Newspaper Page Text
THE AUSTRALIAN WILDS.
Their Proposed Exploration New York Gruplilc Interview. Sir Thomas Elder,who has just passed through New York on his way to Aus tralia via San Francisco, has success fully eluded the reporters. Jt is to he regretted tnal a gentleman who has it in his power to imparl much valuable and interesting information regarding the condition and progress of Australia should be of so retiring and modest a disposition. The queen of England lias been pleased to confer the dignity of knighthood on him in recognition of his services. The commander of the new Australian exploring expedition, Lieut. Young, was visited at his rooms in Twenty -sixth street, and notwithstand ing he was deep in the mysteries of a mathematical problem, kindly put aside his books and prepared to answer any questions his visitor might ask. “What is the object of sending out this expedition?" “As the squatter’s herds increase and the government resumes his land, in order that the cockatoo (tanner) may cultivate the soil, new pastures must lie found for cattle and sheep. Thus the squatter's frontier is forced further and further hushward every year. This opening of the interior Ims hoen Kir Thomas' liohhy fur years. Me Inis spent an immense amount of money and lime in gratifying his fancy, and 1 am very glad to see that other countries im prove of his munificence hy honoring him with their hospitality and honor. Me certainly lias done a great deal for the furtherance of geography, liolany, geology, natural history, etc," “You have explored Australia before, have you not, Mr, Young?” “Yes. I had the pleasure to he as tronomer to the expedition under com mand ol Ernest (tiles, in 1H74," “Were you successful?" “Perfectly! Thanks to the admirable manlier in which wo were equipped, and the wonderful staying powers of the camel, we went across between the Ulllli and .‘loth parallel of latitude to Perth, on the west coast. Most of the country was sand, spiinfex, and flats, perfectly useless at present, hut science may bring it into r< quisilion some day, I fail to sec how, at present, though." “I have always understood that you have great didie.ully in (hiding water. Is that the case?" “That is generally the explorers most anxious problem. Where to find water is his lirst thought in the morning and his last at night, as also during the day, and lie dreams of it at night. On one occasion—the last lime we traveled no less than 517 miles without water, ex cept that it rained on the eleventh day, enabling us to bridge over Ibis long stretch of dry country. After the shower we had !ll!7 miles, which look us seventeen days to do, without (hid ing water, over hoi, burning sand, spun fex and thick 'crub some seventeen to twenty-two n et high.” M)(. you use horses as well ns camels?" “Wo tried to, hut they do not travel well together. The horses died of thirst, though they each had a bucket of water every morning, which the camels carried for them." “Arc there any large wild animals in the country you are going to explore?" “1 think not. Crocodiles and alliga tors, wild dogs Wild iiiarsmiiids are the only larger animals. Snakes arc, of course, plentiful, as (hoy are all over the tropics.” “What will ho the greatest dillleulty you will have lo contend against?" “There you bother me. A traveler never looks for dillloullies ought to he always prepared for them, and takes them as they come. And if wo know what wo should have to contend with, there would he no merit in going.” Is anything known of the country you are to explore?" "No! Otherwise it would hardly be an exploration. We know that there are rivers and creeks (lowing into the sea, and we know that these water chan nels must, have some water-shed, and where there is water there is generally good pastoral country. It is this good country 1 hope to find," “Do you meet with many natives, *ml are they troublesome?" “I hope to find plenty, for in Austra lia, where there are natives, (here is wa ter. 1 opine they will not give us much trouble. Our superiority of weapons ami the grotesque I mures we present to their uncivilized minds keeps them dis creet." •‘1 believe you Iniil omi or two brush es with (lii'ni on your last x|>tlilion? M “Yes, lull wo always got (ho hotter ol them, although at tiiuoa (hoy worn Iwonly to ouo, Thoir spears, boomer .vugs, aial wooiloii swords too osoloss against our Snydor and W'iuohostor re l maters." “How manv moil will vonr part v