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' PIUMITIVH MAN'S IDEA
op the i mvkrm:. In '"' . The, r)y tpeculatlon about the form ol tbe universe and the position of tb earth In t form ft niOHt Inter eating phase ct the elf ration of sden Itlflo thought, la the speculations I we find the germ of modern aatroo tomy, jibyslcs anil chemistry, and they are therefore north, serious ntudy A irlef discussion of theso primitive idea la contained la an artUIo con tributed to the Itevuo Selentlflquo (Paris, Octobor 51), by Juloa Bageret. Cays this writer: "We may rccontttruct, In Imagina tion, the earth as primitive nan con reived It, If ire ar able to divest our winds of all acquired notion, The earth Is a plain of indefinite extent, on which Tests on Immense anlld dome, the nky. The sun, the moon, and the stars follow thj surface of Ibla dome and bury themselves In tbe ground whence they have emerged at a point opposite to that of their disappearance. Thla evidently Indi cates Ian existence of opening cotu rnunlt.sllng with ft subterranean world lighted by (be sun during our night and b the alar in our day. "Thla Imaginative restoration con form to the beliefs of certain savago pnoplfi. . . . It h fortunate for the progress of science that thfs cosmo logy waa not adopted by every one, not that it la absurd, but on the con trary because it In so reasonable that It might have aufflced humanity for a long time. . ., ,v Wo in I phi then havo still been awaiting a Col umbus." ' "Loral or other reasons canned dif ferent cosmologies to be imagined. In general tho Idea of a flat earth waa r el a I nod, : Many i co pies belteVed fhat the abode of mau waa aurrounded with water. They knew of the grea- seas beyond which no land tiud been found, and were I hiis led to believe that these were the limits of the world. How then explain the coursea of the stars? Douhtles tho atari were not like ter restrial fire: taelr divine nature enabled them to retrial the trlala tbat would have e4ema)ly extinguished the latter. Nevertheless, thanka to tbo powerful Impulse of analogy, It waa often preferred to spare the aun, which la hot, a nightly balh In tbe (Old ocean waves. ' Several methods were devised to this effect. In the Indies, at tbe Vedle and Brahemlc. epoch, the aun waa a..'.poMd to be a disk with two fores, one obscure, tbe other lumin ous; It ahowed tbo latter In Ha Jour ney from east to weat. and the form er on Its return course. Or. more simply still, the writer goes on to say, the light of the aun was sometimes .believed to extend on ly to a certain distance. The Chinese even calculated tbe value of the ra dius of the constant clrclo of illum ination, beyond which It waa alwaya night. Dwellers far Inland, who knew not the tea, wers inclined to n i-e mountains in their cosmogonies. The Hindus near the Himalayas thus believed tbe aun to circle about Mcrou, the golden mountain, whose shadow caused night. Thlg moun tain watt finally located at the North Pole, the Chaldean, cosmology was also of tbo mountain type; only the mountain in this case was finally Identified with the whole earth, On (he other band, tbo Egyptian be lieved in an ultraterreatrlal Nile, along which the Sun-god sailed In bla bark. It wan thus the mountain cosmologies tbat cam nearer to tbe truth. Thales, however, the first of the Greek philosophers who really desired to gut at tha realty of things, built bla system on that of the Kgyp tiana rather than on tho more ration al plan of tho Chaldeans. By bin time, tbe Egyptian cosmology had be come somewhat modified, however, "The Egyptians, who had at first a solid sky supported by four moun- ' tains, did away with it, llttlo by little. The celestial Nile grew until It became a sea, contlnoua with tbe , terrestrial ocean, on which the earth floated. By analogy with the un, the moon waa carried by a bark along this sea. and tho same was Imagined first cf tbe placets and finally cf all the stars. Aided hy the conception of Nou, the primordial water, the universe became an Indefinite hemis pheric air-bubble. On the lower flat part of thla bnbble tbe earth floated "Such waa the cosmology that Tli a lee doubtless adopted, in great part. . . . The curiosity Of tbe Ionian philosophers, more easy to demonstrate than to explain, founded a Fdence to -which oar own Is Joined by a continuous boad. Thla curiosity however, would aave remained In effective, if it had not possessed, at a working-basis, the various prevloua cosmologies which conld tie used tor discussion and comparison." Trans lation made for the Literary Digest. W It AT HA