Chicago Circle of The King's
Daughters combines its Bible and art
studies. The latter, as outlined In The
Silver Crors, Is bused CI photographs
of scripture subjects, t.nd the corre
sponding Bible text and context are
studied at the same time with the picture.
:

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