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SAN. MARCOS FREE PRESS.
L H. JULIAN, Publisher. . BAN MARCOS, TEXAS . TEXAS TOPICS. , i Upward of three hundred silver dollan Tin oonnterfeit money have been discovered to be in eireulation in the city of Daniaon. The Southern hotel, four busincs honaea, part of a lumber yard, several brigades of cookroaohoa, and a whole regiment of bed bugs were destroyed by fire at Gainesville recently. HamVton Herald: Mr. T. D. Neel, living in the Leon valley in thia coun ty, near Snowville, brought us a jam pie of Havana tobacco raised by him f.w wA shown it to several who are judges of leaf tobacco and they pronounce it excellent, jut. aioo wm plant much more extensively next year. He had no trouble in raising plants, which is considered the most difficult part of the business. There are in Waco fourteen church edifices, many of them costly. The Baptist church cost $30,000; M. E. church, South, $28,000; Episcopalian, $13,000; Presbyterian, 18000; Cumber land, 17000; Christian, $0000. The remaining seven are Catholic, German Methodist, East Waco Baptist, white congregations whose buildings cost on an average $3000. The other four are colored churches, costing on n average $2000. .; . 1 -The International & Great Northern Railroad Company have prepared for exhibition at the Cotton exposition at Atlanta, a. sample of Texas products, whioh will surpass anything heretofore attempted in that line. It will include cereals of all varieties and samples of soil where raised, cotton in all condi tions of oulture, wool and wpolen goods from New Braunfels, stone and mineral ore and marble, from every section of the country, along the line of the In ternational will be represented. The fruit region will have a display on sam ples' such as have been raised at various fruit farms, bales of cotton sampled from different portions of the country through whioh the road runs, corn and other cereals. General Manager Hoxie has taken deep interest in the matter, and no effort nor expense will be spared to make it a creditable and worthy display. Chicago Times: Hon. Eli Stilson, of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, who has a hun-dred-thousand-aore sheep ranch in Western Texas, lately visited this office and communicated much . valuable in formation respecting the wool interest in that region; He states that some of the largest and best flocks of merino sheep in California are about to be moved to Texas. The reasons that prompted this change of pastures ore various. Land suitable for sheep-raising is becoming scarce and high in Cali fornia. The water supply in many places is scant and unreliable. The market for wool is not as good as in Texas. San Antonio is now one of the largest and best markets for Wool in the world. Drouths are much less severe in Texas than in California, and the climate is generally better. The wool produced from the some kind of sheep is better in Texas than in California. In the former State it is soft, silky and of uniform character the entire length of fie fiber. It is ordinarily entirely free from weak places that are caused by long-continued, severe storms, and a scarcity of food and water. In Cali fornia the staple is not uniform. The wool that grows during the rainy season is strong and of good quality, but that grown during the dry period of the year is not strong, and is deficient of good qualities. If sheep carry their fleece the entire year it will contain two qualities of wool in the same spec imen, and it can not be employed to manufacture a uniform thread. The sheep are accordingly shorn twice a year, and two fleeces of short wool of very different qualities are obtained. Both sorts of wool may go into the same cloth, but if this is the cuso the stronger is used to form the warp and the weaker the filling. The shipment of fresh beef from Texas to the eastern cities, already slaughtered, dressed and ready for the market stalls, must, in the near future, grow to be an immense enterprise and business. We 'have the beeves, and taking them fresh from their rich mes quite pastures or the fattening stalls, where they are corn fed, the meet will be more than a hundred per cent. sweeter, lucierand healthier than when shipped to these markets by rail and slaughtered there, all feverish from their confinement, excitement and ab stinence from water and food on the journey. All that is necessary is refrig erator cars, and of the practicability of these cars the Botiton Journal says: "In Quincy Market yesterday, dealers in fresh meats were examining with a good deal of interest samples of dress ed beef which were brought from Chi cago in a Tiffany refrigerator car in six days. The beef was as fresh and bright as if it had been brought from Brighton, and the market men pro nounced it as desirable in every repect. Chicago dressed beef has been coming to thia maket for several years pest, but there has always been a prejudice against it, as facilities for bringing it here in strictly prime order during the hot weather were not satisfactory. Bat it teems that all the difficulties have been overcome and that beef killed in Chicago can be laid down here in aix or seven days in . perfect condition. This is a matter of some importance to the pnblio for if fresh beef