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I. E. JULIAN, Editor.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. HERE AND THERE; Tiie Boston time-ball, which drops every day at noon, can be seen four miles. ' Vert little chewing-tobacco Is sold in England, and that mostly to American tourists. Caleb Cushino is the only survivor of the large company raised in New buryport, Mass., for the Mexican war. Dubino the past year, 20,000 fossil insects have been exhumed from the rock-beds at Florissant, near Manitou, Col. Prince Louis Napoleon was drawn for service in the French army. He obtained exemption as the only son of a widow. The Sultan never leaves his palace, even on the shortest expedition, unless he is accompanied by a wagon laden with refreshments. The price paid by Peter Minuit for the site of New York was $24. At com pound interest it would now amount to $140,000,000. . The Parisian Gas Company made $5,805,000 last year. After handing $1, 670,000 over to the city, it declared a dividend of 24J per cent. A railway train crossed the Ural Mountains for the first time on March 11, on the occasion of the opening of the new line from Perm to Jekaterin burg. Colonel Valentine Baker is to command a regiment of Goorkha in fantry at Malta. The Goorkhas are all bow-legged, short and stout, but they are very muscular and courageous to foolhaidiness. , Samuel B. IIabe, of Boston, settled in the Argentine Republic 20 years ago. Now he owns a farm of 28,000 acres, all fenced in, and his live stock consists of 110,000 sheep,8,000beeves,500 horses and 1,400 hogs. William of Orange, Crown Prince of the Netherlands, is a young fellow of the " Prince Hal" pattern. He leads a merry life in Paris with the Pistols and Bardolphs of tke Boulevard cafes, and does not care whether court keeps or not. An immense sperm-whale became stranded in Port Eads Bay at the mouth of the Mississippi, about three weeks ago, and was captured by a man and his little son in a small boat, the only weapon used in its capture being a hatchet. The trophy measured 62 feet in length and 15 feet through the thick est part, and will yield about 50 barrels of oil. An impecunious Italian tailor went in to the Church of St. Luke, in the Campo Vaccino, Home, and pretended to pray devoutly. He continued at his simulat ed devotions until every body else had left the building. As soon as he found himself alone and unobserved, he drew a large chisel from under his garments and forced the door of the tabernacle containing the sacred vessels. Soon after his arrest some of the silverware was recovered. His praying will here after be done in secret, in the solitude of a prison cell. Two years ago a newly ordained priest, Father Russkiewicz, having ad ministered the parish of Sowina, diocese of Posen, by order of Cardinal Ledo chowski, was condemned to two years' incarceration. When he came out of prison last week he was taken into cus tody again and conveyed by armed po licemen to Zindst, which is, the Uer mania tells us, a small barren island in the Baltic, with 2,025 inhabitants, who depend for their support on herring fishing, and are all Protectants. Senator Kernan is said to have a long, practical, sensible nose ; Senator Conkling a handsome, fighting nose; Senator Lamar an artistic nose of great possibilities; Senator Howe a long tri angular nose, with a sharp point; Sen ator Bayard an inquisitive, yet a courte ous nose; Senator Edmunds a firm nose, the nose of a gnarled and knotted charac ter, and Senator Barnum a dashing and heedless nose. So gossips a Washing ton writer, who thinks he knows all about it. The Salem witches are not all dead yet, it seems, for a man, calling himself a professor of metaphysics, appeard be fore Judge Colt of the Supreme Court at Boston the other day and asked him to restrain Daniel H. Puffer, a Salem mesmerist, from practicing his powers on Lucretia L. S. Brown, of Ipswich, who has been under his control since 1875, and has already had her spine dis ordered and her mind impaired by Puffer's witchery. The Judge decided. however, that mesmerism and witch-, craft were rather out of bis line. j The African emigrant who sailed; from Charleston, South Carolina, ia the Azor, after thoir arrival at Monrovia, the capital of the Liberian Republio, ex pect to go to Bopora, where there ia a settlement founded by Saul Hill, a col ored man who left Charleston in 18CC He has been very successful, and is now the owner of a fine plantation, with an annual income of not less than $3,000 from this aloue. He has also a large coffee grove of 9,000 trees. The people in his settlement are doing well, and he has acquired a great influence over them. The terrible drought which has for some time afflicted almost the whole of Australia is at length breaking up. Sheep and