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1, lTtl" for I'tlllilrg tU But from the So'i Bays. Cbictgo Hers'd. a8bisoton, Aug. 16. A fashion able craze has seized hold of the citi- 0f the District, which bids fair to ,pread m widely throughout the coun ty as did tbe blue gloss "fad" of sev eral years ago. The person primarily yeaponsible for what promises to be an infliction on the community is a resi dent of the city and an inventor, but the Washington roai nas contriDutea toward popularizing that gentleman's discovery and in coverting the young gnd the aged of both sexes and all colors into experimenters. A few days ago it appears the patent office issued papers to a Mr. William Culver for a discovery which, if it possesses all the merits the patentee and the Post claim for it, will be hailed with gratitude by both busy manufacturers and toiling housewives. The invention is no less than the PRODUCTION OF INTENSE HEAT. By a peculiar arrangement of mirrors. Meanwhile, as the ordinary looking glass is common to every dwelling, and the testing of Mr. Calver's claims can go on without expense, the city de termined to judge of the virtue of his discovery. In the Smithsonian grounds, in the vicinity of the capitol and on many of the avenues the test has been made by those who have Lad their cu riosity aroused concerning the strength of the sun's rays. In the negro quar ter even bits of broken mirror can be seen gleaming in the dusky hands of colored urchins, who mischievously tarn the focus full in the face of the passer-by. What the result of all these experiments may have been, has not yet transpired, but it is evident that the society of all grades has caught a new faDgled idea which will, if it does nothing else, afford it some amusement. Mr. Culver, the gentleman who has so distinguished himself, is a brother of Dr. Calver, at 207 A. street Northwest. Dr. Calver was born in England, but came to this country when very young. For a number of years he resided in New York. He has been a', citizen of the district for , upward of ten years, and during that time has been absent much in Arizona, looking after his miri ing property. He has been looking for some method of working mines and reducing the ore by a more cheap pro cess than that in vogue. By a happy chance, equally as singular as that which befell Newton, he Btumbled on his discovery. The whole invetion simply consists of an arrangement whereby tbe rays of the sun are reflect ed FROM ANT NUMBER OF MIRRORS. Upon a common focus. Happening to direct the light from two ordinary look ing glasses upon the same surface he noticed that the resultant heat was about doubled. He proceeded with his experiments, and succeeded in re ducing wood to ashes and metal to a liquid state by simply concentrat ing upon them the reflected light of the 6un from twenty small mirrors with flat surfaces. The principle is an un explainable one. It has never hitherto been suspected that lapping one ray of sunlight upon another increased the heat. The model patented by M. Calver consists of a number of small looking glasses, arranged in rows upon a frame so fixed that they can be con verged upon any one point. A workiug moaei or wnicn ne nas a nnmoer, was exhibited to a reporter in the yard in the rear of his residence. Forty inno cent, guilelss looking fifteen cent framed mirrors, each 3 i inches by 5i inches, were arranged upon a frame propped up like an artist's easel, and bearing a striking resembance thereto. Facing the easel was the fragment of what was once a barn door, also prop ped up and partially covered with a worn and faded Bheet of zinc that bore unmistakable evidences of having been burned through in several places. It Was but the work o a minute to cou erge tne forty mirrors upon a space taee and three-quarter inches upon the barn door, and then the revelations Wan. As each mirror cast its quota of sunlightjnpon the common store, the Parallelogram of light grew whiter and more dazzling, until at last it looked a patch of electric light. Bat lit tle patience was required to await re- U. Ia lest than thirty seconds A THIS CTE1XSO KTT OF SMOSX Gave evidence of the progress of Lis operime&t. In a minute the board was bunting out in Came. The focus was then shifted upon the zinc. In a few momenta it began to turn color; then shrink as if anxious to get away where it was cooler, and then in less than three minutes the entire surface covered by the focus was literally melt ing, drop by drop. To melt zino re quires a temperature of over 700 deg. Fahrenheit. The most wonderful feature about the whole thing is the brilliancy of the light. The forty mirrors produced a light more