can be brought here from the west, and deli vered to the consumers in as good order as the beef killed in this vicinity, it must lower the price, as the cost of bringing it here will be much lower than on live cattle. Tbjs car load was ship ped when the temperature outside was nt 80, and brought here over the Na tional Dispatch line on a Tiffany car, whose temperature was from 40 to 44. , Dalian Ueral'l. Death of an Old Printer la Texas. A few weeks ago, an old and feeble .tonruui nti fViA EnirMii office and asked for work, saying he was sprinter. He secured sumcie.c taoor, suuuiug for the regularly employed type setters, to earn at living, and worked pretty wlil nntil last week, when ne was taken suddenly ill and died. His fel low craftsmen attenaea nis remains w ti.a.'a inno hnmA. A trunk was left bv uivii ... .i the old man, which was brought to this office, and on Doing openea jememaj it was found to contain a large amount of manuscripts and various literary productions or tne aeceoscu. uu neat little box, which was opened, and within which was found a badge of the naiiMiol anunmntinn of veterans, and WBV.W..1. also a beautiful and very largo silver medal, bearing upon one side the words ; "Presented by thocity oi new xwk iu Edward Scluller, Company D, New York Regiment of Volunteers in Mex ico." On the other side, "Cerro Gordo, Chapultepeo, Vera Cruz, Cherubusco. ntn nt , which four of the greatest battles of the Mexican war were fought, ana in wiuuu auwu MnhilW had honored himself as a mem ber of the New York regiment. There were also in the box with the medals numerous clippings from the nnnnanilH nf t.hn AfltlfctrV hlfflllV COm- plimenting Edward Schiller for a work on moral puuusujmjr, w si IIS 11 I nriiiia nt Vnrt Knott. Kansas. The criticisms upon the work, which was the first rook ever pubnsnea innansau, imiiVftt.Ad that it was swell and thought fully written and an instructive work. And not until the oia man oieu urn become known that he had been a man of prominence in his day. He is sup posed to have been a descendant from a great German family of his name. When he died there Was no one present who knew of his .family, or , friends abroad. He went away as he came nnietlv without any tale to unfold. San Antonio Express. ' For some time during the wor the innnt nf tho forcoiinr sketch was em ployed oh the Picayune as a reporter and special writer, xie wrote u num ber of sketches over the signature of "PennM-corn." While here he appear ed to be a man of considerable means. He, or his wife, owned a river boat, which was. sold to the government, and Schiller then purchased land for a form in Illinois, which he went to occupy ha loff. Vaw OrlAnnn. He is re membered as a quiet, industrious man, - . 1 -T I and a writer or lair aouuy. ivew ii -leans Picayune. ' ' " ' A Large Sheep Hunch. The lararost sheen ranch in Texas and probably the largest in the United states is what is known as the unariey Callachan ranch in Encinal county. In a San Antonio letter the writer says that the number of sheep on this ranch must be between 125,000 and 150,000 head. The ranch was founded by Charles Callaghan with nothing, and before he died, he and his partner, Mr. C. M. Mocdounel, of Laredo, had up wards of 75,000 head of sheep and several hundred thousand acres of land. On his death his portion fell to a cou ple of his nephews, one of whom, Mr. Charles etar, is at present superintend ent of the ranch and successfully car rying on the lucrative business begun by his uncle. As an indication of the wool business of Texas, look to the amount of wool shipped. The wool trade of San Antonio has more than doubled itself in the last two years. From a fair calculation it is estimated that the shipments have amounted to 4,000,0 0 pounds, and there is yet in store about 500,000 pounds, making an aggregate of 4,500,000 pounds of wool handled here the spring season past Add to taut 4,000,000 to be handled, and we have 8,500,000 pounds of wool handled in San Antonio in 1881. Only three or four years ago 1,000,000 pounds of wool was an incomprehensible quan tity in the experience of the wool-buyer of San Antonio. What will be the wool-trade of this city a few years hence? The sheep business in Texes is actually only in its infancy. Ten years from now men will laugh at our boost of to-day. San Antonio is not the otaly wool warket, and, in fact, it is not the first, as Uorpus Uhrwu takes that rank, and much wool is handled in Austin, Waco, Forth Worth, Abeline and other points in the State. Looking at it in this light, am I not right in say ing that wool-growing is one of the most important and rapidly growing industries in Texas, the great South western Empire State of the Union?" A LiBOEF.B in Russia gets eight cents a day and "finds himself." Finds him self mighty hungry pretty often, we should think. Talmaoi aays "revolution is just ahead of ue." So long as it keeps ahead of us, who cares ? Let the revo lution rerolutel The Ferest Flits. Pnirii Tvnmtr. The most distressing effects of the prolonged drouth have been the de struction of life and property in the forest fire of Michigan. During the past week a considerable portion of the small peninsula of Michigan, formed by Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay, has been devastated