cattle have suffered severely, and, in many instances, owners have lost one-half of their flocks and herds. The want of water is really the curse of Australia ; and it seems doubtful whether this cau ever be effectually remedied, al though large expenditure has been in curred in arrangements for the storage of water in threatened localities. The small land owners "free selectors" and "cockatoo farmers," as they are called have a very hard time of it, un less they chance to be in a singularly favored district. The British Medical Journal, in speaking of the effect of the habit of smoking upon the general health of boys under 16 years of age, says : " A celebrated physician toot lor, his pur pose 88 bovs, aged from to 10, ana carefullv examined them. In 27 of them he discovered injurious traces of the habit. In 22 there were various dis ordersof the circulation and of digestion, palpitation of the heart, and a more or less marked taste for strong drink. In 12 there was frequent bleeding of the nose, 10 had disturbed sleep, and 12 had slight ulcerations of the mucous mem brane of the mouth, which disappear ed on ceasing from the use of tobacco for some days. The doctor treated them' all for weakness, but with little effect until the smoking was discontinu ed, when health and strength were soon restored." Two brothers lived in a village in Jersey. They were twins, and their extraordinary resemblance to each oth er caused many queer mistakes. The following story is told of them, but we do not vouch for it: An Irishman was offended by one of the brothers and was a long time watching his opportunity for rovenge. The twins were constant ly together, and although Pat was pret ty well able to manage one, he consid ered that the whipping of both together was a luxury he could not afford to in dulge in. At last, however, he met one of them alone, but was not quite sure that he had the right man. He deter mined to inquire into the matter. " Is that youP" said he, "or are you only your hrntherP" The fellow, taking in the situation, answered, " Oh, I'm only my brother." " Then it's well lor you it isn't yourself that's in it," said Pat, as he walked off with a clear conscience. It appears that during the late war the Russians maintained the most system atic arrangements in regard to the care of their sick and wounded. Thirty-six trains the average number of carriages in each being 24 were espec ially fitted up for the purpose of con stantly removing them from the theater of operations into the interior of Rus sia. All the sick and wounded in Bul garia who could be removed were in the first instance carried to Sistova or Sim nitza. There they were placed in hos pital, received proper treatment, and then after a few days' rest they were transDorted in carriages to the terminal station of the railway at Fratesti. At the Russian frontier a permanent com mission of thirty doctors was establish ed. These examined carefully all the patients that arrived, and divided them into three classes : those whom it was dangerous to move further, those who would probably soon be able to rejoin their corps, and those not likely to re cover fer a long time. These latter were sent to the interior of Russia, and good arrangements made for all. Law Against Flirting. Burke, in the "History of Virginia," says: "I find that the Governor was obliged to issue a proclamation forbid ding women to coutract themselves to two several men at one time. For women being yet scarce, and much in request, this offence was becoming very common ; whereby great disquiet arose between parties and no small trouble to the Gov ernment. It was therefore ordered that the minister should give notice in his church that what women soever shall use any word or speech, tending to a con tract of marriage, to several persons at one time, although not precise and legal, yet so as might entangle or breed scruple in their conscience, should, for such of- lenTCvuirci ' I or be punished by fine, or otherwise, ac cording to the equality of the person so offering." The Hallways of the World. The Prussian Bureau of Statistics ha lately published some Interesting data regarding the railway system of Europe during the decade ending with 1876. The facts brought out in this report are worth comparing with the record of our American railroads. It appears that at the close of 1876 the aggregate length of European rail ways in operation was 92,000 miles, against 47,000 in 1865. For the last named year the total length of iron road in the United States was computed at 85,000 miles ; but 11 years later these figures had more than doubled, this country being credited in 1876 with 77, 500 miles, an amount nearly equal to the combined exhibit of all the Euro pean States. If we look at the ratio of track to area, we find for each district