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ORATORS AXD ORATORY.
Cnlhun mnH WtMtrTht Thrtr C; i. t iiuralimr Amrriea 11 ill The greatest orator of thin country Patrick Henry, perhaps, excepted says Prof. William Mathews, in his new jk on "Orators and Oratory," all tbiok, was Henry Clay. Prof. Math ew8 gives some personal reminiscence of the great dobato between Clay and John C. .Calhoun witnossod during a risit to Washington in 1840, when the flow Jersey question was before tho honso. The discussion grew so violent that members shook their fists at each other: invitations to pistols and coffee were given, and, to prevent a tumult, the house adjourned. A GREAT SCENE IN THE SENATE. Proceeding to the sonata Prof. Math ew's attention was at once arrested by a voice that seemed liko the musio of the spheres. It came from tho lips of a talf, well-formed man with a wide jnouth, a flashing eye and a counte nance that revealed every thought with in. His voico was one of extraordinary compass, melody and power. There was not one word of rant, not one tone of vociferation in the very climax of his passion. He spoke deliberately, and his outpouring of denunciation was as slow and steady as the troad of Ne mesis. Ho gesticulated all over. As ho spoke he stepped backward and for ward with effect; and the nodding of his head, hung on a long neck his aims, hands, fingers, feet and even his spectacles and blue handkerchief aided him in debute It was Henry Clay en gaged iu a hand-to-hand struggle with another giant of tne senate, John C. Calhoun. Clay had just tannted him with a rumor that ho had left tho opposition ranks and struck hands with the admin istration. He (Mr. Clay) "would like to know what compromises had been made between the honorable senator from South Carolina and tho Kinder hook fox" (meaning President Van Buren). Calhoun replied : "No man ought to be more tender on tho subject of com promises than tho honorable senator from Kentucky." Then, alluding to tho compromise effected by Clay in the nullification crisis of 1840, he added : "The senator from Kentucky was Hut on his back. I repeat it, sir, the sena tor was flat on his buck, uud couldn't move. I wrote homo to ray friends in South Carolina half a dozen letters, saying that the senator from Kentucky was flat on his back and couldn't move. I was his master on that occasion. I repeat it, sir, I was his master on that occasion. He went to my school. Ho learned of me." The two antagonists sat at tho ex treme ends of the semi-circular rows of seats Calhoun sitting in tho front row, on the president's right, Clay in the rear row, on his left. "The honorable senator from South Carolina," , said Clay, "'says that I was flat on my back, and that ho wrote home to his friends in South Carolina stating that I was flat on my back and couldn't move! Admirable evidence, this, iu a court of law! First mako an assertion, thon quote your own letters to prove it! But the honorable senator says that be was my master on that occasion!" As he said this tho speaker advanced down tho aisle, directly in front of Calhoun, and pointing to him with his quivering linger, said, in tones in which were concentrated tho utmost scorn anddofianee, "Ho my master I He my master," ho continued iu louder tones, with his finger still pointed, and re heating backward, whilo his air and manner indicated the intensest ubhor renoo. "He my master!" lio a third time cried, raising his vo:co to a still higher key, while he retreated backward to the very lobby; then, suddeuly chang ing hi voice from a trumpet peal to al most a whisper, which yet w as distinctly audible in every nook and corner of the senate chamber, he added "Sir, I would own him for my slave." A hush of breathless silence; then followed a tempest of applause which for a while ' decked all further debate, and came ear causing Rn expulsion of the spjc lorrrom the callery. CLAY AXD CALHoni COMPARED. In the entire roll of distinguished ora tors there is hardly one whose printol peeches give no inadequate an idea of power as do those of Henry Clay. The fwling which ho excited in the d of hi follower was expressed by plain old country gntlTnn who " tfrwsgU np with him clone to the Slsh of old Hanover: "I know bira like a book and love him like a brother." I Clay was chivalrous, impulsive, poetic, enthusiastic full of corruscationa