brilliant than any ordinary electrio light. A hand, held so as to intercept the focus, becomes as white as driven snow. A white handkerchief defies ordinary sight, and conveys but an impression of beautiful, impossible whiteness. It is as hard to look at as the sun itself. The possibilities of Mr. Calver's invention aro boundless. With a combined square surface of twenty feet of mirrors, lead melts quicker than thought, wood bursts into a flame and is gone into ashes, and iron melts in less than twenty minutes. Each mirror adds so much to the heat and light, and Mr. Calver has found by actual experi ment that a comparatively small collec tion of mirrors, each one foot 6quare, will MELT ALL KNOWN METALS In a very few moments. He has pro duced over 4,000 degrees of heat with his mirrors. By calculation it is shown that 1,C00 mirrors, each a foot square, will melt iron and steel with the rapid ity almost of thought. There are pro cesses, too, by which even this enor mous quantity of heat can be condensed and made to perform incredible feats. A concave mirror placed at the focus of the large mirror will throw a pin point of heat back toward the mirrors, should their numbers be increased by several thousands, capable of eating through a solid mass of steel ten feet thick like a flash, and as easily us a needle goes through a cheese. The immense prac tical value of the invention can be read ily understood. Mr. Calver's forty mirrors boil water in less than no time. An egg placed in the water is done hard quicker than by fire. Meat and vege tables are cooked in ten or fifteen min utes. A half hour's sunshine any time between 9 a. m. and 1 p. m. in the sum mer will do the cooking for an ordinary sized family for a week- if necessary. By the mirrors engines can be run, wells dug, mines worked, ore melted and refined, every kind of cooking per formed, and, in short, there is no vari ety of industry in which they cannot successfully compete with mule power, steam or electricity. There are , MANY CURIOUS THINGS In connection with Mr. Calver's discov ery. More heat can be gotten from the mirrors in winter than in summer, strange as it may appear, for the earth is then. 3,000,000 miles 'nearer the sun. Three thousand degrees Fahrenheit decomposes water, and this heat can be readily produced with the large mirrors, 1,000,000 of which, one foot square, will run the largest engine in the world. In the west the process of concen trating the sun's rays will be of im mense benefit. Statistics show that there are over a million square miles of territory in the United States where there is, on an average, but one cloudy day in a month for eight months in the year. All the rest are clear. The heat produced by the thousand foot equare mirrors will do more work in fifteen minutes than can ordinarily be done in a day, and a day's steady work will out strip a week's progress by other meth ods. The heat mirrors will make ice as easily as they will melt steel. A few largo sized ones will operate a machine large enough to usher into existence 100 tons of ice a day. It is the inten tion of the inventor to vigorously pro tect bis patent and to shortly begin the manufacture of his mirror furnace.. Probably be will make a lot of tbe emaller kind convenient for tourisU, which can" be packed away in a trunk and yet be large enongh to do all the cooking for the party in a few minutes. The heat from the mirrors can be thrown a long distance. Mr. Calver says be can make a heat powerful enough to melt tbe Godde&s of Liberty on tbe cupola of the capitol by putting his mirrors several squares away. Ax Arkansaw editor, in retiring from the editorial control of a newspaper, said : "It ia with a feeling of aadness that we retire from the active control of this rrr. tut we leave our journal with a gentleman who is abler than we are financially, to handle it This gen tleman is weU known is this commun ity, lie is t-e aten-. BE.MULL'SFIKST SPEECH. A BfwiiiKeir ( theorU8ur'i Boikood. AtUnta (Oa.) Constitution. Lovelace, Tbocp Cocstt, Ga., Augubt 12 "Yes, this is historic ground upon which these people have assem bled," said an old and prominent citi zen of this county, to me to day at tbe annual celebration of Pleasant Grove Sunday School. "I was present at this same place about thirty-ilvM years ago, and heard Ben Hill deliver his first public address after leaving college. A singing-school was being Uugut at this place at the time, and he came up hete from Long Cane with a patty of young ladies, and though he was called upon unexpectedly to himself, he delivered the finest address I ever listened to." "You knew Mr. Hill then ia early life. Tell me something