con sist of?" “Siv or even. The more moo wo lake tho more provisions wo havo to carry and tho moro water wo havo to thul." “ Do you anticipate having to travel through a malarious country or sand, as on your previous (rip V” ** We shall probably havo some of all sorts. In folloiviug down the rivers and river hods there is generally more or less fever, hut I don't want to anticipate anything had." " Arc tln> natives unite uncivilized'.'" “ Yes; they have never seen or heard of white men, fire-arms, or any animal larger than a Kangaroo, and their sur prised look on seeing these may he im agined.” “ How manv camels and how much provision shall you takif" “ Knur camels to each man, and proh ahly one year’s supple of food.” " How do you manage for water when on a protracted march?" " Tho water camels carry two fifteen gallon barrels of water each. There will he about four of them, besides sev-1 eral small hags ol water distributed in | dillerent parts of the loads.” “ Are the camels imported ?" “ Yes; they wore imported from Him racheo, hut originally came fromOahnl. Sir Thomas has some COO or OIK) of them and some twenty-three Afghans to look after thorn.” "Do Afghan camel-drivers go with you ?’’ "Ono only; if more go they are apt to want too much power.” “Will the learned societies of the world derive much information from the results of the expedition. “Undoubtedly. Botanical, geoogil cal, natural history, and other speci mens will he collected, and most likely, ns on previo >a journeys, Ilia proceeds presented to museums after their char acteristics have been published in the archives of the society to which they belong. Besides which indications of mineral deposits are certain to he found." I lie French National Flag. Probably no national ling Ims under gone so many vicissitudes as that of Franco, which Ims lately been the sub ject of oflicial consideration. It was in 4!)8 that Clovis, first King of Franco, chose for his standard the cope, or cloak, of Ht, Martin. Ht. Martin, of Hunganan origin, was elected Bishop of Tours in 574, and died about 400. The first saint .to whom the Roman ! Church offered public veneration, ho is alleged to have divided his cloak with a naked beggar at Amiens, and this, being miraculously preserved, became a most precious reue, and in war was carried before the monarch. The word for it in French being chape, the ora tory in wbielijit was deposited came to bo called a c/uipdlc, ana its custodian a c/uiptlier. It will llms be seen that tbe banners of knigbls have a very ap propriate resting-place in lioly fanes, as in the chapel of St. George, at Wind sor, and the cathedral of Kt. i’atrick, at Dublin. St. Martin’s standard, which succeeded the cope, was the richest of tbe flags ever borne by France. It was made of talfrty—a kind of rich, glossy silken stuff em broidered with the effigy of thesainl. Under I’hilip Augustus the royal stand ard was while, thickly powdered with golden lilies, and remained so until the time of Charles Vi., when it invariably consisted of three golden fleurs-de-lis on an azure field, with a while cross in tbe middle. In tbe middle ages ibe hoisting of a white flag was regarded as significant of defeat, or as signifying in the case of the besieged that they needed help; but, strange to say, it subsequently became in France ilie personal ensign of eolonels-gener als, odicors of very high grade, until Louis XIV., thinking that these gentlemen took too much upon themselves, suppressed the rank, and assumed the white Hag himself. In 178'.t the white standard gave place to the tri-color. There have been several versions of the origin of this renowned ensign, but that lately given by the Journal Ihn Dthuht, and copied by tbe Journal (IffhJel, is to the effect that Ca mille Desmoulins, having snatched a poplar leaf from the garden of the Pa lais Royal, held it up before the excited crowd, and proposed green us the na (ional color, telling them that they must have an emblem whereby lo rec ognize eaeli other. But then it. was re membered that green was the livery of the Count D’Artois, the most delisted of the royal families. Subsequently, it, was resolved to take the colors of the City of Pails, the red and blue, which hud already figured in popular move ments, and the while was added in de ference to the semi-loyal National tl mud at Paris. After the Bast,ilesurrendered, Dully and Lafayette formally present ed Louis XVI., with a Iri-eolorcockade in the hall ol' tim Motel de Ville, ami it heeame the national ensign hy legisla tive decree. The standard of Napoleon 1. was a gulden eagle on an a/.ure field,* studded with golden bees. What was known as the Flag of Elba., which in ISI I he presented to the National (inanl, and used next year in Franco, is now how are the mighty fallen!