by fire, or rather by a series of fires, whose origin is a matter of surmise, and whose progress was stayed only by the shore of the lake or the want of material on whioh to feed. The counties visited by dire destruc tion were those of Saginaw, Tuscola, Sanilao and Huron. All the horrors whioh human beings can experience or imagine, wire attendant on the progress of the fires. The oountry is densely wooded, embracing a portion of the lnmhnr taoiob. and the settlers had planted themselves upon small clear ings where they were hemmed in as completely as if caught in the garret of a house, whose stairways wero flooded with smoke and flames. As a conse quence, the loss of life has been ap palling, between five hundred and a tViniinnnrl nnnnln having been 8Uffbcated in deceptive hiding places, or burned to a crisp by tne au-aesiroying eieuicun. Poor frightened creatures buried them solves in their gardens, only to be bak ed; they crawled down into wells, only to be suffocated ; they orept into cellars, only to be buried in the mass of char red rubbish piled up by the bosom of destruction that swept over the land. Fugitives were not sale in tne open field where the unimpeded gale hasten ed the surra of the burning waves upon their faltering retreat; they were not safe in the forest, not Knowing wmuu to tarn, and in their blind desper ation rushing into the very jaws of the nre; they were not saie in wie vow no, for noon the dried and cracking roofs balls of fire from the neighboring for est were rained down rts if shot from mortars and gattling guns. Accom Danvinir. or rather preceding the ad vance of the firei there came a darkness exceeding that of the gloomiest night. The cloud that enveloped everything was neither vapor, nor smoke, nor ashes ; it was, just darkness, not black but brownish red the shadow of the death angel's wing preceding the thrust of his fiery dart. The darkness of Egypt could not have been so terrible, because the Egyptian plague was not the ad vance guard of fire ; nor could the gloom enveloping the lake of burning marl be so oppressive, for beneath its shade the fallen angels knew they had reach ed the end of their downward flight, and were at length at rest, secure from the wrath of an offended God and the pursuing hosts of'Miohoel. This gloom greatly added to the horrors and em barrassments of the situation. Flight was the impulse of all, but the darkness made flight blundering in some cases and impossible in others. In the darkness and. terror families were separated, some members escap ing, some perishing; and it will always be a question whioh were the greater sufferers those overtaken and over come by the heat and smoke and drop ping by the way in pain and despair, or those who survived only to discover their nearest and dearest ones as char red corpses, victims of the merciless tide of wrathful flame. ' It was a holocaust. Next to the pres ervation of their own lives, settlers in a wild country are most concerned for the safety of their cattle. Indeed, it is not uncommon for people to endanger and lose their lives in attempts to save the dumb creatures, which form the most tangible and availing portion of their earthly possessions, and which, aside from all selfish considerations, occupy a large share of their affections. The. perverse stupidity of the domestic ani mals is well known, and the experience of the Michigan sufferers was' no ex ception to the general rule ; many poor people lost their own lives in the vain effort to-extricate their cattle and horses from the labyrinth of flames. The car casses of these animals, now decompos ing in the run, add to . the discourage ments of the situation, lor the festering masses will have to be put under ground before the region will again be habita ble. Of tho condition in which the bodies of tho human victims have been found it is best not to speak; it is pref erable that a. shroud of decent silence should be drawn over them. The fate of such families as perished all together, though terrible, is enviable compared with that of those survivors who lived to find their kindred suffocated in a root-house or roasted in the forest. There is more horror in the eontem plation of death by burning than there is pain in the actual fact. If the body were consumed while the lungs were supplied with cool, pure air, no doubt the pain would be intense, but in most cases of loss of life in a fire, death is caused by suffocation, and is compara tively painless. When the final catas trophe arrives the victim inhales a breath of smoke or heated air, experi encing the sensation of being struck on the head with a soft heavy substance and is stunned into partial insensibility. The next state is that of unconscious ness and painleas death. The condition of the survivors is pit iable. Many are described as having lost all and soil in debt for their places. What a barren, cruel mockery the own ership of those places must be now I And yet it is said that in some of the eamps of the survivors, much cheerful ness and enterprise prevaiL This is an other evidence of the elasticity of the I American character. And yet these people are destitute and many of them suffering from hunger, ntribution. nave been maoe ana muyyuvm but, as it seems to nv not in proportion to the