I'l'KM;i) IX GALVESTON SlMtAV Galveston, Dec. 22. The Sunday closing movement which began Hal oid. y night at midnight with the shutting up of the saloons, was com pleted shortly after 2 o'clock Hun day afternoon by the closing of tho Grand opera house, which was pre sentlng a performance of "The Dev il," two vaiidovillo theates and sll of tho moving plcturo shows, billiard balls, cigar stand, bootblack stands and fruit stands. Shortly after 2 o'clock Chief of Police Perrett received from Rev Father Kerwln, rector of tit. Mary's cathedral, a letter stating that there was being given in this city a per fonnamo of the play known "The Devil," which tho writer character 1ed as immoral, licentious and dc moralizing, and demanding that Mr Perrett, as chief peact. officer of the city, suppress It In accordance with the laws. The letter alio added that for three hours effort bad been made tu locate the county sheriff, but w'.thout avail. The ! II" Hoiitril. Chief Perrett at. once proceeded to the opera houne, arrompanied by a number of nfllrera. and following the first act of the play t waa stopped, the people In attendance HolnR to tho box office on the way out and receiv ing a return of their money. The manager of the ahow and (he man ager nf the opera house at first stat ed that they would consent. 10 be arrested and glv0 bonds, proceeding with tho show, but the thief of po lice was firm, and announced that they, the attaches of the house Hnd tho performers would be arrested for every separate attempt to produce the play. Tbo management then con sented to close the show. Other Tlacea Closed. Krom the opera house ihe chief and his officers proceeded to the People's Majestic, Theatorlum and Royal vaudeville theaters, and they were In turn cloned for the day. The moving nlcture houses then came in for attention, and each of the seven were visited in turn and the sliowg stopped without any ar rests being necessary. Following the closing of tho places of amusement the police visited the pool and billiard rooms and closed them, then taking in the cigar stands and repeating the order, th restau rants and coufectionery store being allowed to remain open with the un derstanding that cigar and tobacco sales would cease until Monday morning. rcoplp Aroused. There bad been aroused a slrong focling In Galveston among tb best people against the exhibition of "The Devil" on Sunday, and Manuger Wells waa warned that an attempt to how It would likely result in his house being cloned by the officers. Chief perrett, In speaking of his move, said that In the absence of tbe sheriff h found hla plain duty and proposed to do It Without fear or favr. No complaint wa8 filed against the other amusement houses, biit the chief stated that he would treat all alike, and Hint Sunday shows must stop, commencing with today. It Is tho first time in the mem ory of the oldest Inhabitant that Galveston bas been the model, law abiding city that It. is this evening. While the streets were crowded with people all they could do was look Into the windows, and the only thing In the way of recreation or diversion to "be had 'was the Salvation Army, the churches and the tuberculosis lerture at Rosenberg hall. The cigar smokers were conspicuous by their absence as the closing of these stores had come without warning, and those who had to smoke had to content themselves with cigarette Kmoklng. Th saloons closed promptly nt midnight Saturday, and the officers report that not an arrest for viola tion of the closing order had been made. While a tew drunken men wore seen, the source of these was traced to the private bottles and homo supplies laid In in advance. Growl and Ormnbles. Complaints and kicks were num erous and threats of what would happen "next election" were many and varied, but It whs no uso, as Chief Perrett met all requests for special favors with tho same answer and ho remained at his office all day and lato in the evening to see that the orders were strictly com piled with. CHILD Bl'RXS TO DEATrf. Waco. Texas, Dec. 22. Roxans Lee, a 4-year old girl lg doad aa the retult of burns rocelved while run ning In front of a fire while the mother was out In the jard. COL. . T.GROd URGES PRODUCTION OF SUGAR BEETS OVER Hustling Citizen of the Plains Writes From New With Men of To the Kdllor of tne TanTiandle; It will Interest, the readers of ihe Dally Tanhandlo to learn tho results of the analy of sugar Vets from the Panhandle, To fchow how well adapted ihe soil of the Panhandle is for tho production of thin Kreat money-making crop, 1 present the averages reportod,for a period of seven years, from 1901 to 1907, Inclusive, by the Cnlted States Pcpartment of Agriculture of the hoet hiigar factories in the I'nlted Stales; tl t I jflOl 3U 17.'i.0S.T 9.63 1.6RR.733 ISl.tlOiJ 14. R 82.2 9(Cj 40 200.4 0't K.76 1 . S 0 .1 . R 1 2IS.40R H.ti S3. 