—at Mine. Tussivnd’s waxworks in London, togeth er with his traveling carriage, taken at Waterloo, and many other interesting relies. It is tri-color, embroidered with silver, and was taken hy the Prussians. The Imperial standard of the Second Empire was the Iri-eolor, powdered with gulden bees, with the eagle of the em pire <m the white. The visitor to Wind sor sees in tlietinard Chamber two lit tie French lings of considerable historic interest. Over tho bust of John Chur chill, lirst Duke ul Marlborough, n the white flag of (tie Bourbons; over that of Arthur Wellesley, lirst Duke of Wel lington, is the tri-color. They are re newed every year on the anniversaries ol Blenheim ami Waterloo, and are the tenure hy which the descendants of these warriors hold the estates given (bom by their country. Tun following story is (old of Con gressman Morrison, of Illinois: Three years ago Morrison was lying very ill at Willard’s Hotel, and his life was des paired of. Two of his colleagues were ivatehing with him, and in the middle of the night Morrison revived some what. from a stupor in which he had been lying for several days, and asked: “ I )oi •stlie doetor think I'm going to I die ?" " No, I guess not," was the reply, “ you're coming out all right." “ I'm glad of that,” said Morrison, with a breath of relief. “I have been lying here thinking and thinking, afraid to ask that question lest you might say I had to die. I'd hate to die in con gress." "Why?" “ All the blank fools in congress will want to deliver eulogies on me If 1 do din 1 want Springer to oiler the usual resolutions, and I'd like to have him and Fort and Jon Dilution make speeches; hut when Sparks gels up I want yon all to cough him down, and he sure to tell Springer to call the previ ous question on the resolutions before that ass Harrison gets a ehauee to say anything." If Morrison had not recovered, these would have been his la.-t words <'ll riovitit's of ('oiTespoinb'iiee. Ni >\ York UoirtUU I Fi'\v people outside the profits on of journalism can know tlio extraordinary character of the correspondence that daily reaches the mail bag of a mavs paper. From tin' letter of Iho man who had personal grievances to avenge, and asks (or satisfaction through the columns of a paper by asking that the crimes of his enemies ho made public, to that of Iho individual who believes ho has discovered the means of revolu tionizing science, there is a gradation with which every journalist is familiar. AERONAUTICS. Frof. King to Make an Attempt in ISSO to Cross the Atlantic in a Balloon. Philadelphia, April 5. To the I'ldilor of the New York Herald: — I trust that you will allow me, through your widely-circulated columns, space in which to make a statement to the public of my plans and purposes dur ing the coming season. For a period of nearly thirty years I have made a study and practice or aerial naviga tion. During the whole of this time, in the course of which I have made something over 200 ascensions, without injury to life or limb, I have steadily endeavored to avail myself of whatever experience or suggestion might afford to make traveling in the air practical, de finite, and useful. Numerous and often costly experiments have shown me that, with no mechanical appliance or power yet discovered, it is ini possible to journey definitely and with certitude through the air to any previously desig nated point, in opposition to the direc tion of a prevailing wind. The balloon, therefore, remains to-day what il was in the days of the Montgolfiers,—a ma chine that all the skill and ingenuity of man cannot prevent from floating with | the wind, which controls and direct* it i absolutely from the moment it is I launched. The application of any known mechanical power, to he of any use as against a wind directed upon the vast surface of a balloon, is entirely im practicable on account of the weight in volved. We must, il is evident, await Ihe result of the discoveries of an Edi son, or until someone else shall have succeeded in devising a harness with which to control the electric current. Hut il seems to me that a great