of 89 square miles an average length of one mile of rail in Europe, against nine tenths of a mile in the United States. On the other hand, the railway facilities of no country in the world approach the proportion of track to population pre sented by tke United States. If we take 10,000 inhabitants as a unit of measure ment, the average amount of rail pro vided for their use in Europe is only about three miles ; and in the most fa vored parts, namely, Sweden, Switzer land or Great Britain and Ireland, is about six, five and a half, and five miles respectively, against the astonish ing quota of seventeen and a half in the United States. In a word, the railway advantages of this country are, relative ly to our population, more than three times greater than those of the opulent British islands, and more than four times more extensive than those of Bel gium, the most densely peopled section of the Continent. As for the capital represented in rail ways, we observe the total amount in vested in Europe is eomputed for 1865 at five billion nine hundred million dol lars, which sum had risen a decade later to ten billion eight ' hundred mil lions. At the latter date (1875) the whole capital expended upon railroads in the United States was estimated at four billion six hundred and fifty million dollars. These figures indicate an aver age cost of about $118,000 per mile in Europe, and nearly $60,000 in the Unit ed States. We may here mention that, as regards the expense of railway build ing, British India seems to stand mid way between Europe and American. In 1865 Hindostan had some two hundred and fifty million dollars invested in 8,850 miles of track (an average cost of some $75,000 to the mile), while in 1877 6,500 miles had been constructed with an aggregate outlay of five hundred and forty million dollars, showing a slightly increased mean disbursement. If we turn now to rolling stock and business, we find the comparison, as might be expected, extremely unfavora ble to this country. Thus the whole number of locomotives in 1875 on Eu ropean roads was 89,621, against 15, 569 in the United States. At the same date there were nearly 85,000 passen ger cars in Europe, while less than 14, 000 were run on American roads. It may be said these figures are delusive, because our coaches are more capacious, but the fact is that the number of per sons transported by rail in 1875 was one billion twenty-three millions in Europe, as against one hundred and sixty-eight millions in the United States. We re mark a like disproportion in the freight account. At the same period the whole number of freight cars on the European lines was 936,000, transporting up ward of five hundred million tons of merchandise, while the American re turns show but 675,000 cars, and a movement of less than one hundred and sixty-eight million tons. The gross receipts of European rail ways in 18C5 were nearly $500,000,000, and this income was almost exactly doubled 10 years afterward passenger traffic at that time being credited with 84 per cent., and freight business with 62 per cent, of the whole revenue. At the same epoch (1875) the gross earn ings of railroads in the United States were about $5C0,0O0,0OO, to which total freight contributed 72 per cent. It is a curious fact that working expenses have increased in Europe and diminished in the United States during the decade un der review. Thus, in 1865 it cost on an average 46 per cent, to run a European road, and 10 years later nearly 65 per cent., while the amount absorbed by the same disbursements in this country has dropped from 68 4-10 per cent, to 63 1-10 in 1875. If, from the data previ ously cited, we deduct the running ex- Ipenses, we find the net earnings of European roads in we namea jear were $450,000,000, while American lines showed an aggregate profit of $185, 000,000. Ia other words, the revenue available for interest on the capital employed in construction was 4 S-10 per cent, for Europe and 4 1-10 for the United States. On the other hand, in 1867, while Euro poan linos earned very little more than at present, American railroads returned a net profit of 8 9-10 per cent. Even the railways of British India now earn 3 4-10 per cent., or little less than our own roads; whereas, ten years ago, the ratio was nearly as one to four. Final ly, we may state that the largest gross receipts furnished to the mile of track in 1875 were $200,000, credited to Great Britain and Ireland, while the lowest, $30,000, are assigned to Norway. In proportion to the extent of rail and cap ital, the most considerable profits seem to have been realized in France and Germany, where they rose to more than five per cent. On the other hand, net earnings touched their minimum, name ly, 7-10 of one per cent., on that Rou manian network whose bankruptcy ruined