3 1903 49 242.r,76 R.-'ti 2.07fi.2!M .. I'10,fi04 I .V 1 (.7 190 4 4 1 97.7 S 4 1 0 47 2,07 1 ,.130 J)2,li:i 1 .", . " S3, t liio;, .12 P.07.3 fi I 8.67 2,66.1.91:! ::i2.9:i i;,.:! v.1.0 1906 63 376.074 1 1.26 4,236.1 1 2 4K3.612 11.!' S2.2 1 907 63 37.9S4 10.1 6 3,767,S71 463. 62S I S3 6 Now the Panhandle. In 1907. from 61 tests, gave IT 7.' K2.12 Now the panhandle ln 1 90S, from 7 tesis, gave 1 '.. I S4.S3 Now ihe Panhandle, from 97 tests made In 1902-3-4-0-6-7 and R. gave... 16.27 SO.f.O This is a fine showing and when capital realizes tho advantages of the Panhnndlo for growing; sugar beets, vast sunifi rtf money will flow Into the Plains country In beet sugar fac tories. In 1907 only two states in tho Union led the panhandle, as shown by th0 following report of analyses: Slates Factories Sugar Purity California 8 17.9 83.1 Colorado 16 1.1.3 81.S Idaho 4 17.8 88.3 Michigan 16 1.1.1 84.7 Ctal) 5 16.3 86.0 Wisconsin 4 15.1 S6.6 Illinois I 15.1 82.3 Iowa 1 J 5. 1 82.3 Kansas 1 15.1 8 2 3 Minnesota .... 1 15.1 82.3 Montana 1 15-1 82.3 Nebraska 1 l5.t 8 2.3 New York 1 17.72 82.12 Ohio 1 17.72 82.12 Oregon 1 17.72 82.12 Washington ... 1 J 7.72 82.12 Panhandle, from 61 tests 17.72 82.12 When the American people realize that we are producing only about one-fourth tho total sugur consumed, there can be no doubt but that great er stimulus will be given the produc tion of beet HUgar, Tbo tariff will be so placed, or a bonus will be paid, that will stop the Immense flow of cash each year from our country to pay for sugur tbat the Panhandln of Texas can produce and will produce. According t0 Wlllett & Gay, Jan uary 9, 1908, the following tables show that the annual consumption bus reached nearly three mill. on long tons (2,240 lbs.) and how much we produce and how much we Import: Kind and Origin. Cane and beet sugar from foreign countries and Insular possessions. . Cane sugar, lxuiiana and Texas. Beet Sugar United States Maple Sugar Molasses sugar made ln United States from imported materials. . Total Domestic Sugar Total consumption of all sugars. ... 2,632,216 These figures are In long tons of 2,240 lb. Countries Producing Beet Sugar. 1907 1906 1905 Germany : 2.135,000 2,238,000 2.415,136 Austria 1.4W.0OO 1.344,000 1,309.000 Russia 1.410,000 1.470.000 oos oimi France i 725,000 756,000 1,089,684 Belgium 235,000 L'K3,000 328,000 Holland f 175,000 , 1 81.000 207,000 Other Countries 435,000 4 45,000 332,000 How little our own great country produces when compared to some of the small European countries: Vear . Tons 1905 the U.3. produced ... 220,722 f906 the lT, S. produced.. .309,317 1907 .the' U.S. produced. .375.410. Our population l increasing more rapidly than the beet sugar factories are. htlt tho consumption per cap ita is Increasing as rapidly as the f THE WEEKLY HERALD DECEMBER Money-Some Vital Figures Regarding the Great Sugar Industry K . u 0 . a 03 population. So while we are rapid ly Increasing the numlier of people to consume sugar, tlieso same people are demanding more and still more. The per capital conaumptlon In pounds, a shown in 1S84, SI lbs.; In 1S94. 66.64 lbs.; in 1904. 75.20 lbs.; In 1907. 77.54 lbs., while the per capita consumption of all Ku rope is only 31.61 lbs. The importance of the beet sugar industry to the Panbandlo can not be estimated today. There are millions of seres of rich virgin soli adapted to the most successful production of sugar beets; the fertility of which can be kept up to It present state by rotatlug with wheat and alfalfa Every farmer, every merchant, every bnriker, and of course every land owner should bend tbeir united en ergies toward bringing these udvant ageM properly before the raonied men of the country, by encouraging the growing of beets In every section of ihe Panbundiu, following Tho methods adopted by tbo beet sugar factories In growing them, so as to bring tho best results. Millions of American gold havo juat gone Into Brazilllan coffee bonds that will pay about 5 percent, if the Panhandlo people will only try, If they will only put tbolr shoulders to the wheel and eaA'h one, everyone, help to the best of their ability a showing can be made that will move even more mil lions than went Into these Brazil llan voffee bonds paying 5 per cent Into beet sugar factories paying from 15 to 20 per cent. In the Panhandle. . Tho