deal lam he accomplished with the balloon, slave of llie wind though il he. Thus far balloon voyages have been limited to the duration of a few hours at most. The longest voyage on record was that made by Messrs. Hager, La Mountain, Hyde and Wise, from Hi. Louis, Mo., to Henderson, N. Y., iu 1859. The bal loon left Ht. Louis at 0 o’clock on the evening of July 1, and at 35 minutes past 2 on (lie following afternoon il made its landing. I have myself made an air voyage of oyer 500 miles; hut, generally speaking, balloon journeys have been very brief, extending over a comparatively limited stretch of coun try. The masons for this are us plain and true as when expressed by the English aeronaut, Hrcen, in 1840, These reasons are plain, as I have staled, because of the manner iu which aeronauts have managed and operated their balloons. Is it possible to operate them so as to prolong their carrying ability? This is a question which has long vexed those versed in air-voyaging, anil it is one which i am prepared after a series of very careful experiments to answer in the affirmative, and 1 may speak confidently of my ability to make a balloon voyage of a mouth’s dura tion, sufficient, with a thirty-live mile breeze, to circumnavigate the globe. The experiments in which I have been engaged almost exclusively for the Inst two years have demonstrated to my'Sat isfaction that it is not only feasible to construct a balloon that will maintain Ihe hulk of its lifting power, but that il is also easily practicable to keep il a limit and in transit lor this length ot time. The results of my experiments have been laid before a number of gentle men of ample means in your city, and they have taken sufficient interest in the subject to place at my disposal the fun Is necessary to enable me to continue my experiments until t shall have attained a result l that will abundantly justify mo in nn- ; delinking a transatlantic voyage in a balloon. I have secured an eligilile and convenient location at Manhattan Beach, where I shall istahlish an aero nautic observatory during the coming season. I shall construct here a wood en inclosure, 35 feet high and 200 feet in diameter, for the purpose of allbrd ing my balloons and apparatus proper protection from the winds. 1 shall have two spheroidal balloons, -each of a di ameter of do feet, and of a capacity of 150,000 cubic feel of gas, I shall, of course, work hut one balloon at a time, but shall provide the extra balloon in ease of damage to Hie other. 1 shall construct my own gas-works and inflate with hydrogen, which is far superior to common gas and has nearly double the lifting power. Tims equipped I shall be able to conduct captive ascensions from the sea-coast during the summer season, and make observations on the state of the atmosphere and the pre vailing direction of the winds from va rious altitudes. 1 shall use a cable 1,000 . feet in length to elevate and lower tin 1 balloon, and this cable will ho woikeil by a steam hoisting apparatus. It is ] my purpose to make those ascensions i during both day and night, except when the weather prevents, and i- shall thus he able to record a great variety of ob servations and experiences which will be ot incalculable use to me in the fu ture. Thus equipped, with experience derived from actual experiments dur ing a large number of ascensions made under every possible condition, t pro -1 pose to lit out a balloon, in which it is - my intention to make the transatlantic I attempt in earnest. This elVorl may not 1 he made until the spring or (all of 1880, as it will require several months in which to construct the proper appara tus, which will entail an air-slup of double the size of those 1 shall use in my captive experiments. My observa tory at Manhattan Beach 1 expect to have in thorough working order by the 15;h of June next. SiMfU. A. K ino, •Aeronaut. Whcri’ tin' Hiir (iiiiin Are Made. After si go.nl night's rout,a xisit to the manufactory is arranged. Here tVtHK' nun are regularly employed. The vies with Woolwich. One im portant dillereneo, however, 'xi>tj be tween them, for whereas any foreigner may go over ami examine Woolwich, no foreigner, or even Herman, may go over Essen, with the exception of some ot the most miiinpartant workshop*,un less he he personally known to Herr Krnpp or to one of the committee. Two immense workshops are filled by the Bessemer steel works—-to those shops an engine is attached for the purpose of