necessities of the case, certainly not on the scale on which relief was sent to Chicago after the great fire of 1871. On that occasion the quantities of food that poured in before the peo ple oould realise that thev were hun gry, were bewildering, and in aunj in stances as carefully put up as if intend ed for a select pio-nio party. The suf- . j i j MnunnnM nf the Chicago fire were not a circumstance to th present calamity in Miohigan. The uesirueuuu w jmvj.v o--r employment in its replacement, aud while destitution prevailed to a limited extent, actual want nd suffering were eliminated by the spontaneoua gener osity of the world. But the region just devastated by fire ia Miohigan, is really more an object and field of charity than Chicago was in the fall of 1871, although stroyed in a night gave notification of the occurrence, and made the Bcourged city the fecus of universal attention. If Chicago, after such an experience, does not respond generously to the cry of the Michigan sufferers for aid, she will be unworthy of her fame and ungrateful for the snocor so lavishly extended to her people under a similar visitation. Texas Cattle. TKo m-ant drain on the Cattle Stock Of Southwest Texas to furnish cattle for the drive to Kansas and other North ern States is beginning to be felt in iu honf mairirntH. The one and two- WV year-old steers have been gathered bo close for a number oi years, so w have been left at home, that to-day there is a great shortago in the beef supply. Another year tne ciwes ui New Orleans and Havana will have to look elsewhere for their supply of beef. Those who now own , two and three-year-old steers should bear in mind this fact, and hold them for the beef mark f Thov will cat a home market for every beef they have and at prices that win pay Deiier iuuu uu umo North. Beeves have brought a good price this year and there has been 'a good demand; there was, no expense account for driving them; the buyers ram a riclit to our homes after them, and this demand will increase every year, as the country settleB up. xne cities of New Orleans and Havana rely far t.hmr snnnlv of beef cattle on this country ; our home markets are large ones and must get their suppiy irom here. Southwest Texas fe now furnishing one hundred and twenty-five thousand head of beef cattle per annum to inese mnr1mt.fi hut it cannot keep up the supply if the young cattle continue to be sold as close as they have heretofore been. The advance in the price of cattle this year will tempt many stock men to sell off all their steer cattle; the profit will be divided between this State and Kansas, Colorado, or Nebras ka, whereas the-whole profit should be kept in this State. The beef supply of the entire grazing regions is short of the demand and will continue to grow shorter year by year as the area of grazing country is reduced by the inroads of farmers. Every year sees the eastern boundry of the stock country pushed farther west, until te- day, like the Indian, tne stoc&man is at the end of the log and can move no fniVa afnlriTinn and fondai-a nf xnivuci. aiiu 0wwum.hu the Northwest States have grown rich by buying our cattle and holding tnem until they were ready for the beef market; their profits have been larger than the profits of the breeders. The range in Southwest Texas is fully as cnod now as it is in the Northwest, and there is no reason why our stock own ers should continue to divide their pro fits with these other States. Increased railroad facilities will brine burers here to buy our beeves and enable our stock raisers to secure the pront wmcn has heretofore been made by Northern stockmen. , An examination into the beef supply of each county in Southwest Texas will convince any one that the steer cattle in the country will not furnish more than one-half of the amount of beef needed by the markets which rely on this recrinn for their meat subdIv. Keep your cattle at home, and rely on it you i ii n . will nave moro money man me man who drives his young cattle to Northern markets. The m-eat overstock of cattle which existed a few years ago, is a thing oi the past, soutnwest lexas is to-day shorter of cattle than Kan sas, Colorado, or Nebraska; her range is fresh and as good as any new coun try, and can support at least five times as many cattle as it is now doing. Aerial Navigation. Step by step progress is being made toward the fulfillment of the prediction luuue ior centuries oy lar-seeing mmas, that men would eventually be able to journey through the air as easily and safely as upon the earth. The recent discovery of a portable electric force has awakened renewed interest in the subject, and given aeronauts encourage ment to hope they will ere long have their anticipations fully realized. Many of them believe, says the Liverpool Post, that if a baloon can carry with it in a portable shape a reserve force such as Sir William Thompson found in the famous box sent him from Paris, bal loons can be fitted up with steering ap paratus that will enable the eronaut to control their passage through the air and go whithersoever he will, rather than where the wind listeth. A meet ing of the Aeronautical Society is to be held forthwith to disenn this new factor. Fan-l-f la West Texas. We give our readers the followi frank and valuable artiole