of his young days." BEN HILL'S BOYHOOD. "Yes, I have known Mr. Hill ever since he first came to this county, a little boy. He lived at the time at Long Cane, where he attended his first school. Afterward ho attended school over in Heard County, and from there ho went to the University in Athens. But there are men here to-day that can give you the history of his young days better than I can. Come, let me intro duce you to Judge Bigham, of La Grange, and Mr. John Troylor and Dr. Pitman. They all knew him well at that time, and can give you all the inform ation jou want." i then had a pleasant conversation with each of these gentle men, and from them learned the follow ing facts in regard to the great states man who now lies in his garve, and for whom not only the people of Troup County, his old home, but a whole nation mourns. Judge Bigham said: "Yes, I have known Ben Hill a long time, and have heard him deliver the finest speeches of his life. Be came to this county from Jasper, I think, and after graduating at Athens, where he had taken the first honor, he read law and was admitted to the bar in Meriwether County, and afterward located in LaGrange. And I want to say now that the finest orations ever delivered in Georgia by any one, was about that time delivered by Mr. Hill upon a temperance cause which was known as "sons of temperance.". These lectures by Mr. Hill had a wonderful influence which had been felt in this country ever since, and which will be felt for time to come. These speeches stamped him at once the coming states man which he has since proven himself to be. "Yes," said Dr. Pitman, "I have one or two of these temperance speeches printed in pamphlet form, and I keep them as mementoes of the past, something with which I could not be induced to part. I shall give them to my children for their counselor and guide in future life." Mr, John Traylor also spoke feeling ly of his early acquaintance with Mr. Hill, of Mr. Hill's first speech on this ground, and as he spoke of the great statesman, then and now, his voice trembled. These gentlemen with whom I talked are all old and prominent citi zens of this county, and were Mr. Hill's boyhood friends. These same kind expressions I have heard on every hand since I have been in this county, now some two weeks ago in 'regard to Sena tor Hill. MR. HILL'S OLD HOMEi I asked a citizen of LaGrange to show me Mr. Hill's old home, which he kind ly did, and I walked down the broad street until I came to the magnificent mansion which was once the home of this distinguished man. The rock fence that surrounded the old residence is going to decay, and in places has fallen down ; the gronnds look desolate, and the large oaks that 6tand thick in the grove have a look of sadness, as though weeping for him who will never again behold them. There never was a man more universally beloved than is Mr. Hill by the people of this county, who know him best, and it is always in a voice of sadness that his name is mentioned. If the prayers of his peo ple were answered, Senator Hill would have been restored to health. Farms In tbe United States. One of the late census bulletins ex hibits the number of farms in the Uni ted States in 1880, 1870, 1860 and 1850. and the rate per cent, of increase from 1870 to 1880. Francis A. Waller, late Superintendent of the Census, in a note made before his retirement from office, said : The table shows no results which es pecially required notice, except in the case of Massachusetts. The figures for this State seem to prove that the agri cultural statistics of 1870 were taken very loosely, and that the number of farms in the State at that time was greatly understated. The great increase in the number of farms from 1870 to 18S9 in tbe Northern, Western and Pacific States and the Territories is of course satisfactorily explained by the rapid aetlement of those regions daring the past decade. Tne great increase in the late slave States, especially in the cotton region, is readily accounted fcr by the subdivision of the large plantations of ten and twenty jears ago, by reason of social and industrial changes conaeqTi4at on tbe war, and also, in the case of Fieri Ja, Arkansas and Texas, by immigration. The whole number of farma in the United State in 170 was found to be 4.0C&j7. The absolute increase from 1S70 to 1&30 was aoooriizg to the cen-1 aus, 1,318.022; tie rate per cent, was 51. It is obvious that if the comimtatJo i Jwu not accurate in 1870, as posaibly it was not, tne value oi tne comparison ii correspondingly reduced. A slight variation in the mode of 'collecting statistics ia the to periods would make a great diftVreuce iu tbe results If, for example