pumping air for the furnaces. In an other, lines for railways are being man ufactured; in another, pipes; then there are the cannon workshops, the en trance into many of which are forbid den. It requires, on an average, about a year to finish a large cannon; one, now in process of manufacture, is. they say the largest in the world—though, judging from its appearance, it does not seem equal to the Italian one of HX) tons; it has been already two years in hand, and is to lie completed shortly. On leaving the shops, one observes on the right a small detached building called the museum in which is an ex act and careful model of every sort of gun. shot, shell and military equipment made at Essen. Close at band are the comfortably-built houses of the em ployes, with shops for supplying their various needs, where everything can be bought at cost price, the whole forming quite a colony. While being shown over the immense Jabrique , it is not pos sible to overlook a little house standing in the very heart of the works,carefully railed in and neatly kept; this is point ed out as the place where Herr Krupp’s father died, and where ho himself was born. Though blocking up the way, as it does; just in the busiest part of the manufactory, where every yard of ground is of value, he will on no ac count allow it to he touched or iu any way interfered with. Whoever comes to Essen, he he Kaiser or Kronprinz, this little house is pointed out to him with loving reverence. KALAKAI’A. His I. Hid ClnimlaTlain “Doing" the I'nited States. Onmhu IlcruM. Col. (I. il. Judd, chamberlain ami pri vate secretary to his Hawaiian majesty, King Kalakaua, passed through this city last evening on his way to S,. Louis, Washington and New York, on a busi ness and pleasure trip. Col, Judd was horn in the Sandwich Islands, hut is the sou of an American, who went out as a physician to the second American em hass sent to the Sandwich Islands in 182S. This is Col. Judd’s second visit to America, and the occasion of his first railroad ride. Nineteen years ago ho visited tills country, crossing the isthmus of Panama and going thence to New York in a sailing vessel. He informed a Herald man, that the over land ride had been a novel and excit ing amusement. Ho was delighted with it. He mentioned the fact that he met Miss Woolworth, of Omaha, and a party of friends in Honolulu and had Ihe pleasure of showing them the royal palace and the sights of the city. He came to Ban Francisco on the same steamer with them, and hut for a nec essary delay in Han Francisco would have conic to Omaha with the party. Col. Judd staled that Kalakaua’s in terest in the affairs of other countries, and particularly America, is on the in crease. Ho is a subscriber to many American newspapers and periodicals, including journals of science and me chanics, in which ho takes great inter est. He expects in a year or two to visit America again, making also a tour of the world. He is as popular as ever with his subjects, who are now building him anew brick palace, which will cost about $1(10,1)0(1. The chamberlain esti mates the population of (ho Sandwich Islands at 80,000. Of (ho white settlers Americans are largely in the majority. There m great need of laborers on the farms, and many Chinese are employ ed. Col. Judd makes but a brief visit to the United Stales, leaving San Fran cisco on his return May 1. Corsican Character. Frazer's Miiguziiie. A Corsican, like ;m Italian, .slabs a man on the slightest provocation, anil thinks it no dishonor to shoot at him behind a stone wall. Having killed his victim, hi 1 escapes into the maquis,— the wild, open country, covered with impenetrable,odorous brushwood, —and there lives, supported by his sympathiz ing fellow-countrymen, practically safe from pursuit, for the gendarmerie do not care much to venture into the wilds on such an errand. So a Corsican gen darme in the French service, bound with others on a service of pacification in a disturbed district, and who climbed up behind the mule-cart, without leave asked, chatting all'ably, informed us. Moreover, the people of the neighbor hood always give these “ banditti,” as they are termed, timely warning of the approach of the police. Some of tuese gentry have killed quite a large number of men; and if only the murders have not been committed for purposes of robbery, the banditti are most popular, especially among women. Hut robbery and theft are counted dishonorable, and the