Panhandle la tho most attrac tive sec tion of the country today for men of small means, by a united ef for It can bo mado so. To the men of millions it deponda on the people to do It. If tbey will only try, the 1905 2.056,092 1906 1907 2,281,599 2,337,352 267.947 334,522 300,317 375,410 6.000 ' 10,000 8.1 50 6,249 582,4 14 656,627 2,864,013 2,993,979 264.968 220,732 9.001 11,881 576,124 Panhandle (farmers and merchants) will quickly become the richest sec tion per capita of the United 'States. .My efforts among men with millions of Idle money,., is .causing some of them to look tpward the Panhandle. If the whole, people will lend their beat efforts to the cause, it will re sult in the investment of large sums in the beet sugar industry. H. T. GROOM. St. Denis Hotel, New York. Dec. 17. 24, PANHANDLE York City After Mingling a o H 31 n. 3 i i. Ml K nrapixo ijkxefit. From the Kxperlence of Aiuarlllo People, We are fortunate indeed to be able lo profit by the experience of our neighbors. The public utterances of Amarlllo residents on the following subject will Interest and benefit thousands of our readers. Read this statement. No better proof can be had. Mrs. William "Wlllingham, living on South Van Buren St., Amarlllo, Texas says; "I take pleasure in re commending a remedy that has prov en of vsuch great benefit, to mo as Doan's Klduey Pills. Kor a long time I suffered a great deal from kidney trouble, and dull headaches, bocame nervous and was In a general run down condition. My back ached night 'and diry anj the misery (be came so tntenso that I finally thought I would have a complete breakdown. A friend advised me to try Doan's Kidney Pills, I procured a 'box at L. O. Thompson & Bros' drug utore and in a short time after beginning their use. found my health improv ing. I was so encouraged that 1 continued using Doan's Kidney Pills until I was entirely cured. I can scarcely find words ln which to ex press my gratitude to this remedy." For salo by all dealers. Price 50 cents. Fostor-Milburn Co., Buffalo, New York, solo agents for the United States. Remember the name Doan's and tftk0 no other. A Piano at a Nominal Price. Chicago's largest house, Lyon & Healy, announces a Triple Clearing Sale of Pianos. Nearly one thousand splendid instruments are offered without reserve until all ar sold. In this stock- are all the fino new Mehlin Hardman, ' Ivors & Pond, Smith & Nixon and other noted pianos for merly owned by th0 Thompson Music Co., the Healy Music Co, and the bis F. O. Thcarlo Piano Co. All tbes0 concerns were bought out for, spot cash by Lyon & Healy and the public may now share tho advantage. In this sale are also a number of Stelnway and Weber pianos, ln up right pianos neat instruments at $100, $120. $140. $150, $165, $190, $200 and upwards. This Is an un precedented opportunity that will noti occur again. Any piano not proving entirely satisfactory may be returned at their' expense. Address Lyon & Healy, 77 Adams street, Chicago. Distance is no obstacle, for in pro portion to the saving to be mado the freight charges are insignificant. Any banker will assure you of the entire responsibility of Lyon & Healy, and their record of 44 years of honorable j dealing. Write today so as to avoid disappointment. New York Money. Associated Press. New York, Dec. 22. Monev on call firm. 2i53H per cent; prime mercantile paper, I'jTl'a. WASHINGTON' TAKFaS I P ItLI T fit tail VI LSTION ww w The Daily Panhandle some days ago gave out an article written in this offlco by a member of Its edi torial staff ghinii this portion of the I'nlted States its first information regarding the colossal figures clus tering around thetiuRar Industry and sugar consumption in tho republic. Th,( article was built from an Inter view with Mr. J. II. liotchklss. spe cial representative of tho Dyer com pany of Cleveland, Ohio, manufac turers of suiiar beet plants, Mr. Hotchkli's canip to the panhandle for his company, through efforts of Col. fJroom, who went north to Interest investors of that region in th pos sibilities of the great Panhandle as a sugar beet country. Mr. Hotcfo kiss and his company are now mak ing tests of Panhandle beets and tho result will be announced at not a very distant dale. Now tbp government has taken up thP Interesting question of Migur and n dispatch from Washington will he of interest, and we give It In con nection wiih Col. Groom's most able and Interesting letter. Tho Wash ington dispatch Is as follows: Washington, Dec. 22. Cold fls ures gathered by the bureau of sta tistics show that, the average citi zen consumes half hl:i own weight in sugar every year, and Uncle Sam's sugar bill averages $t,000,onn a day. A statement issued by the bureau reads more like popular fiction than ordinary government reports. Tbe total consumption of sugar In the United States In 1007, which Is the latent year for which statistics are available, reached the almost un thinkable figure of 7,0S9,667,97,1 pounds. Tho statement shows that 21.3 per cent, or in round numbers. 