strict inquiry were not nude as' to farms leased aud farms owued, or farms worked ou tbe share system t the time both enumerations, wore made, or if the system, iu accord ance with which the two seta of returns were tabulated, differed, the discrepan cies would be very large. Inasmuch us Uen. Walker has confessed t3 the errors of 1S70, generally and specifically, perhaps it will not be wise to attach too much importance to the compari sons mado in this table. The reported increase in the number of farms in New England was, as might be expected, comparatively alight. In Maine it was 8 percent., in New Ham p- snue V per cent., in Vermont o per cent., in Massachusetts (where Gen. Walker points out a probable error in the ecu bus of 1870) 15 per cent., in Connect! cut 20 per cent., in Rhode Ialaud 16 per cent. The in crease in N. Y. was 11 per oent., in Pennsylvania 23 per cent. The Southern States show a gratify ing increase, most of which is undoubt edly genuine, in the number of farms. In Virginia, where the negroes have become landholders in larger numbers posbeibly than other Southern State, the increase is reported at 60 per cent., in South Carolina it is 81 per cent., in Georgia 98 per cent., in Mississippi 50 per cent., in Louisiana 70 per cent. Kentucky and Tennessee, whore the same causes have not operated to the same extent, show but 11 per cent, and 10 per cent of increase respectively. Illinois, Indiana and Ohio report an increase of but 26, 20 and 26 per cent, respectively. There has been some breaking up of large farms in these States by deaths and other causes, and much swamp and other waste land has been brought under cultivation. Some of the increase in Illinois also has been due to the sale of railroad lands and the cultivation of pastures in conse quence of the building of railroads. The greatest increase has been, as was natural, in the far Norwestern States and the Territories. The in crease in Iowa has been 56 per cent., in Oregon 111 per cent., in Washing ton Territory 109 per cent. The growth in the number of farms has been healthy and nominal. There have been no bigns- of a position to hold lands in large quantities except in California and Northern Dakota, and in the Southwestern States and Territo ries, where much of the land can only be used profitably as cattle-ranges. It is, and will long continue to be, for the interest of the people at large that sma". farming shall be generally prac ticed in this country, and there is happily no present reason to fear that there will soon be any serious departure from this custom. Tbe Future Americans. Some idea of the importance of for eign immigrations can be formed from the statement that the immigration for the year ending June 80th, 1882, 789,- 000 people, was equal to the population of either Maine, Connecticut or Min nesota, and the indication are that this rate of immigration will be maintained, if not increased, for a number of years. Another important feature of immigra tion is the fecundity of that portion of our population. The census of 1880 is said to not show the difference between the increase by births in this country of people of different nationalities, but the Canadian census has kept track of this matter, and similar conditions un doubtedly exist on this tide of the line. Their census gives the nationality and descent of every inhabitant of the do minion. It shows that for every Ger man immigrant who settled in Canada, there are to-day 10.8 persons of Ger man descent in that country . That is, the German by natural increase, have multiplied nearly eleven fold. The Scotchman has similarly increased 6.1 fold, the Englishman 5.1, the Irishman 1.1, the Italian 2.1. and the Scandina vian 2.1. Tbe German therefore in America increase twice as fast as the Anglo-Saxon, and more that twice as fast as the Irishman. With some 250, 000 Germans pouring into this country annually to enforce their millions of brethren already here, it looks very much as if the United States would become largely Teutonized in the near future, with the addition of a Celtio mixture. The effect of this admixture of national and race traits will be the most cosmopolitan people, in another century, of any country in tbe world, a people who, under the favorable opera tion of a beneficent climate and of free institutions which will permit the exer cise and development of every fotm of thought and experiment, will combine less of the narrow and clannish and more of the liberal and progressive characteristics cf human nature than any other nationality can possibly achieve. When the 2,000th century is reached, the American nation will have taken on its permanent