Corsican banditti, therefore, justi fiably object to be confounded with the banditti of (Ireece, Italy, or Sardinia. A traveler is perfectly sale, though the district fnrough which lie travels he in fested with them; and when acts of pil lage have been committed in their name they who brought him back his goods and chattels, informed him that the thief was dead, and that he himst If was Seraphim), the bandit. Honesty is a Corsican virtue; so are hospitality and generosity. Sexual morality does not] appear to bo their strong point, though any insult to an unmarried girl incurs the implacable vengeance of her rela tives. I was told, however, on excellent authority, that the father of a distin guished Corsican having been murdered, the sou, who was too enlightened to I avenge himself after the approved I fashion of his countrymen, handed the culprit over to French justice, which sentenced the man I.) only a few years' imprisonment, the resu't, being that this miscreant, now at large, threatens to exterminate not this sou only, but all his family. It is ditlieult, one must own, to feel much liking for such a race of rsseals. Yet 1 am disposed to think that a really good Corsican, when you do get hold of him, is a very noble per son, indeed. Such was Paoli, and such was, we believe, the coachman who ! drove ns in all our subsequent i xpedi ! tions from Ajaccio. California wines are selling well in London, with a tendency to advance in price. Their strength and purity com mend them to both continents. A SEW STEAMSHIP. Two New Boats on the Red Star Line to Hun to Antwerp. The Red Star Line have added two splendid new ships to their line, to run to Antwerp. The Belgenland, the first of these splendid steamers, is now in port. She is a four-masted iron screw steamer, 4H5 feet long over all, 402 feet between perpendiculars, 40 feet beam. 02 feet, 8 inches deep from the upper part of the keel to the top of the upper deck beam midships. She measures 3,700 tons, has a straight stern and ellip tic stern, with turtle backs forward and aft, and on the main deck are substan tial iron houses, containing saloons, ladies’ room, smooking room, chart room and the officers’ and engineers’ quarters, pantries, mess rooms, ice house, store rooms, Ac.; a gallery and appurtenaces, fitted to cook for 150 cabin passengers and 1,000 steerage passengers. This magnificent steamer is fitted with all the modern improve ments far making the voyage comfort able to passengers and also with all the modern improvements for navigating and handling the ship with safety. The saloons of which there are two—one forward and one aft—are on the main deck. The state rooms are all in the centre of the ship and under the main deck. The forward saloon is fin ished in polished paneling of satin wood and mahogany. The upholster ing is grained leather. The furnishing is most attractive and substantial. At one end of the saloon is a finely-fur nished library. The skylight is of hand somely polished teak wood, the fore and aft windows of which arc orna mented with the coat-of-arms of the city of Antwerp and the city of I’hiladelphia. On top of ihe house in which are the saloons is a spacious hurricane deck, where saloon pascengers can prome nade without interference from the crew, who work the ship from the main dock below. On this hurricane deck is the wheel house, a, luxuriously furnished room for ladies and a very comfortable smoking room for gentle men, with lavatory, etc. Such is the elevation of the hurricane deck above the water line that even in the very worst weather it affords a comfortable place for promenading, which is not possible under the old plan of arrang ing passenger ships. The pantry and galley aie large, spacious and well ven tilated, so arranged as to give no in convenience to passengers from the smell of cooking, etc. In the pantry is a register to which all the state rooms are connected by electric bells, by which system a servant can bo called at all hours, day or night. The state rooms arc in the middle of the ship, where the least motion is fell at sea. They are all of the same size, spacious, well lighted and ventilated, and com pletely furnished. Perfect ventilation in warm weather, and in stormy weath er, when it might bo necessary to keep the companion-way doors shut, is sc oured by means of a special engine which drives a large blower, pipes from which pass into every stale 1 room the supply ut fresh air is regulated