Dr. Strousberg, the German rail way king. The Ways of Oriental Princes. The ordinary Asiatio Prince, Sultan, Khedive, Shah, Maharajah, or what not, is from earliest childhood self -moved, never impelled by any body, never sub jected to any restraint from any thing but physical laws. He is never pun ished as a lad, never whipped, never censured, never placed in circumstances in which he is under the coercion of opinion, and never without instruments who have no will but his. As a man he has no equals whoso, opinion reaches him, and no men round him who are not his creatures. Theeffeotof that treatment of course varies with different natures, making a few exceedingly gentle and a few unendurably ferocious, but It pro duces on all two results. They all find in making their will effective the pleas ure which other .men feel in exertion, and they all mistake momentary impulse for will that is, they all become, or rather remain, capricious as children. I should like a new palace just there," says the Sultan; and forthwith the palace has to be produced, though he may never live in it and never even care seriously to see it. "I will have an army," says the Shah, " on the Euro pean pattern;" and there is the army, all dressed up for him, though he has not considered how to keep up that army for five minutes. "I will own Egypt," says the Khedive ; and buys,, or seizes, or confiscates every visible estate, though he may not be able to say why he wants them, or what a huge quantity of private In come can do for a sovereign who has the State Exchequer at his command. The desire has arisen, there being no customary limitations present to his mind, it must be gratified, for its temporary character does not di minish its force. In fact, the first sign of this kind of disposition is the want of proportion between the wish and the cost of gratifying it, the sort or omnip otence that every wish obtains. The Sultan Abdul Aziz, when traveling in this country, felt one day a little sleepy in a railway train, so he ordered the train to be stopped that he might sleep unshaken. That looked brutal, but the impulse was not brutal at all. The Snltnn was sleepy : he had never been accustomed to consider limitations on his will, and so the idea that he must, by stopping, either stop a great traffio or produce a general smash never en tered his mind. Five-sixths of the cru elties of orientals are caprices, mere transient thoughts, turned into acts be- causo they have never been .taught to refrain from so turning them. A true typical oriental worried with Ireland, and possessed of power to do as he liked with Ireland, would not wish, like the English lady, that it were sunk in the Hfn. for 24 hours, but would sink it that is, would issue an order for the re moval of the population with just as lit tle consideration as the lady made her little speech, and very often would con sciously and while unopposed mean just as little mischief. It would be a " ca price" like the stopping of a train, not an atrocity. The Spectator. Pretty and Touching Mule Story. A car-load af mules en route to Cali fornia from the far East were unloaded here last Wednesday for a rest. One of them sighted the green sagebrush and rushed hungrily towards it for a luscious feed. He nipped off a mouthful of the fragrant bush, chewed it a momont, spit it out, bit himself and kicked to see if he was dreaming, took another bite, and then, with quivering lip, and the tears coursing in torrent down his cheeks, he lifted np his voice and brayed a bray of undisguised emotion. A peculiar brand upon the animal waa recognized by the Indians as one used by their ancestors hundreds of year ago, and his deep emotion waa no doubt caused by unex pectedly finding himself once mors amid 1 the scenes wherein be had whiled away : the joyoo, innocent hoars of his child- I hood. Elko (Xer.J Foil. The Attacks of the Tenal Press. The widespread distress that is now prevailing among the workingraen in this country has had the effect of di recting their minds to the consideration - of questions that have too long been ignored by mem. inoy iook around tlioin and see Nature with bounteous hand lavishing hor favors upon men: they see the land producing enough and more than enough to support the popu lation of the country; they see thou sands and thousands of acres of the publio domain now lying idle, inviting the army of the unemployed to oomo and till them; they see tho bowels of the earth oflering thoir stores of wealth for man's use; they see on all sides the accumulation of their .past labor, in the midst of which thoy 'can scarcely ob tain enough to maintain life in them and their little ones; they see' around them the possibilities of making life the very reverse of the hard struggle for existence that it now is. Seeing all