of wit and flashes of fancy. Calhoun was always dry, diroot, intensely ratioi-inn-tivo moving forward like Babbugu's calculating maohinos from one numeral to another till tho not quotient or mm totid was evolved. The leading facul ty of Calhoun's mind was his power of analysis. In the ability to' examine a complex idea, to resolve it into its sim plest elements, he had no superior. Next to this, his most striking charact eristic was tho depth of his. convictions. No man ever cared loss for the graces and polish of the ' sohools. Intonsely earnest ho cared only to make himself understood, and while the periods of Clay glittered "like polished lances in a sorry forest," Calhoun, in his ve hemenoo, bit off the last syllables, and sometimes eat up wholo sentences iu tho fury of his enunciation. Cl.'.y's words, when assailing an enomy, wore usually courteous and polished, while Calhoun's were fierce, blunt and rude ly terrible. Tho one hit a man with his keen rapier, like a courtier of tho old regime, the other knocked him down with a sledge hammer, like a Scandina vian giant. Clay allows you to die, like Lord Chester, in a becoming' attitude, while Calhoun breaks your bones, and leaves yon sprawling on the floor. The one stabs you with a smile, the other smashes you with a frown. Clay is even more dangerous than Calhoun, as the graceful leopard is an antagonist more to be feared than tho grizzly bear. DANIEL WEBSTER. The groutest speech mado in Ameri ca this century according to Prof. Mathews was made by Daniel Webster in reply to Hayne. Whoever looked upon Daniel Webster, with his massive, Herculean frame, his beetling brows, deep-set, searching black eyes and im perial port, felt instantaneously that a Titan stood before him. In his voice, in his step and his bearing there was a grandeur that took the imagination by storm. "Since Churlemagne," said Theodore Parker, "I think there has not been such a grand figure in all Christendom." When Thorwalsden, the Danish sculptor, saw the cast of his bust in Powers' studio at Eome he mis took it for a head of Jupiter. Sidney Smith was astonished at this specimen of "American physical degeneracy." Carlyle, speaking of his largo, dark and cavernous eyes, overhung by shaggy brows, said that, when in repose, they were liko blast furnaces blown out. Nature had set her seal of greatness visibly upon him, and his achiovments in the senate and the forum, in the closet and before the masses of his fellow-citizens, did not belie the promise of his god-like physiognomy. Doubless Calhoun had a more acute and meta physical mind, and could divide a Hue more nicely, "twixt south nud south west side;" Clay had a more electric or magnetic nature, and showed far keen er sagacity in divining public sentiment, and in sweeping the strings of popular feeling; but in sheer intellectual might in that comprehensiveness of vision which sees all sides of a subject and judges it in all its relation in that largeness and weight of utterance which give impressivencss to everything that one says, and in hard logic which link conclusion to conclusion like a chain of iron, neither Clay nor Calhoun nor any other American was equal to Webster. He was eminently the orator of the understanding, and for the reason that ho spoke to the head rather than the heart. Because his qualities wore those imperial ones which command admira tion rather thau win love, he was nev er a favorito with the populace. The ! young men of the country worshipped him, and the thinkiug men looked np to him with admiration, but generally ho was tho pride of . the people rather than their idol. ASECDOTr.S OF WKBSTER. Whilo perfectly free from egotism, he ! manifested a magnificent self-reliance ! based on a just estimate of his own ' powers. It is well known that on tho night preceding his great reply to I Hame. when tho New Engenders in Washington were qnaking with fear, and when Edward Everett, to whom Webster read over some of the points be intended to make, was doubting 1,ther their champion was aware of the raasnitndc of the occasion, Webster 'dept soundly. Into half a sheet of paper, of which the brief consisted, were condensed all the bolU of this 1 marvelkms reply. There is no douM ; that in one sense the orator had long been prepared for the assault which he repelled with such crushing energy. He had long weighed and ausworod