character, and not before. The London Jwly represents a doc tor as asking, "WelL Pat, have you taken the box of pills I sent you?" And Pat as replying, "Yea, air, be jabert, I have : but I don't feel any bet- ter Jet- Maybe the lid hasn't cone off jetf Weather, Facta and Probabilities. As wo are passing through a period of very accentuated and trying atmos phurio changes, the following ten short rules, by the use of which a person ean stand beneath hit own vine or fig tree, in any part of the northern hemisphere north of latitude fifteen, and for hun dreds of miles around him, and form an accurate opinion of how the wind and rain is progressing, may be of value. They wure supplied to the Farmers' club of the American institute by scientist of New Jersey. 1. When the temperature falls sud denly, there is a storm forming to the south of you. , ' 2. When tho temperature rises sud denly, there is a storm forming north lof you. 3. Tho wind always blows from a region of fair weather towards a region where the storm is forming. 1. Cirrus clouds always move from a region where a storm is in progress to ward a region of fair weather. 5. Cumulous clouds always move from a region of fair weather toward a region where the storm is forming. 6. When cirrus clouds are moving rapidly from the north or north-west, there will be rain in less than twenty four hours, no matter how cold it may be. 7. When cirrus clouds are ineving rapidly from the south or southeast, there will be a cold rain storm on the morrow, if it be Bummer, and, if it be winter there will be a snow storm. 8. Tho wind always blows in a circle around a 6torm, and when it blows from tho north the heaviest rain is east of you; if it blows from the south the heaviest rain is west; if it blows from the east the heaviest rain is south; if it blows from the west the heaviest rain is north of you. 9. The wind never blows unless rain is falling within oni thousand mile3 of you. 10. Whenever a heavy white frost ocours, a storm is forming within one thousand miles north or. northwest of you. The Girl That Everybody Likes. She is not beautiful oh, no 1 nobody thinks to cull her that. Not one of a dozen can tell whether her eyes . are black or ' blue. If you should ask them to describe her, they would only say : "She is just right," and there it would end. .- She is a merry-hearted, fun-loving, bewitching maiden, without a spark of envy or malice in hor whole composition. She enjoys herself and wants every body to else do the same. She has always a kind word and a pleasant smile for the oldest man or woman ; in fact, I can think of nothing she resembles more than a sunbeam, which brightens every thing it comes in contact with. All pay her marked attention, from rich Mr. Watt3, who lives in a mansion on the hill, to negro Sam, the sweep. All look after her with an admiring eye, and say to themselves, "She is just the right sort of a gitl." The young men of the town vie with one another as to who -shall show her the most attention, but sho never en courages them beyond being simply kind and jolly; so no one can coll her a flirt; no, indeed, the young men would deny such an assertion as quickly as she. Girls wonderful to relate like her, too, for she never delights in hurting their feelings or saying spiteful things behind their backs. She is always willing to join in their little plans and assist them in any way. They go to her with their love affairs, snd she manages adroitly to eee Willie or Peter and drop a good word for Ida or J en nie, until their little difficulties nr all patched up, and everything goes on smoothly again thanks to her. Old ladies say she is "delightful" The sly witch she- knows how to manage tbem. She listens patiently to complaints of the rheumatism or neuralgia, and then sympathizes with them so heartily that they are half cured. But she cannot be always with us. A young man comes from a neighbor ing town by and by and marries her. The villagers crowd sround to tell him what a prize he has won, but he seems to know it pretty well without any tell ing, to judge from his fate. So she leaves us, and it is not long before we hear from that place. She is there the woman everybody likes. It is understood that the Gould roads in Texas, together with tbe Houston and Texas Central, the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe, the Galveston, Houston and Henderson, tbe Gal Tee ton, Harrisburg and 8an Antonio, the Texas and St. Louis, and other roads within the cotton-raiaiog district, are net going to allow the fast freight agent to meddle with the cotton this year. The roads propose to carry their on cotton and issue their cws bills cf la ding hereafter.