this tlio question forces itself upon them, why they should starve in the midst of plenty. Thoy ask themselves what baneful fiat is it that forbids them to reap the fruit of thojr labor, that for bids them evon to work. They begin to question whether this poverty in the midst of so much natural wealth whethor this paralysis of labor with its attending miseries is not directly due to the sworn undor which we are liv ing. They are beginning to discover that any reform thut leaves our finan cial and economical systom untouched is but a temporary measure of reliof an anodyne, not a remedy. As this conviction grows and finds expression, tho Jay Gould!) and the Vanderbilts, who prosper on tho gen- . eral distress, become alarmed, ' and through the venal press that stands ready to do their bidding, assail the workingmen with a bitterness and un scrupulousness that do not hesitate to make use of every means to blacken the character and misrepresent the motives Of those who undertake to champion the cause of labor. The gathering strength of the Labor and Greenback movement throughout the country has thrown the organs of these men into a perfect paroxysm of fury. . The principal dailies of New York are devoting column after column to vilifying the men who are engaged in the effort to restore to the oountry an honest system of finance and to raise labor above the state of pauperism to which tho owners of these journals would reduce it. First and most con spicuous in thcs3 attacks is the unscru- Sulous organ cf the notorious gambler, ay Gould. Not long since it devoted over a page to the task of showing that the trades unions and other working men's associations are formed for the purpose of disorganizing society. Sim ilar calumnies appear day after day in tho editorial columns. The Tribune ia aided in its work of vilification by the Herald, the Timet and the World. However much tnese journals may differ in politics, however Hinmnrrinfillv nnnnsod thoir views msv be on other questions, they all present a united front in their opposition to any movement that looks to the ameliora tion of the condition of the working- i . ii j i men. uwnea ana coniroiieu Dy men whose interest it is to perpetuate a dis-Vinnnnt-. avarem of finance, and to keeD labor at the starvation point, these journals try to form in the publio mind a prejudice rgainst all reforms that will have for their object the bettering of the condition of the laborer. Conscions of the weakness of Jhoir position, they abandon argument and entrench them selves behind abuse. This action of theirs clearly indicates the weakness of t.)i a nn.ii ha tliAT fisnnnse. It cannot stand the clear light of investigation. Its only hope lies in Keeping men irom uireuu ing their thoughts to the consideration nf thn wmnrra t.hn.t nre boinff nerne- trated under the present financial and economic system. 10 uo mis tuejr suhko in our laces tne scare-crow oi commua- iam Tt inters nnmmunists. cut-throats. financial lunatics, are some ot the pet . . . 1 -1 I 1 names inai are lavisiieu on uieuien wuu have set themselves to work to reform tl.n ftliiiups that. are at the rootof all the suffering and misery that now fill the land. Here is a specimen oi uie way that these journals hope to successfully nnmlmt. thn men who are advocating a just system of finance. Speaking of the Greenback: convention nem, laieiy, in Philadelphia; the Tribune says: rpt. ,Mt flu. Mnital nt nfhftr nMinlft. or the line of that capital, without paying what it i worth. They want to pay debt with money that luu no value. Wherein do tnevaiiier irom the tramp, who want to pet a imng without working If a really dewriptire name, hurt, convenient, terse, and fit, ia wanted for the) I'ennii) lvnnin National Greenback Lalmr party, why not rail them - the 1'ennnjlvai.ia Tramp" No doubt Jay Gould's organ thinks (liia an (Tnctiva wav of nreventin? the growtli of the party that threatens to put a stop to Its owner s aisnonesi way of making money. DUl It IS lime UJUt luo 4. r itrartv buuuii inilnratnnil that the Pennsylvania Tramps" are on a march that is des tined to end in the ovennrow oi tns money rings, land rings, railroad rings and their kindred iniquities. It is the perception of this fact that has brought down upon the Greenback Labor movement the torrent of abuse that has for some time flooded the pages of the venal press of New York. Two years ago this same press was willing to treat the financial erase" with silent contempt. To-day they never tire in heaping abuse upon it. The transition from contempt to abuse is an indication of the strength that the movement has gained during the last year. The greater the danger f the overthrow of the iniquitous system that is robbing labor, the greater and more vehement will be the abuse of the Tenal press. Iruk World.