in his own mind the arguments of nullifica tion. He himself baa left on record his feelings, whon he roso to roply. Not until ho took the floor and saw tho con course, and ho felt tho hush, did he feel the slightest trepidation. Then for an instant tho responsibility of his po sition rushed upon and nearly un manned him. But after this first dizzy moment was over, during which tho sea of faces whirled around him after a single recollection of how his brother had fallen dead a year before in a similar climax of oxoitoment, he subdued, by a strong effort, his trepidation. "My foot" he says, "felt the floor again ; they seemed rooted like rocks, and all that I had ever read, or thought, or acted in literature, in history, in law, in politics seemed to roll before me in glowing pano rama, aud then it was easy, if I wanted a thunderbolt, to reach out and take it as it went smoking by." ' It is well known that it was in fishing for trout in Marsfleld that Webster composod the famous passage on the surviving veterans of the battle, for his Bunker Hill address. "Ho would pull out a lusty specimen," says Starr King, "shouting 'venerable men, you have como down to us from a former genera tion. Heaven has bounteously length ened out your lives that you might be hold this joyous day. 'He would un hook them into his basket, declaiming. 'You are gathered to your fathers, and live only to yonr country in her grate ful remembrauco and your own bright example.' In his boat fishing for a cod, he composed or rehearsed the passage in it on Lafayette; when ho hooked a very large cod, and as he pulled his nose above water, he exclamed, 'Wel come! all hail! and thrice welcome, citi zen of two hemispheres 1" One of his best witicisms was a reply mado to his landlady at Washington, Mrs. Seaton, who said to him one day as he came home lato from tho cabinet, that he leoked fatigued and worried. Ho had been revising President Harri son's inaugural, which was brimful of pedantic allusions to Roman history, and especially to tho Roman proconsuls, which tho old hero, in spite of Web ster's protest, had been obstinately bent on rotaining. "I really hope," said Mrs. Seaton, "that nothing has happened." "You would think some' thing had happened," Webster replied, "if you knew what I have done. I have killed seventeen Itoman pro-consuls as dead as smelts, everyone of them." Webster rarely attempted pathos, but when he did so never failed to un seal tho fountains of feeling. His cele brated apostrophe to Massachusetts in the speech of 1830 made hoary men weep like children, and when he closed his argument in the Dartmouth college case so overpowering was tho pathos that even the grave judges of the su preme oonrt could not check their tears. There was an air of sadness in his nature which tinged nearly all his utterances and was visiblo in his grave, severe and somewhat solemn face, fur rowed and lined "liko the side of a hill where the torrent hath been." The countenance is that of a man on whom "the burden of the unintelligible world" has weighed more heavily thau on ordi nary men. Corn as Vucl, Tho American Agriculturist says; "Some journals whoso conductors know- very little about corn-growing and other things in tho West, make their annual outcry in regard to the extensive con sumption of corn for fuel, which they consider a jrreat and inexcusable waste, Suppose the Nebraska or Minnesota farmers were to sell two tons of corn for $6, and buy a half a ton of coal for tho money, and the corn wss at once taken to the distillery and tnrncd into whisky, would this be any better? The farmer would probably huvo to make jonrneys of ten or twenty miles each with his loads, and be out of pocket at least $6 by the trade. Tho fact is, corn is an excellent fuel and although it may seom at first sight to be wrong to burn np an article of food, yet it is bnt a mere sentiment which overlooks the fact, that to warm one's self by fire, and to do tho aamo by the consumption of food, are in the end precisely similar in eff.