on the "gn west token from the Callahan Clare don; We have heard considerable computfjj because friend George, of the Stock Journal, persists in denouncing 0q country is not at all fitted for agrioaj. ture, audit has been said that the pre throughout the north-west should crj out against him, but we have thought it ailenoe, that the fact that the Journal insisted upon certain things did not change them a particle. It Insists that this is not a farming oountry at all; but is a tock countn exclusively. But we say that he is em phatically mistaken. He bases his res ons upon the fact that in riding ovt the oountry he sees crops suffering fa rain and which nill produce aosJoah ...LI.. tl l I,!,.!. a .J-i and we can take him to Illinois, Jndi. ana, Iowa, Missouri,and numerous other states in the Union at this time and show him field upon field of crops ia similar condition; but does this prove that these are not farming states? By no means. We do not believe in mis representing a country in order to in. duce immigration to it, neither do we believe in speaking disparagingly of it in order to promote our self interest There is reason in all things. We are ready to admit that this as a whole, U not exclusively a farming country,neithei is it exclusively a stock oountry, from the fact that sheep ore fast taking the place of cattle. There are thousands of acres is northwest Texas which can never be utilized for ought but stock-raising,and yet there are thousands of acres in northwest Texas which can never be utilized for ought but stock-raising, and yet there are thousands of acres with soil as rich and as well adapted to the production of grain as can be found in the Union, with the -advantage in our favor the lands being cheap. There are farman Callahan county whioh have produced splendid crops of wheat this year, upon wnicn tne secona crop of millet has been cut, wnere melons grow as if by magic, where good potatoes and other vegetables are raised and this in one of the severest droughty years. - The heavy cattle owners are moving out, .and men who combine a farm with a flock of sheep, some milk cows, a few horses, hogs, etc,, are taking their place, and to such the country is particularly adapted and offers an extra inducement; nature will have her sway, in spite of all we can do or say; we might write vol umes and we would not change the adaptability of the land. The lower valleys are better adapted to farming than to grazing ; in places where four years ago the mesquite grass was lux uriant and thrifty, it has now given away to weeds from the fact that stock during wet weather tramp it down never to rise again, but to be replaced by a worthless weed; of this fact all our stock snn will testify. Then why can not these valleys be made to produce something to enrich the country in stead of lying idle. It will not interfere with stock men in the least. As the Journal remarks, the farming out on the frontier has been done in a most primative manner, not one acre in ten which are being farmed upon are yet under proper or even passable cul tivation, and yet we can cite you to men who have been farming here for four years who coold sell their farms at hand som profits, but they say this country is good enough for them; they have done well here and here they will remain. Corn. The corn crop throughout all portions of Eastern and Northern Mississippi and adjacent parts of Alabama, com prising also an extensive area in north Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas, is largely a failure. From every section of that region the reports from local papers tell the same story, and attribute the cause to the unusually hot weather that burned the corn with intense heat waves while no rain fell to give it vi tality or strength to resist the excessive and long-continuea warmti. isut wnat was death and destrution to corn proved a benefit and vitolizer to cotton. The failure of the corn crop, however, is unfortunately a very serious matter to those planters who made an effort to raise a varied crop. Many of them are greatly dishearted and disgusted to an extent that makes them threaten to never try the experiment again. But those who pursue such a silly course will be vast losers in the future, for it is not probable that such a peculiarly phenomenal season as that of the pres ent year will ever occur again. There are many planters, especially in the prairie country of Mississippi and Ala bama, and alluvial bottoms .throughout all portions of the South, who have al ways made all the corn they required for their own use, and their failure this season will not deter those wise persons from trying again. These have proved the value of diversified cropping, and are not apt to give it up in despair be cause of one faiure in an extraordinary season like that of this year. As a great many of the planters in the South have added stock-raising to their list of farm industries, the loss of their corn crop will have a serious effect on that enterprise; but next year holds out hopeful promises, and they will act wisely who act according to their hopes. A CESTAia doctor of divinity said every blade of grass was sermon. The next day he was -m"i"g him by clipping nis lawn, when a parishion er said, "That's right, doctor, cut your sermons short."