1,551. 000,000 pounds of tho sugar con sumption of the country, was home production; 17.7 per cent, or 1,214, 000,000 pounds was brought from our Insular possessions andtho re maining 61. per cent, or 4.316,000. 000 pounds came from foreign coun tries. Forty-three million pounds was the aggregation of the exporta tion of sugar from this country. Tho United States' sugar record for 1907 was unique In that tho quantity of that product Imported from foreign countries was larger than ever before; the quantity brought from our Island po.-sesslons was larger than in any previous yearf tho quantity exported was larger than in any year of the past decade, and the per capita consump tion was the largest ever recorded, an average of 82. 6 pounds for each man, woman and child of continental United States. An equally interesting feature of this record year of 1907 was the fact that the production of beet sugar for the first time far exceeded the production of cane sugar, tbe pro duet of the year being, cane sugar, 344,000,0000 pounds, and beet su gar 967.000,000 pounds. Tho world's production has prac tically doubled In the past twenty S3B For the Children We have a large assortment of Velocipedes, Tricycles, Irish Mails : nd Automobiles. Our South Window has alio been ar ranged for their exclusive amuse ment. Both young and old should get the habit of trading at our up-to-date establishment. Reliable Goods at .rr-Tr.- i years, having grown from 17,000, 00000 0 pounds In 1887 fn 33.000,. nun, nun pounda la 1 907, and while ll.e Unfte Stales iiinsuuKil about If per cent of the total world's produe. llon of 1S87, It lonsumed 22 per cent of the greatly im roared produe lion ol. 1907. Heetn now supply one lmlf of tho Grand total product. wh1li 1 went jeais nun they supplied about one-third of the lotal product. CHOKF.I) TO IH.ATH is commonly mid of lialile ho have died of the croup. How iiunerespary thlB Is. No child rvrr had the croup without having a told or cough at tbe start. If you will stop the flr1 symptom of tbe cmigh lih Iliilhid'1 llorehound Syrup thei0 Is no danger whatever of croup, Sold by L. O, Thompson & Co. IT'S A tTllMU to neglect, your health. The worsl neglect that you ran b0 guilty nt la to allow contitlpatiou, biliousness or any liver or bowel trouble to cob tinue. It is poisoning your entire Kystotn and may lead to a serloui chronic disease. Take Psllard'H Herblne and get absolutely well. Tho sure cure for any and all troublen of the etoniach, liver and bowels. Sold by L. O. Thompson 4 Co. SPl It FARM LANDS THE FARMER'S OPPORTUNITY. 'In,. Spur Farm Lands are uovj open to .sale, and offer to the home seeker selection!, from a hody of 430, not) acres lu extent, all under one ow neri-hlp. This Immense property is being Mib-dtvided into quarter-eoctlons, ami solj direct from tho owners ti the farmer, thus Insuring him best values for his outlay, a the land i not loaded with celling commissions, The first offerings are In Dickens county, Texas. Land produces woo derfully; easily cultivated; reliable cotton territory, this crop having nei ( r failed. Absolutely free from boll weevil; it can not propagate hore. Corn and feed bluffs, and a great! range of farm crops produce abund antly. Ideal for hog raising chol era unknown. Excellent fruit grow Ing region. The Stamford & Northwester railway is beinu pusiiod into this country, and will be operating la time to handle the 1909 crop. Pres ent purchasers get the benefit of best prices, easy terms, with certain ty of railroad facilities, and inrreas ed value of holdings. Fine, healthful climate, altitude about 2,000 feet, lying below the plains. ' '"T Fr further Information, addresl C'has. A, .lones, Manager for S. M. Swenson & Sons, Espuela, Dickens County, Texas. 52 2 DON'T RE HOPELESS about, yourself when you're cripplerl with rheumatism or atlff Joints of course you've tried lots of things and they failed. Try Ballard's Snow Liniment It. will drive away alt aches, pains and stiffness and leate you as well as you ever were. Sold by L. O. Thompson A Co. iniitMiiwfiTnu'i I Reasonable Prices -'1, t p.v. 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