-ct. If more warmth can be procured by consuming in a stove a dollar's worth of corn than a dollar's worth of coal, it is a legitimate use of the corn. I Mas. rTr0T"x declares that i.he does not wish to rote, as she femrs "be couldn't stand the electrical franchise. Swapping Wivts. ' A very singular story has just oomo to the knowledge of persons living in the neighborhood of Henderson, one of the most wealthy and aristoc ratio sec tions of western Kentucky, aud a ' cor respondent of The Cincinnati En quirer, who devoted ten days to an in vestigation, has unearthed somo aston ishing facts. At Robard'a Station, a little railroad village fourteen miles from Henderson, have resided for gen erations a family named Arthur. One of the younger representatives, Math ew Arthur, owned a drug store in the village, and some years ago married his first cousin, a daughter of Emmanuel Arthur. She was very young then, aud is now only 21 years of age. Four years sinco a Dr. Brown moved to Kobard's Station from Lonisvillo, Ky., bringing with him a remarkably handsome wife and several , children They were hospitably received by tho residents of the villnge and neighbor hood, and being educated people, at once took a prominent position. Brown's practice made him soon inti mate with the Arthurs, and as a conse quence the families became intimate. Thus matters ran along for three years or more. Mrs. Brown is about 32 and young Arthur, who is a dashing looking fellow, is about 27. A short time ago it began to be rumored that Mrs. Brown and Arthur were very fond of each other, and the woman did not attempt to conceal it even from her husband. Further, and to the great astonishment of all, Dr. Brown did not seem to objoct, but paid Mrs. Arthur the most elaborate . attention. Mrs. Arthur aloue seems to have been ignorant of how mutters actually stood, and, before her friends informed her, she went with Mrs. Brown to visit sev eral weeks in Illinois. While thero correspondence was kept up with the hnsbands they left behind. Mrs. Ar thur being a pdor scribe, persuaded Mrs. Brown to write her letters from dictation. It transpired now that Mrs. Brown wrote for herself in her friend's letters, and mado love to the husband, In the meantime the husbands at home became more intimate in tempora ry bachelorhood, and one evening, while drinking together, began to dis cuss their wives. Both soon got under the influence of liquor and emboldened. Finally Brown told Arthur ho had ob served his fondness for his (Brown's) wife, and had not objected, because he had conceived a fondness for his (Ar thur's) wife. This led to maudlin con fessions, and finully to a proposal to swap wives, and before they separated the arrangement was made. Next day they met, and the following agreements wore signed : bkown's profession. . "I love Mrs. Arthur better thnn any human being on earth, and will never be satisfied without I livo with her. I am in earnest, and will make tho swap, so help me God. "Wash Brown" Arthur's agreement. "I am willing to swap. I lovo Mrs. Brown better than any one else, aud I ain in earnest, just as sure as I am sit ting on this barrel, ns God is my judge ; and the one that backs out first is to forfeit $5. "Mathew Arthur." From this a further contract was drawn np for the women to sign. This is not to be obtained. It disposod of Brown's four children, of whom threo worn to remain with their father and one go with Arthur who had none. These preliminaries arranged, they wroto to their wives to return, and, on arrival, Mrs. Brown at once agreed to the exchange. Mrs. Arthur was still ignorant of tho arrangement, and was to be approached. Brown at onco began to write her love- letters of the most ardent description. These were conveyed to her by her own husband. She indignantly destroved the missives, and did not speak of their contents to Arthur. In a few days she observed that her photograph was re moved from her album und Mrs. Brown's inserted iu its place. Then she spoke to her husband and ho told her all, asking her consent to the ex change, and tliat she would accompany Dr. Brown, who was well supplied with this world's Roods, to another state. She indignantly refused, and when next day he again insisted, and produced the j contract for her si gnat are, she went to j her dk, took out a revolver, and told 1 i.i.n if he did not leave she would shoot Liin and Brown. She then informed her father, a stern and fearless man, p ami !; wifa tiawl and last Friday Arthnr disposed of Lis instead of which yon go about the cotra drng store and fled in a boggy to this try stealing dnrks. city, whonce he went north, ostensibly to No York to attend medical eetnrea. His wife and father