accord ing to the convenience of passengers as you would turn on and off heated air in the registers of your houses. About the deck and all the necessary places the steamer is fitted with the latest im proved machinery for handling anchors, warping the steamer in and out of docks, etc. Her engines are com pound, of about 2.200 indicated horse power; cylinders fifty and 00 inch, and length of stroke, 4 feettl inches. There are three boilers, containing 14 fires, calculated to consume 45 to IS tons of coal per day, producing an average speed at sea of 13 to 14 knots. — Phila delphia Timm. Prizes for the Farmers' Hots. Worcester (Mum.) Spy. Almost jis good ns an agricultural col lege in the education of farmers’ hoys, and a great deal cheaper, is the oiler of Stillman li. Allen, of Boston, to the hoys of York comity, Me., of prizes for I lie greatest crops of Indian corn on lots of one-eighth of an aero each. The first prize is SIOO, the second S6O, and there are live prizes of $lO each. The conditions are that the contestants must have lived iu York county at least two years, must he under 17 years of age on the Ist of June, must enter their names with the president of the York County Agricultural Society, on or be fore May 1, must do all the work them selves, except that they may have help to drive the team, for plowing or culti vating, and must at the end of the sea son make a repoit, giving the shape and character of the laud cultivated, with a detailed account of their process es of cultivation. They may use as much of any kind of fertilizer as they please. The corn is to be measured under the direction of the president of the county agricultural society, whose decisions and awards must be final. Similar prizes in every county would do much to stimulate interest in agricul ture amt train Up a class of intelligent, enterprising and diligent young farmers. The Broker ot the Itothseliihls. London Truth. Anent the late financial scandal in ! Paris, it may he interesting to state ■ whence originated the intimate eonnee- j tion between the Syndic d** ui/niln d< change, M. Moreau, and the firm of II ithsehild, which has been anew illus- 1 (rated by the event. The story is a eu-! rious one, and was related to me sever al years ago, as it had just taken place. I The offices of brokers on the Paris Bourse, as it is well known, are only I sixty in number and under state super vision. M. Moreau had just bought his, and had not vet a large practice, when a friend of his, a well known man ! on the ’Change, called one fine morn ing on the famous Baron and addressed i him as follows: ‘‘l am a ruined man. The £16.000 I owe you I cannot nay.” The Baron started on his chair and ex i pressed his strong disapprobation of this ; piece of news. “Still," went on the fellow, “there is some hope if you are willing to subscribe to an arrangement.” “I have subscribed hut too much al ready," “Never mind the subscription, I can procure a stockbroker for you who will execute your orders at half the usual ccmtniasiou. If you accept my pronosal you will thus be repaid ere j long: if you don’t you lose the money.” The Baron accepted. Half an hour later the man was in the private room of M. Moreau. “Would you like to be stock-broker-in-ordinary to the Baron*.'” The rising agent de change laughed heartily; “I should rather think so.” “Well, you must do something for it. It means simply a fortune, by giving you the key of the market. Would you undertake the job at one-fourth the usual commission, giving to me a fourth, and one-half to the Baron?" The contract was struck. M. Moreau I became a millionaire, and the head of his corporation. His friend retained the £15,000 which he had never lost, paid his debt without parting with a centime, and pocketed monthly a handsome commission. That I "call business. SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE. Eminent Men Who Have Presided in the Lower Branch of Congress. There have been twenty-nine speak ers of the bouse of representatives, and forry-five congresses. The first speaker, Frederick A. Muhlenberg, and the last, Samuel J. Randall, wore both from Pennsylvania. Henry Clay, of Ken tucky, saw the longest service—twelve years—having been reelected six times. Andrew Stevenson, of Virginia, who was speaker during Jackson’s administra tion, comes next in length of service, having been four times elected. Nathan iel Macon, of South Carolina, who was speaker when Jefferson was president, ; Schuyler Colfax, and James G. Blaine j were each three times elected. Jona than Dayton, of New Jersey; Joseph ] Varuum, of Massachusetts; John W, Taylor, of New York; James K. Polk, of Tennessee; Lyon Boyd, of Kentucky, and Samuel J. Randall were each re elected to a second term. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut; Theodore Sedgewick, of Massachusetts; Loudon Cheaves. of South Carolina; Phillip Bai bour, of Virginia; John Bell, of Tennes see; R. M. T. Hunter, of Virginia; John White, of Kentucky; John W. Jones, of Virginia: John W. Davis, of Indiana; Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts; Howell Cobb, of Georgia; Nathaniel P. Banks, of Massachusetts; James L. Orr, of South Carolina; William Remington, of New Jersey; Galusha A. Grow, of Pennsylvania; Theodore M. Pomeroy, of New York; Michael C. Kerr, of Indiana, were each elected speaker once, but some of them served for only a part of a congress. Massachusetts and Virginia have each had four speakers. Virginia has had the chair for fourteen years, and Massachusetts for ten years. Kentucky has given the house three speakers, whose combined terms have extended over eighteen years. Indiana and Penn sylvania have each had the speaker three times also; and New York, New Jersey ami Tennessee twice. The other speakers have come from North Caro lina, Georgia, Maine and Connecticut. The northern states have supplied six teen speakers and the southern states thirteen, but the south has occupied the chair fifty years to the north’s forty four. Proposed Hailroiid in Asia Minor. Instead of the proposed Euphrates Valley railway from Scanderoon or Livaclia tc the head of the Persian gulf, with an extension along the Mek ran coast to Kurrachee at the Indus, Mr. Haughton suggests a line passing througli Sivas and Diarbekir in Asia Minor, Mosul and Kafir in Turkish Arabia, with a short line to Bagdad, crossing the gates of the Lagros range on the Persian frontier, going through the Persian towns of llermanshah, Hamadan, Teheran, Shahrud and Mushed, crossing the Afghanistan fron tier, and passing through Herat and Kandahar and through the llolau Pass into Shekapocre on the Indus Valley railway. A branch line would also con nect this system at Diarbekir with either Livada or Scamleioon. Besides the strategical importance of his route, Mr. Haughton urges the fact that it would open up a vast field for trade. The en terprise uf the United States in con structing a transcontinental railroad was advanced to encourage the timid who might hesitate to engage in so gigantic an undertaking- Unit From the Fire. A quarter of tv century ago there was a memorable conflagration at Sacra mento City, Cal., by which the entire business portion of the city was laid hi ashes. When the great tire was at its maximum fury, a wealthy merchant named McNulty, who owned one of the heaviest business establishments in the city, gazed for a few moments upon the work of destruction, and then, instead of folding his hands and weeping over th? disaster, lie went to the nearest liv ery stable, hired a fleet-footed horse, rode like John Gilpin during the remain der of th' night, and before daylight the next morning had purchased every foot of lumber and every saw mill at Grass Valley and Nevada City. There is, pos sibly, no human being on earth who would think of running oil' by the light of his burning proporty in order to literally make his fortune out of the disaster except an American. McNulty did so, however, and almost burned - ately realized out of the sale of his lum ber fourfold as much money as he had lost by the great lire. Irish Immigration to Canada. Montreal Pott. The Irish people have ceased coming to Canada. When they emigrate they go to a more genial, but not more heal thy climate. During the jear IS7B 41,- 000 people left Ireland, and of these one half went to England and Scotland. 14,- OU# to the United States, 0,000 or 7.000 to New Zealand and Australia. Tie emigration from Ireland to the Domin -1 ion is principally from the north, but altogether there were only OK) Irishmen | left Ireland for Canada during the year 11878. Our emigration agencies in Ire land cost th° country largo sums of money, and ttu result is GOG immi grants", and ot those we do not know bow many found their way to the Unit ed trtates. Our immigration system cost the country |lßo,ouo lor 1878. and we (ail to see an adequate return for sc large an outlay.