followed and over took him here, and he promised to re turn in six weeks, and was allowed to proceed. Tbese lacta were given oy Mrs. Ar thur herself, a modest young woman, who says her husband was led astray by drink, and will soon return to her. Both men were deacons in the Camp-. bellite or Christian church, and the letters, eta., written in the strange in trigue, were given to tho local minister, who burned them, but repeated the above agreements from memory. ' Tahnage Twenty Year Ago. Nearly twenty years ago tho Rev. T. DeWitt Talmnge, whose recent tour through the 'gilded palaces of sin' and' the slums of New York as well as his subsequent sormons 'founded on fact,' havo created such a sensation in Brook lyn and New York, first made his appear ance in a Philadelphia pulpit. Prior to his advent in Philadelphia, Dr. Talraage was pastor of a small church in Syra cuse, New York, where he had worked with energy and zeal. When the sev enth street church was rendered vacant somebody sutrirested Dr. ' Talmaue's nnmo as a fitting occupant, and the trus tees issued. a cull to the Rev.' brother, offering a salary of $2500 a year. The call was accepted, and a month later he was holding, forth' in this city.. Hqw well ho succeeded financially is evidenc ed by the fact that seven years later his salary had risen to $G000 per annum, and when he acceptod a call from his present church a proffered increase of $2000 was promptly rejected. 'Ah, "but the Talraage of to-day is the Talmage of old,' said one of the former trustees of the Seventh Street church yesterday. 'I shall never forget the stir which his first appearance created. Dr. Berg had been quiet, serious, and deep in reasoning. Talmago was dramatic, sensational, and eccentric 1 Ho would select odd texts' and preach odd ser mons, which he always took care to ad vertise well a few days beforehand. One Sunday he delivered a couple of sting ing sermons against balls, and the next he gave the theatres a blast. Then he . would dabble in local and national poli tics, dealing freely with men and poli cies. He always, however, took core to keop on the right sido of the libel law, probably on account of the fact that he received a good legnl education in New York in his early days. Every Sunday night he took his subject from some of the current events of the previous week. The result was that he became a sort of pulpit star. Every Sunday the edifice was crowded to the doors, and hundreds had to be turned away. A tragedy or a calamity was a litertd bonanza to him. He could describe the bloodiest scene in a stylo and with actions that are per fectly indescribable. That was just tho sort of preaching which took with the people, and they have never had any thing like it sinco he went away Dr. Talmago met with an accident soon after ho went to Philadelphia which came near costing him his life. , A par ty of his female Syracuse friends had come on to Philadelphia to visit him. One morning a visit to Fairmonnt Park was proposed. Dr. Talmage, who hap pened that morning, to be unusually busy, objected, but was overruled by tho female clement. When the park was reached, a boating trip was propos ed, and tho pastor, who knew nothing of the river, again unsuccessfully object ed. The party, consisting of himself, wife, child, and four ladies, got into the boat, and tho clergyman commenced rowing vigorously down the stream with his back to the dam. As he was reach ing tho latter spot several men on tho bank who saw his danger, shonted to him, but, misunderstanding them, he continued in the same course. Just as he was reaching tho dam Mrs. Talmage briek- Her husband tried to j t the ,KMit. but il WM 100 te "nd " i another minntc the whole party was pre cipitated over tno uatn. All were res cued, except Mrs. Tulmnge, whose body was not recovered for nearly two weeks, when it was found that her dress had canght in tho stone wall down deep in tho water, where she was held until the fabric gave way from decay. THE small bov of to-day doesn't look np to Gcor?e Washington and Benja- v - ! v. L . ..... . . , ho vy. . H. ( gg, jn the bouse, goes out any time, and . returns when he feels like it, is a good ! enough example for him. A wrhTras judge is reported to have thasaddrcmeds J'tbod convicted before him, prior to pamwg srnbmee : Pnson- ! tha.1r' Pr bM T tmrwl d(TM of KeftJtll ajul mlrwitrii